English Suggestion for SSC Candidates – 2018

  • Paragraph


  1. A School Magazine/Library
  2. A book fair
  3. A Winter Morning/Early Rising
  4. Tree plantation/Deforestation
  5. Bus/Railway Station
  6. Traffic Jam
  7. A Street Accident
  8. A Tea Stall
  9. Importance of learning English
  10. A Hawker/Day Labourer/Farmer
  11. A rainy day
  12. National flag


  • Story


  1. Who is to bell the cat?
  2. Bayazid’s devotion to his mother
  3. A Wood cutter and a fairy
  4. Honesty is the best police
  5. Unity is Strength
  6. The cats and the Monkey
  7. A lion and the mouse  
  8. Sheikh Saadi and prestige of dress  
  9. A Greedy Farmer
  10. A Thirsty Crow


  • Describing graphs/charts


  1. Mobile/Telephone/Internet Users
  2. Population growth/living below poverty line
  3. GPA-holder SSC Exam of BN School
  4. Changing attitude to past times
  5. Selling rates of books
  6. Obtained marks and GPA in different subjects
  7. Choice of hobbies/professions
  8. Time allocation of daily activities
  9. Result/Passing rate of different subjects


  • Informal Letter


  1. Thanking for friend’s hospitality   
  2. Benefit of reading newspaper
  3. Congratulation on brilliant success
  4. Condolence at someone’s death
  5. How to improve in English
  6. Plans after the examination  
  7. Invitation/describing summer vacation
  8. Bad effects of smoking
  9. Preparation/progress for SSC Examination
  10. Importance of physical exercises


  • Dialogue


  1. Illiteracy problem
  2. Improving skill in English
  3. Importance of tree plantation
  4. Importance of reading newspaper
  5. Uses and abuses of mobile phone
  6. Choice of career/aim in life
  7. Between you and doctor
  8. Between you and  salesman
  9. What you will do after the SSC Exam
  10. Importance of physical exercises


  • CV with Cover Letter


  1. Assistant teacher/lecturer in English
  2. Probationary/senior/junior officer
  3. Marketing manager
  4. Sales officer/executive/Cashier
  5. A librarian
  6. A medical representative


  • Application


  1. Setting up common room/Increasing facilities
  2. For staging a drama
  3. Seat in the hostel
  4. Testimonial
  5. Study tour/Excursion
  6. Full free studentship/poor fund
  7. To help the flood affected people
  8. Opening a relief camp
  9. Relief goods and medical aids


  • Composition


  1. Wonders of Modern Science
  2. Your Childhood Memories
  3. Importance of Physical Exercise
  4. Tree plantation
  5. Your Hobby
  6. Aim in life
  7. A Journey by……
  8. Importance of Reading Newspaper
  9. The game you like most
  10. Population problem
  11. Unemployment problem
  12. Floods in Bangladesh


  • Seen passage


  1. Human can neither change [U-5 , L-3(A)]
  2. Heritage is what [U-8 , L-1(B)]
  3. The French sculptor [U-8 , L-3(D)]
  4. Michael Madhusudan Dutt [U- 12, L-3(A)]
  5. The pioneer of Bangladeshi [U- 7, L-1(A)]
  6. Can you think of [U- 13, L-3(C)]
  7. May Day [U-3 , L-2(B)]
  8. Lake Baikal [U- 8, L-4(C)]
  9. Mother Teresa was moved [U-7 , L-6(B)]
  10. 26 March [U- 3, L-5(B)]
  11. Zahir Raihan [U-5 , L-1(A)]
  12. The advantage of  [U-13 , L-2(B)]
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Schedule

  1. Here is a holiday schedule of some holiday spots. Write 5 sentences using months of the year when you will enjoy your holidays there. January is the first month of the year.

Schedule of Holidays

Months of the year Holiday spots Title
1st January Ramsagor, Dinajpur
2nd February  Cox’s Bazar
3rd March Srimongal
11th November  Rangamati
12th December  Kuakata

Answer :
On 1st January we shall go to Ramsagor, Dinajpur. On 2nd day of February we shall go to enjoy the sea-beach called Cox’s Bazar. On March 3 we shall go to Srimongal. On November 11 we shall go to Rangamati. On December 12, we shall go to Kuakata.

 

2. Here is an academic transcript of Mim of her half yearly examination. Write 5 sentences using it.
         Academic Transcript of Mim

Subjects  Grade
Bangla  A
English A+
Mathematics A
Bangladesh and Global Studie  A+
Science  A
Religion B

 

Answer :
Mim got A+ in English and Bangladesh and Global Studies. She got A in Bangla and Science. She got A in Mathematics. She got grade B in Religion. 
She got A in Bangla and Science. 

 

3. Here is a TV schedule of programs on cartoons. Write 5 sentences using days of the week when your friend watch these programs. Saturday is the first day of the week.

TV schedule of programs on cartoons

Days of the week  Program Title
1st day Tom and Jerry
2nd day  Harry Potter
3rd day Mr. Bean
4th day Angry Birds
5th day  Motu Patlu


Answer :
My friend Sanzan enjoys Tom and Jerry on Saturday. He attends Harry Potter on Sunday. He enjoys Mr. Bean on Monday. He watches Angry Birds on Tuesday. He enjoys Motu Patlu on Wednesday.

 

4. Write five sentences, about your daily morning activity considering the following points.

[Write the time in numbers and period sequence in ordinal numbers in your writing]

– When do you get up from bed?

– How many things do you do in the morning?

– What time does each activity begin?

For HSC only

Group Work

Group work, an effective way of learning and cooperation with others, involves students working collaboratively on set tasks, in or out of the classroom. Its aim is to learn through group cooperation and encourage all students to participate in the learning process. This approach is defined in the classroom as a group. The members obtain useful information from each other to extend their knowledge and abilities through the cooperation. To do group work, the class has to be divided into groups. Each group is to do some tasks given by the teacher or in the textbook. The group members will discuss and share ideas and points, and finally one member will write the answer. All this is knowledge about group work. Then one starts working in groups. In each group one takes turns discussing points, answering questions, etc. In this way one actually does the task. Teacher may monitor and help to do the work. Lastly, through regular group work it is expected that there will be noticeable changes in one’s behaviour. Possible changes are– one will develop the attitude of freely mixing and talking with one’s classmates and teacher. One’s shyness will gradually disappear. One will develop the attitude of helping and cooperating with each other. One will learn to behave in a democratic way. Most importantly, these behavioural changes taking place in one inside the classroom will be carried over outside the classroom, in real-life situations. In order to maximise these benefits, one will need to manage one’s group work effectively.

 

 

Problems of Higher Education in Bangladesh

Higher education refers to education beyond the secondary level especially education provided by a college or university. Accessibility to higher education implies that students get the opportunity to get university education and sufficient support from educational institutions. Increasing enrolment at the secondary and higher secondary level puts pressure on higher educational institutions. There are only handful universities in our country. Due to limited capacity, only a small number of students may be enrolled in universities. Thus, each year a large number of students are denied access to higher education. Also, due to poverty and increase in educational expenses, students of the lower middle class do not get easy access to higher education. Only about 12 percent of graduates enter higher educational institutions. More than 80 percent of these students are admitted to NU affiliated colleges. Others are absorbed by the public and private universities. Most universities cannot offer a wide range of subjects. Library, laboratory, Internet and research facilities are not satisfactory. Seminars, symposiums, lectures, workshops, debates, and exhibitions are hardly held in these institutions and there is not much scope for national and international exposure for promising young knowledge seekers.  This problem may be impossible to solve overnight but it can be lessen gradually. The number of universities must be increased in this regard. The poor students should have the accessibility like others. Moreover, the facilities of educational sectors should be increased and upgraded. The govt. should take the responsibility steps to solve the problems. Besides, we all should be aware of this.

 

Drug addiction

Drug addiction refers to such state of not being able to stop taking illegal harmful substances like heroin, opium, marijuana, morphine, cocaine, phensidyl etc that people take through smoking, inhaling or injection. It being a brain disease leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. It can lead to a range of both short-term and long-term mental and physical health problems. Unemployment problem, environmental factors, political unrest, family feud, lack of love and affection lead a man to frustration which is the main cause of drug addiction. It destroys us morally, physically and financially. Dependence on drugs can create a number of dangerous and damaging complications. People who are addicted to a drug are more likely to get an infectious disease, such as HIV, either through unsafe sex or by sharing needles.  Young people involved in crimes to get money for taking drugs. Behavioral changes may cause marital or family conflict and custody issues. It can also cause declining performance at work, absenteeism and eventual loss of employment. The best way to prevent an addiction to a drug is not to take the drug at all. Drug-addicts must be treated with love and kindness. A strong, stable bond between you and your child will reduce your child’s risk of using or misusing drugs.The society should take strong measures to control the dishonest businessmen and drug-traffickers. The highest punishment of dealing in or smuggling drugs is death in Bangladesh. There are laws of drug-control all over the world, yet drug-addiction is increasing gradually. What is needed an anti-drugs consciousness among the youth of the different countries.

 

Use and Abuse of Facebook

Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues. It was created by Mark Zuckerberg in February of 2004. This exclusive site, which is available in 37 different languages, includes public features. Facebook makes it possible to connect people sharing interests and activities across the borders and thus have made a lot for the users to feel that they really live in a global village. It is expanding so fast as one can make use of them paying very little. One can make personal profile public before the entire online community. It is like presenting oneself before the entire world. One can also look into other people’s profile simply and easily if one is interested. It allows users to upload pictures, multimedia contents and to update their profiles. User profiles have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. Finally, there are privacy protection measures too. A user himself or herself decides over the number of viewers, and what information should be shared with others. He can block specific connections or keep all his communications private. But this great blessing of modern science has some demerits too. Many young boys and girls become addicted to it and give more time on it than studies. Few senseless people post nude pictures which influence the tender mind of youngsters. A long term bad effects can be seen in those adolescents. Besides, many girls and ladies committed suicide because their enemy posted their privet photos or videos. Despite these few bad sites of Facebook book, it has great importance for the communication of modern people.

 

Adolescence

Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in ones life span and is characterized by fast paced growth and change which occurs after childhood and before adulthood. The duration and defining characteristics of this period may vary across time, cultures, and socio-economic situations. Among the factors responsible for the change are education, urbanization and spread of global communication. Besides physical and sexual maturation, these experiences include movement toward social and economic independence, development of identity, the acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles and the capacity for abstract reasoning. It is also a time of considerable risks during which social contexts exert powerful influences. Many adolescents face pressure to use alcohol, cigarettes, or other drugs and to initiate sexual relationships putting themselves at high risk for intentional and unintentional injuries, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections, including the HIV. The use or avoidance of drugs and taking or abstaining from sexual risk can have long-lasting negative and positive effects on future health and well-being. As a result, adults have unique opportunities to influence adolescents. Laws, customs, and practices may also affect adolescents differently than adults.  Adolescents depend on their families, their communities, schools, health services and their workplaces to learn a wide range of skills that can help them to cope with the pressures they face and make a successful transition from childhood to adulthood. Parents, members of the community, service providers, and social institutions have the responsibility to both promote adolescent.

 Food Adulteration

Food adulteration is the act of deliberately adding something to the food, intentionally debasing the quality of the food offered for sale either by the admixture or substitution of inferior substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredient. Unsafe levels of pesticides are present in around half of the vegetables and more than a quarter of fruits sold in the markets. Food posioning, in the form of metals, toxins, or bacteria, stomach disorders, liver problems, vision problems, skin diseases are the diseases caused by adulteration of food. Carbide, formalin, heavy metal, chemical, textile colours, artificial sweeteners, DDT, urea etc. are used rampantly for this purpose. Milk is mixed with water. Vanaspati is used as an adulterant for ghee. Ergot is used as an adulterant for cereals. Chalk-powder is used as an adulterant for flour. Chicory is used as an adulterant for coffee. Papaya seeds is used as an adulterant for pepper. Brick-powder is used as an adulterant for chilly-powder. Tamarind seed powder is used as adulterant for coffee. Wood powder is adulterated for turmeric and dhaniya powder. Adulterated food is impure, unsafe, or unwholesome food. Instead of focusing only on the end products, the issue should be addressed at the root level. Better monitoring and supervision were mandatory for stopping food adulteration. The Ministry of Food had enacted a Food Safety Act, but was yet to prepare the necessary rules. As the issue of food safety was also linked to 14 other ministries, a coordinated agency should take responsibility of ensuring safety in food products.

Diaspora

The term diaspora is used to refer to the movement of people who have left their ancestralhomelands and settled in other parts of the world, either because they were forced to do so or because they wanted to leave on their own. The word is increasingly used for such people as a collective group and/or a community. Its origin is traced in thousands years back. In the Bible there is reference of diaspora. In the history of human civilization, we find a number of events of it. The world has seen many diasporas but scholars have been studying the phenomenon with great interest only in recent decades. They have distinguished between different kinds of exoduses based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labour migrations or by the kind of social coherence. Among the great diasporas of history is that of the Jewish people, who were forced to leave their lands in ancient times. Their ancestor Abraham was forced to leave Iraq and took shelter in Egypt. Then his offspring Jews were forced to leave Egypt and settled themselves in Palestine. In twentieth century history, the Palestinian diaspora has attracted a lot of attention and been a cause of concern for world leaders because of the plight of Palestinians. The movement of Aryans from Central Europe to the Indian sub-continent thousands of years ago is also a noteworthy diaspora, although the causes of this diaspora are unclear. There have been massive diasporas in Africa, too, over the centuries, either because of war or because of the ravages of nature. But the chief reason why the phenomenon of diaspora is attracting so much attention now is globalization.

 

Early Marriage/ Premature Marriage/Child Marriage

Early marriage is an act of getting married at a tender age when the individual is not fully mature to take responsible or not reaching the proper adult age. In Bangladesh the legal age for marriage is 21 for boys and 18 for girls. Despite this legislation, the average age for marriage of girls is 16.4 years. We find that illiteracy, poverty, selfish attitude, unconsciousness, religious misinterpretation, superstitions, social customs, discriminatory attitude towards girls, wrong idea about girls education, dowry system, etc. are some of the causes of premature marriage. Early marriage is seen as a way to “protect” a girl’s sexuality in an unsafe environment. The effects of premature marriage are, no doubt, harmful for health and mind of a female child. The girls cannot adjust with the new environment of their in-law’s house. They cannot serve their husbands’ families properly. In such a condition of their health, weak baby is born with different complications. As a result, it leads to family conflict and misunderstanding. Sometimes, premature marriage leads to divorce, suicide, and unnatural death. To encourage female education and to discourage early marriage our government has taken some positive steps, such as giving stipends to girls, recruiting more female teachers etc. To prevent thispunishable offense, the conscious people should come forward. The parents should be made aware of the bad effects of premature marriage. Different mass media can play an important role in solving the problem. Early marriage perpetuates an unequal society, increasing female vulnerability, powerlessness and assetlessness, as well as restricting personal and psychological development and having hazardous health effects. To sum up, because of negative effect on young people’s development as well as marriage itself, people should not get married early.

Etiquette and Manners

We have two-terms to describe our social behavior- ‘etiquette’ and ‘manners’. ‘Etiquette’ is a French word and it means the rules of correct behavior in society. The word ‘manners’ means the behavior that is considered to be polite in a particular society or culture. Manners can be good or bad. For example, it is a bad manner to speak with food in one’s mouth. No one likes a bad-mannered person. Remember that etiquette and manners vary from culture to culture and from society to society. We learn etiquette and manners from our parents, families and various institutions, such as schools, colleges or professional bodies. There are rules of behavior for all kinds of social occasions and it is important to learn them ad practice them in everyday life. The manners that are correct in a wedding reception will not do in a debating club. Therefore, we have to be careful about etiquette and manners. We know how important it is to say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ in everyday life. A few more polite expressions such as ‘pardon me’, ‘excuse me’, ‘may I’ are bound to make your day smooth and pleasant. As a child you must have been told to greet your elders and visitors to your home according to your culture and tradition. You must also have been taught to be polite in company and keep quiet while others, especially your elders spoke. Possibly, you at times grudged such schooling. Possibly, at times you even protested such disciplining. Now, certainly you know that you can’t always behave the way you want especially in the presence of others. There are rules of behavior you have to follow in a company. We are social beings and have to consider the effect of our behavior on others, even if we are at home and dealing with our family members.

My Dream

A dream is a succession of imagesideasemotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleepThe people of our country are still not free rather sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. They live on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. Even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream deeply rooted in the Bengali dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal. One day the sons of former slaves and slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. The heat of injustice and oppression will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. Our children will live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. We will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. Then we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. And if Bangladesh is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the North to South and from East to West, from every hill, mountainside and molehill of Bangladesh.  And when this happens, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s creation, poor men and rich men, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the human spiritual.

Folk Music

Folk music consists of ancient songs and music from the heart of a community based on their natural style of expression uninfluenced by the rules of classical music and modern popular songs. Folk music has great variety, with songs being composed on the culture, festivals, views of life, natural beauty, rivers and rural and riverine life. These songs are also about social inequality and poverty, about the material world and the supernatural. Mystical songs have been composed using the metaphors of rivers and boats. Since the country is basically riverine, the Bhatiyali forms an important genre of folk music. Some notable folk singers like Shiraj Saiah, Lalon shah, Shah Abdul Karim, Hasan Raja, Abbas Uddin‚ Abdul Alim and Radha Roman have made the folk musk popular among the people of Bangladesh. Bangladeshi folk music varies from region to region. Thus there are the northern Bhawaiya, the eastern Bhatiyali and the southwestern Baul songs. Folk songs sung individually include Baul, Bhatiyali, Murshidi and Marfati, while songs sung in chorus include Kabigan, Leto, Alkap and Gambhira. Tribes like the Santal, Garo, Hajong, Chakma, Manipuri, Tripuri, Marma etc. have interacted with ethnic Bengali culture and lifestyle over the years. Some songs are regional in character, but others are common to both Bangladesh and West Bengal. Similarly, some songs belong distinctively to one religious community, Hindu or Muslim; others cross religious boundaries. Some songs belong exclusively to men, others to women, while some are sung by both men and women. Thus only women compose and sing Bratagan and Meyeli Git, but both men and women participate in the ‘’roof-beating’’ songs that are sung while beating down and firming rooftops.

 

Craftwork

A craftwork is an applied form of art, a social and cultural product reflecting the inclusive nature of folk imagination. It, which usually doesnt bear the signature of its maker, retains a personal touch. It is shaped by the interaction of individual creativity and community aesthetics, utility functions and human values. It is distinguished by its makers desire to locate himself or herself in the wider and ever-changing cultural aspirations of the community, and subsequently of the market. Certain forms, shapes, styles and aesthetic preferences change little over time, suggesting that a craftwork can function as a stable signifier of community values and desires over time. Mechanical and mass production take away this feeling of assurance and stability and the sense of continuity that the handmade craftwork evokes. Traditionalists contend that the society needs to preserve the authenticity and naturalness of craftworks and their association with domesticity and environment; and, on the other, promoters of machine production argue that the machine has helped restore the appeal of the crafts due to their cheaper production costs. Crafts that are disappearing can and should be revived, even where the machine has made the prospect difficult. And crafts that are still practiced can be safeguarded and made to consolidate their position further. This can be done by providing grants, loans, assistance and other support to the producers, and helping them find a comfortable customer base. But more importantly, craftwork can be branded and successfully marketed throughout the country and beyond as there are always buyers and users of handmade products who feel a strong attraction towards such cultural productes.

 

 

Scientific Achievements

The amazing scientific advances humankind has made in a relatively short period of time have been nothing short of extraordinary. Implanting a person with an artificial heart was an extraordinary step towards the development of heart transplant surgery. Cell phone that is useful and spreads so fast has to be considered one of the greatest inventions of all time. Now people from street vendors to business executives in luxury cars, and from villagers to urbanites use cell phones. Today, we have computer that allows us to access the Internet, do word processing, use a calculator, watch TV, play games and do a host of other things. Today, we use satellites for GPS, TV, radio, weather tracking, military surveillance, space exploration and global communications, among other things. Putting a man on the moon is perhaps mans most inspiring accomplishment; it opened the door to future space travel and led to a number of spin-off inventions including flame resistant textiles used by firefighters, invisible braces, improved satellite dishes, and better medical imaging. The ARPANET, The first Internet, was invented in 1969 and the public only had access to the World Wide Web starting in 1993. The web has revolutionized the dissemination of information, created a new multi-trillion dollar economic phenomenon, played a role in revolutions, and has interconnected much of the globe. Incredible advances in microchips have made it possible for them to be cheaply and efficiently used for calculators, personal computers, pet identification, automatic teller machines, satellites, pacemakers, cell phones, and microwave ovens among many other products.

 

7 March 1971 historic speech

The 7 March Speech of Bangabandhu was a speech given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh on 7 March 1971 at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka to a gathering of over two million people. It was delivered during a period of escalating tensions between East Pakistan and the powerful political and military establishment of West Pakistan. He announced a civil disobedience movement in the province, calling for every house to turn into a fortress. The speech inspired the Bengali people to prepare for a war of independence amid widespread reports of armed mobilisation by West Pakistan. The Bangladesh Liberation War began 18 days later, when the Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight against Bengali civilians, intelligentsia, students, politicians, and armed personnel. On 30 October 2017, UNESCO added the speech in its the Memory of the World Register as a “documentary heritage”. This day highlighted on the necessity of permanent solution for the long-repressed people. Besides, it solidified and justified the stance of Bengal to go for fight to ensure independence. It won’t be exaggeration to say that the very directives motivations and final determination of that day made it possible to see the golden sun of independence. Thus, as a memorable day, it takes permanent place in the history of Bangladesh. This speech will continue to rekindle the Bangali nation with a spark of fire, show the path of realizing the mundane truths and provide political direction to emancipation of us.

Information Technology

Information technology is that technology by which the information is processed, communicated, exhibited and retrieved in a fast, error-free and proper-way. It means the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers, telephone, television, fax, telex, internet, e-mail, photocopier, printer, scanner, cellular phones, pagers, videophone, digital camera, multimedia, etc. for storing and analyzing information. There is hardly any area which had not been affected by this. Television can not only send message but also telecast live moving events, cinemas, dramas, music, dance and many other entertaining programmes. Wireless or radio can transmit information in a second from one place to another. There is no information but is available in the internet. Various social networking services such as face book, twitter, LinkedIn etc are rendering their services only by means of the internet. The bond of brotherhood and friendship is being built up among the world people. In supermarkets it helps for faster processing of films. In the field of agriculture, a digital moisture meter records the moisture in the soil and tells when harvesting should start. For people, who are suffering from hearing loss, digits technology is of great help. It processes sounds that reduce noise, improves clarity of speech and controls unwanted loudness. The present concept of globalization is completely void and nothing without information technology. But it is not free from demerits. Social and anti-social movement, hijacking, fraudulence and many other crimes can take place for the misuse of it. So, all the world people irrespective of colour and creed should be aware of the demerits of information technology. The government of Bangladesh is very keen to achieve a great deal in the field of information technology. Now we can hope that we will become an information technology superpower in near future.

 

 War criminals

War criminals are those persons who literally engaged in mass-murder and stood with wrong side.  In 1971, our freedom fight took place.  Some  people  who are  Bangladeshi  by  birth  supported Pakistan  and  butchered  our  innocent  people. They were known as Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams.  We got independence after 9 month’s long bloody war.  In  that  battle,  30  lacks  of  our  brother  sacrificed  their lives  and  2  lacks  of  our  sisters  are  raped.  But,  it  is  considered  excessive  if  we compare  the  time  length  and  victim  numbers.  It  was  happened  because  some unethical  countrymen  of  ours  thought  about  their  own  benefits  over  our  beloved country.  They helped Pakistani Army to brutalise our innocent people.  But, no punishment was given until 2013.  Some war criminals fled abroad.  Abdul Kalam Azad who was sentenced to death is thought to be in Pakistan. Another, however, Abdul  Quader  Mollah,  the  assistant  secretary  general  of  a  Muslim  party  which collaborated  with  the  genocidaires,  the  Jamaat  e-Islami,  was  given  life imprisonment. But, general public of Bangladesh is not happy about that. The want all of the Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams to be executed. For this, they have arranged a protest at “Shabagh Chattor”. Later, it was named “Shadinota Prjonmo Chattor”. It’s new movement for our country. Young people have come forward to eradicate all  injustice  by  taking  inspiration  from  the  freedom  fighters  of  1971.  If  they continue  their  good  work,  Bangladesh  will  be  Rajakars,  Al-Badr,  Al-Shams-Free one day.

 

E – Learning

E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, streaming video, audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD or DVD-ROM and computer-based, as well as web-based learning. In e-learning every step such as, registration, admission, classroom entry and exit, class work, attendance, discussion with course mates, feedback, exams and finally certification must take place electronically through computer and the Internet technology in a virtual campus. It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education. Many people involved in e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a vehicle for reaching educational goals. Various technologies are used to facilitate e-learning. Most of the e-learning uses combinations of many techniques, including blogs, collaborative software, eportfolios, educational websites and virtual classrooms. E-Learning has become an important technique that educational as well as business institutions invest a great deal of money, time and effort in order to make use of it. E-Learning has proven to be the cheapest way to transmit knowledge to the largest number of people regardless of their location and their devices. Most of the existing e-Learning environments present some similarities and most educators need several tools to efficiently make use of e-Learning. In short, e-learning has helped people to learn about anything they want, anytime they want by using modern technologies and thus spreading knowledge all around the world.

Bangladeshi Culture

Culture is made up of all of its ideas, ways of behaving, working and playing. We, the Bangali, have an age old and traditional culture of our own. We have our own Language, dress, food habit , games and sports, music, art, literature etc. Our culture is a close knit, family oriented. We have a rich history and collection of folk songs in Bangladesh. Of them Palligiti, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya, Jari, Sari, Gambhira, Lalongiti, Palagaan and songs of Hason Raja are very popular. The traditional musical instruments like dotara, sarinda, bamboo flute, tabla are usually played with these songs. Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangladesh, followed by footballShalwar KameezShareekurtafatualungi are the main dresses. The ethnic people in Bangladesh hold a very important place in the culture of the country. They are mostly farmers. By religion they are Hindus, Christians or Buddhists. Nakshi kantha is a kind of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh. Our cuisine is rich and varied with the use of many spices. Panta ilish is a traditional platter of Panta bhat on the Pohela Boishakh. We have delicious and appetizing food, snacks, and sweets. The common ones are roshgulla, sandesh, rasamalai, gulap jamun, kal jamun and chom-chom. In a word, our culture is enriched in unique variety.

 

Eve–Teasing

Bangladesh, a developing country, though holding quite a small area is flooded with uncountable problems. Among these, eve-teasing, recently has become the burning issue for the country because of its adverse effects on women, especially to the teenage girls. Eve teasing has remained a concern since many years. The practice of eve-teasing is a form of sexual assault that ranges in brutality from catcalls, sexually evocative remarks, brushing in public places and very recently teasing by mobile phone and mobile tracking. These teasers wait in front of girls’ schools and colleges and as soon as they cite the girls walk past them they start passing bad comments, dirty jokes, sly whistles, uncivilised laughter, and sometimes reaching the extreme of rude publicity. Due to the rise of eve-teasing in our country, parents and guardians are passing days in great anxiety for the safety of their children. The normal life of girls is being hampered due to its rapid increase. Strict enforcement of laws and motivational campaign can go a long way in reducing the incidence of the social menace. The government of Bangladesh has pursued a number of legal measures, both direct and indirect, to minimise the violence against women and uphold their rights. If we want to get rid of this practice we need to change our attitudes and engrave a self generated respect for women coming from our hearts.

 E-mail

Electronic mail, popularly known as ‘e-mail’, is the communication of textual messages via electronic means. E-mail is delivered to individual electronic mail boxes based in computers. In order to operate an e-mail system we need a personal computer, a modem and a telephone connection. An important advantage of e-mail is its ability to reduce the consumption of paper in the office. Internal memos and reports can be exchanged electronically without using paper. Being a computer-based messaging system, files prepared on computers can be instantly copied and easily exchanged as e-mail. E-mail turns out to be a cheaper alternative to telephone conversation and eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. E-mail permits communication between two parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously. Privacy is ensured as the mail is delivered to an individual’s mail box which can be accessed or opened only by the intended recipient. E-mail has brought about a revolution in modem communication. Messages can be transmitted from one country to another within seconds. E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten tmes faster than telex. Trade and commerce has become greatly dependent on this speedy mode of communication. It has, however, not reached every one, especially in developing countries like ours, as most people cannot afford to have a personal computer. But even here people have started using commercially operated e-mail facilities for important purposes.

Cultural Assault

Cultural assault means bad influence of foreign cultures on any native culture. Some cultures have profound impact on other cultures that might be harmful and then it will be a cultural assault.  In the present global world it is quite tough to impede this cultural aggression. With the development of hi-tech media, it has been very easy for a society to be infiltrated by alien cultures. Many of the cultural elements may be influenced in this way. Our Bangladeshi culture is mostly affected because of cultural assault of other countries. Our dress pattern especially for teenagers and young generation has altered a lot. Now people like pop song and band music sung in the western style and with western musical instruments. Besides, our eating habits are also being changed. Today many of us like to take fast food outside home using chopstick, fork etc. Now our young generations prefer celebration of 31 December to that of Pahela Baishakh. They never mind celebrating the Valentine’s Day. However, to get rid of the invasion of alien culture, we should be very much strict to exercise our own culture and flourish our cultural elements. We can rightly boast of an affluent cultural heritage. We have our own cultural traits and its identity. In addition to that, we have to accept miscellaneous alien cultures selectively, which will make our traditional culture more affluent.

Child trafficking

Child trafficking is a crime against humanity. Trafficking in persons is nothing short of modern-day slavery. It is, therefore, not only a problem for Bangladesh but rather it is a global problem. The most common forms of human trafficking in Bangladesh are, among others: trafficking for sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour and other forms of exploitation. Child trafficking is now considered one of the major concerns for Bangladesh. However, various studies reveal that over 1 million women and children have been trafficked out of the country in the last 30 years. A UNICEF report says that approximately 400 women and children in Bangladesh are victims of trafficking each month.  Both internal and cross-border trafficking exist in Bangladesh. In the case of internal trafficking, women and children are often taken away from their homes on false promises of a better life with good employment or by using various other criminal acts and means by the traffickers who sell them to brothels. It is mainly people from rural areas with minimal survival options and those who suffer the worst from discriminatory sociocultural practices who are lured or deceived with promises of a better life and more lucrative job opportunities in cities. At the cross-border level, victims are transported and transferred to destinations further away such as India, Pakistan and Middle Eastern countries, by using illegal acts and processes which culminate in the most corrosive forms of human rights violations and a life of unspeakable agony and torture.

 

Campus Violence

Education in our country is passing through a stage of crisis. Along with political unrest in the country, campus violence has become almost a daily affair. It appears that the students are there in our colleges and universities only to be engaged in violence throwing their main duty of learning something to dust. The impact of such violence is too many to be described. It may simply be said that Bangladesh is already educationally backward. The teachers are growing unconcerned about the welfare of the students. The students are growing to be more concerned about politics endless about their studies. They are gradually forming the habit of intolerance. The basic principles of democracy for which they are shouting are going to be slaughtered at their hands. The innocent students and guardians are becoming the worst sufferers. Campus violence not only ruins the academic environment but also spoils the life of the students and takes away many valuable lives. They have become puppets in the hands of the so called narrow minded politicians. The self centered narrow minded politicians exploit the innocent students and encourage them terrorism by supplying them with weapons. As campus violence is a demon and no one like to see it again, the government is also keen to make campuses violence free and making student activism a process of leadership building for future, people concerned want to see immediate steps from the government and elder politicians in this regards.

 

Child-Labour-in-bangladesh

“Child labour” defines an extremely complex set of phenomena. It is undoubtedly one of the curses of new era. Poverty poses to be a great threat in Bangladesh. Their working in the hotels or in the garments, as a tempo helper or a tokai is really pathetic. Sometimes they are engaged in full time job from tender age like domestic servant, day-laborer. It may involve too much physical pressure such as brick clinker, railway porter. In many places, children are mentally and physically oppressed during their work. But a child has right to live and survive well. Being deprived of basic rights, a child cannot become a perfect man. We should ensure their good leaving. A child should be protected from all kinds of threats and oppressions. He has the right to get educated. We should encourage them to learn. We should also ensure a child’s health and hygiene. We should try to improve their physical and mental development. A child should not be forced into labor. We must not expect income from the children. The world community has to be more conscious about this. Child labor should be banned from the society as soon as possible for a better future of the country because one who is child today will be a perfect man tomorrow. All children should be given equal privileges to grow up in the interest of mankind itself.

Self-employment

Self-employment means to create job opportunity for oneself by one’s own effort rather than for another person or company. It is earning one’s livelihood directly from one’s own trade or business rather than as an employee of another. To be self- employed, an individual is normally highly skilled in a trade or has a niche product or service for his or her local community. With the creation of the Internet, the ability for an individual to become self- employed has increased dramatically. Self-employed people can also be referred to as a person who works for himself/herself instead of an employer, but drawing income from a trade or business that they operate personally. A business owner is not required to be hands-on with the day-to-day operations of his or her company, while a self- employed person has to utilize a very hands-on approach in order to survive. Policymakers increasingly view self-employment in the form of youth entrepreneurship as a possible solution to the youth unemployment crisis. In some countries, governments are cracking down on disguised employment, often described as the pretense of a contractual intra- business relationship to hide what is otherwise a simple employer-employee relationship. In Bangladesh, various government organizations are trying to create a congenial atmosphere for self-employment. Different NGO’s have also rendered their help. Livestock rearing, agricultural farming, poultry raising are some of the sectors. There are many opportunities for self-employment in Bangladesh. One can easily engage oneself in these jobs and bring about revolutionary change in one’s life.

 

Nuclear family

The nuclear family or elementary family is a term used to define a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children. I live in a nuclear family. Our family consists of four members such as my father and mother, my sister and myself. Nuclear family is getting popular nowadays because in such a family one can live according to one’s own will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family one may have much facility. He can enjoy his own life. He has no binding to anyone. The advantages of a nuclear family are stability, legacy, moral coding, skill building, shared responsibility, mutual support. The disadvantages of a nuclear family are that here he has to live alone. He has no companion to share his joys and sorrows. He feels lonely. I do not like it because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. In recent decades, this traditional form of the family has undergone major changes, with increasing rates of divorce leading to single-parent families, remarriages, resulting in extended families. These trends and the resulting problems that they cause, especially for the children, has brought the advantages of traditional nuclear families back into focus. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. But above all nowadays nuclear family is getting more popular.

A World Heritage Site

A World Heritage Site is a place of either cultural or physical significance. A place becomes a World Heritage Site when the international community recognizes it as possessing universal value. Then the responsibility for its preservation comes under an international collective body. The country possessing the site nominates it to the World Heritage Convention. And a 21-member international committee decides whether it has universal value. Some World Heritage Sites of the Bangladesh are the Mosque City of Bagerhat, the Sundarbans and Sompura Bihar at Paharpur. The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world, lies on the delta ( –দ্বীপ) of the Ganges (গঙ্গা), Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India. It is inscribed as World Heritage site in 1987. The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. Forest areas are dominated by a few species mostly Sundri and Gewu and patches of Nypa palm and several other of the 27 species of mangrove that are found in the Sundarbans. The area is known for its wide range of fauna (প্রাণিকুল), including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python. Each World Heritage Site is the property of the state on whose territory the site is located. But it is considered in the interest of international community to preserve each site.           

 

The necessity of education

Education is the process by which we can develop our mind through formal learning at an institution like school, college or university. It is one of the basic needs of human being. It is also essential for any kind of development. The purpose of education is to enlighten the individual and develop one’s capacity to the limit. It helps one to distinguish between right and wrong. It enables us to make the right choices in life and to perform our duties properly. It ennobles our mind and refines our sensibility. In this way education can certainly remove the darkness of ignorance. Besides, education broadens our outlook. It promotes humanity and universal brotherhood. Thus education promotes understanding among people of all climes. Education can be used as catalyst for a change for the better. Education provides us with the knowledge of health, sanitation and population control. It also enhances our ability to raise crops, increase industrial production, store food, protect the environment and carry out our social responsibilities. Thus education contributes enough towards a change for the better and its necessity can more be felt than described. It goes without saying that No Education, No Life! Just like food, water and air, education has become a basic necessity for everyone to survive in today’s world.

Women’s Contribution to Society

From the beginning of the world women have been contributing a lot to build the nation more strong and fruitful beside the male. Maledominated Bangladesh society undervalues women’s work by paying them less honour than men. It is not possible for any nation to get to goal without allowing women to play an active role. They were mere instruments to serve the family affairs. By working in the factory, a number of women in our country earn their livelihood and maintain not only their family but also contribute to the whole development of our country. There are also many women who are working in government and non-government offices with their professionals nowadays. In the field of education, medical science, culture, the government takes special care of women. At present in Bangladesh the Prime Minister and the main opposition party leader are women. They are now more conscious, serious and professional. They are getting educated as well as preparing themselves for competing with the male. The women are now enjoying their fundamental rights. But it is a matter of great regret that a number of women in both villages and towns in our country have to face a lot of social and religious bindings. But according to Islam both men and women should be given equal rights. Thinking women’s contribution to society, our national and rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam uttered, “What are great in this world, half has been done by woman half by man.”  So, we should change our notion and the government, the educated circle and NGO should come forward to establish the rights of the women so that they can actively take part in nation building.

Gender Disparity/ Discrimination

Gender disparity means gender discrimination or difference between male and female in the field of observing rights as a human being. It pervades severely both rural and urban communities in our country. Only boys are allowed to go to school, college and university to complete higher education and to do any job anywhere outside the home. Many girl students are deprived of getting educated both in towns and villages. Many parents love their sons more and always give them more facilities than their daughters. They usually think that educating a daughter is nothing but waste of time and money. After class seven or eight they think that they should marry their daughters off. Even many of the modern and educated families of our country do not think higher education for their daughters or sisters. They do not allow their daughters, sisters and wives to do a job outside the home. They are kept busy with maintaining different household chores and bringing up children. However, both males and females should be considered equal, should be given equal rights and facilities and should be exploited equally so that women can play a vital role in the development of the country like men. For this, we have to educate all females and have to change the mentality. We have to make them aware that women can do the same thing of men. Like men, women can change their lives by working with men and earning a lot of money. After all, government should take effective measures to diminish gender disparity for the development of the country. So, if we want our own betterment, we, both males and females, have to work together.

Microcredit finance

Microcredit, also called micro banking or microfinance, a means of extending credit, usually in the form of small loans with no collateral, to nontraditional borrowers such as the poor in rural areas. This approach was institutionalized in 1976 by Muhammad Yunus, an American-educated Bangladeshi economist who had observed that a significant percentage of the world’s population has been barred from acquiring the capital necessary to rise out of poverty. There are about 800 micro finance institutions in Bangladesh with a total membership of 7 million. The cumulative disbursement by these institutions since there is estimated at Tk. 44 billion. It is estimated that they have made employment of 54000 people. It has many positive effects on socio economic variables. Apart from providing loan to the rural woman it creates employment opportunities, eradicates poverty, and raises consciousness. It also emphasizes children’s schooling, nutrition and family planning. Borrowing by women particularly improved the nutritional status both male and female children. Consumption by 5 percent of the programme participants increased to the point that their households rose above the poverty line. These findings about the importance of micro credit in poverty reduction have been substantiated by other studies both in Bangladesh and in other countries. 

Globalization

Globalization is, basically, a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a borderless market. The idea of Globalization came into practice only in the last decade thought the idea was age old. It has also a far-reaching effect on many aspects of life. The world has come closer with the development of hi-tech communication media and rapid transport facilities. We can learn instantly what is happening in the remotest corner of the world. We are also able to go to any country in the shortest possible time. This is how countries of the world are like families in a village. We can share our joys and sorrows like next door neighbors. Globalization also brings all types of different customs and behavior into our homes through satellite television channels and the Internet. Now, we can enrich our local culture through constant interaction of different cultures. But, along with this, the cultural assault can also be resisted by the strength of our own traditional social values, beliefs and attitudes. However, as a result of Globalization, capitalist countries are enjoying more opportunities by exploiting the poor countries. Globalization integrates global economy in a way which exerts influence on both economic and social relations among the countries of the world. If Globalization is imposed upon a properly educated and properly trained labour force in an appropriate system it will lead to development and progress. If the developed and developing nations work together on terms of solidarity, equity and justice the process of Globalization will make our world a better place to live in.

Social value

Social value refers to norms or forms of behavior that are widely acceptable and admirable in the society. It refers also to the life style that people think that they should adopt. In the past, honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, piety, fellow-feeling etc. were considered to be social values. Adopting unfair means in any walk of life for any reason whatsoever was regarded as evil. People tried to keep themselves away from all sorts of malpractices and misdeeds. Honesty is the best policy – This was the motto of people in general. The miscreants were in great disrepute in the society. They were hated by all and sundry. But it is a pity those social values are interpreted now the other way round. Now, the criminals are honored as heroes of the society. People feel frightened to speak against their evil deeds. The causes of the present social values are materialistic attitude of people in general. With a few exceptions, people now run after name, fame and fortune without giving any thought to right or wrong, good or evil, moral or immoral. The effects of social values in the present age are deplorable. The noble qualities are now in exile. Honest people are now pushed to the wall. The wrong doers are now held in high esteem because of their post, power and position. Social values which were honored and harbored by people in the past should be preserved by way of raising awareness in people by inculcating the habit of doing good deeds, maintaining moral scruples, detesting vices and corrupt practices.

 

 

A hartal day

Hartal mainly refers the act of total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience particularly in political protest. In modern strife torn state hartal has become a common affair. It is observed at the call of a political party to press their demand to the ruling political party. The opposition political parties observe hartal to protest against the corruption, misuse of power and the evil deeds of the ruling party. Sometimes students and people of a locality call hartal to express their demands. On a hartal day normal course of life is stopped. All means of transport and vehicles do not move on the roads. People are to take a lot of troubles to attend their offices. They go on foot as vehicles are not available. As a result the attendance is very negligible in the offices, factories, industries and shops. The economy of the country suffers a heavy loss. Mills, factories and industries stop their work. All the business centers, markets and shops remain closed. The supporters in favour of hartal bring out procession. Often clashes occur between the police and the picketers. Sometime clashes take place between the supporters of the opposition and the ruling political partical parties which result in some deaths. On a hartal day the suffering of the people know no bounds. Actually, it is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular or unacceptable decision.

 

 Female Education

Female education is very essential for the overall development of a nation. More or less half of the population of a country is female. Leaving the female uneducated and unemployed, no nation can prosper. That’s why female education has been a crying need of the day. Once women were confined within the four walls of the house and were used to doing only household chores. At that time, they were deprived of the light of education because of the prejudice, unconsciousness, superstition, social backwardness, prejudiced outlook, social barrier, obstacle by the fundamentalists and so on. But now it has changed a lot and women are getting educated gradually. But most of the women are lagging far behind in education. The rate of female literacy is alarming because without their education, our satisfactory development is impossible. Napoleon Bonaparte said, “Give me an educated mother and I will give you an educated nation”. From this line we can easily realize the importance of female education. Women need to be educated for different reasons. To be a conscious citizen of the country, to be an active member of the family and society, to be a good mother or wife and to lead a self-reliant better life, a woman should be educated properly. Besides, educated women have higher income potential than those who have had no schooling. Many people consider women inferior to men. But it is their wrong concept. Except the biological difference, a girl has every capacity to work and to achieve high position in life as a man can. An educated woman is conscious of her duties, rights and responsibilities. So, we should take every necessary step to ensure an environment to educate our female force. Parents ought to be encouraged to send their daughters to school. The govt. and NGO’s should patronize the education for girls in order that they can be educated and can play a vital role in the development of our country.

 

A street child/ Tokai

A street child is he who moves along the roads and has no definite place or house to live in. Sometimes he may not have mother or father or both. He lives beside the street or in a temporary hut either in a slum or in any deserted place of a town or city. Actually there is none to look after him. There is none to think of his education and future. Even if he has parents, they cannot afford to send him to schools and ensure his food and clothes. So, he is left on the mercy of others. This is a cruel joke of the society. The children of affluent families or some well-to-do families go to schools. They play in the school field and watch television for recreation or for learning. But a child living in the street does not have any definite future. He is deprived of all the basic needs of human life. He grows and matures with a sense of anger and revenge towards the society. This mentality leads him to take the path of crime and creates insecurity in the society. If the affluent people don’t take care of him, the ultimate results of the negligence they cannot avoid. So, it is the responsibility of all to give a serious importance to the fact. The social and welfare ministry of the state tries to arrange some education for the street children. But it is a gigantic task which calls for united efforts. When people belonging to all strata of society come forward, a street child will have a secure future.

 

Basic Human Rights

In the present civilized world everybody has some fundamental rights that are to get food, shelter, education, medical treatment etc. The basic human rights are divided into different categories like social rights, civil rights, political rights, economic rights, religious rights and cultural rights. Social rights mean the rights to move freely, to arrange and attend any social function. Civil rights refer to the rights to be free from the interference, attack and disturbance of others. Political rights mean the rights to join trade union, to take part in the administration, to give vote and to have the freedom of speech including freedom of expression of opinions. An inhabitant will also exercise the cultural rights, religious rights and economic rights. Moreover, people of different religions can independently say their respective prayers going to mosque, church, temple or pagoda, and perform other religious activities. Every person can possess properties, establish organizations, support others financially etc. all these are some examples of economic rights. All citizens are equal in the eye of law and justice. But in many countries of the world including Bangladesh basic human rights are being violated brutally. And this type of crime is usually committed by the law-enforcing agencies, miscreants and politicians. Definitely they should be punished for violating fundamental human rights. So, some pragmatic measures should be adopted by the govt. as well as by all leading NGO’s to raise consciousness among all people through different mass media like radio, television, cinema, newspaper, poster, internet etc. for the overall betterment of all.

Email

Electronic mail or simply E-mail is very much popular now-a-days for its speedy transmission of information’s and cost effectiveness. Hence information provided by a sender is delivered asynchronously to a point where it can be retrieved and processed later on by one or more recipients of the sender’s choice. In an E-Mail system, there is a number and the sender keeps on dialing the desired number till he/she is successful. Once it is connected, the PC terminal of the sender sends the message to the PC terminal of the recipient at a very high speed. There is no need of any physical presence of both the sender and the receiver. The sender can enter the message and the receiver can retrieve it whenever he/she is free. The message will remain in PC’s memory. The transmission of messages is usually done through landlines or satellite communications or through marine cables. E-mail has lot of advantages to its credit. It is cost effective. Very less money is required In comparison to other transmission device. It is time saver. Within very short time messages can be sent. There is no need of presence of either the sender or the receiver. Once the message is entered into PC’s it will remain in the receiver PC’s memory.  E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten tmes faster than telex. There is the system of using password which each subscriber can choose to use. Hence E-mail gives security of message.

Fax

Facsimile, popularly known as fax, is a device that can send or receive a document, pictures and text over a telephone line. It is really a very wonderful machine which can transmit any document to another day machine located with in home or abroad in a very short time.  It looks like a calculator-cum telephone set. Almost all modems manufactured today are capable of sending and receiving fax data. Fax/modem software generates fax signals directly from disk files or the screen. Even if a document is text only, it is treated by the computer as a scanned image and is transmitted to the receiver as a bitmap. Faxing a message online works well if the recipient wants only to read the message. However, if the document requires editing, it must be converted into text by an OCR program, or it must be retyped manually into the computer. A more efficient method of sending documents that require modification is through the e-mail system. E-mail files are already ASCII text so they can be edited immediately in any text editor or word processing program. The Internet now provides a new and cheaper way to send faxes in some cases. A number of free and commercial companies provide arrangements for using the Internet rather than the public telephone system for most or part of the path to the fax point. Some services also provide the ability to broadcast a fax to multiple addresses. Nowadays being practically a time saving device, it has taken the place of teleprinter and is playing a vital role in international communication system.

Nuclear Family

A nuclear family or elementary family is a small group of people usually consisting of a pair of adults and their children. This type of family lives on its own, separate from other relatives. In fact, a nuclear family is based on the husband-wife relationship. Nowadays nuclear family is getting popularity because in such a family one can live according to one’s will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family, one may have much facility. One can enjoy his own life. One has no bindings to anyone. In short, the advantages of a nuclear family are stability, legacy, moral coding, skill building, shared responsibility, mutual support.The disadvantage of a nuclear family is that here one has to live alone. One has no companion to share one’s joy and sorrows. One feels lonely in such a family. Besides, it is difficult to take any crucial decision in a nuclear family and many of the decisions taken in a nuclear family may prove unwise afterwards. Personally, I do not like nuclear family because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. However, I live in an extended family that consists of six members-my grandfather and grandmother, my father and mother, my sister and myself. I am happy with living in an extended family.

 

Nuclear family

The nuclear family is a term used to define a family group consisting of and their children. I live in a nuclear family. Our family consists of four members such as my father and mother, my sister and myself. Nuclear family is getting popular nowadays because in such a family one can live according to one’s own will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family one may have much facility. He can enjoy his own life. He has no binding to anyone. The disadvantages of a nuclear family are that here he has to live alone. He has no companion to share his joys and sorrows. He feels lonely. I do not like it because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. In recent decades, this traditional form of the family has undergone major changes, with increasing rates of divorce leading to single-parent families, remarriages, resulting in extended families. These trends and the resulting problems that they cause, especially for the children, has brought the advantages of traditional nuclear families back into focus. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. But above all nowadays nuclear family is getting more popular.

 

Dowry System

Dowry means property or money brought by a bride to her husband when they get married. Nowadays the system of giving and taking dowry in marriage is more prevalent in Bangladesh. To eradicate this social evil, we should remain satisfied with mere laws and by-laws or enactment of some rules. Total change in the outlook of the society is the crying need at this moment. Young men and women must come forward to put an end to this disgraceful system. The political parties and government must match word with action. General inequality is a major cause of dowry. Improving women’s position in society would be an effective measure against dowry. The girl’s guardians must also be conscious about the issue. A girl should be brought up to be self-dependent. There is a tendency for the girl and the girl’s family to simply tolerate the oppression because of risk the marriage’s breaking up. The families must resort to legal action rather than encourage the girl to bear the oppression due to social shame and honour. Educated girls are also asked for dowry, but the poor illiterate girls have no alternative if abandoned by their husbands for dowry. Unfortunately in the rural areas, the daughters of poor farmers often study and work in order to earn enough money to pay dowry. The activists of all spheres against dowry must keep these factors in mind to eradicate dowry effectively.

 

Earthquake

Earthquake is the tremor caused either by volcanic eruptions or by sudden dislocation in the rock structure underneath. That Bangladesh lies in the active earthquake zone is not unknown to Bangladeshis. There are two schools of experts regarding earthquakes. One school comprising of engineers and geologists is of the view that the recurrence of quakes in recent years should be taken as a signal for a major earthquake. Another school comprising of similar categories of experts, however, believes that the concern should not be amplified, because although there arc a number of fault lines in the geographical area comprising Bangladesh, none of them is active enough to pose a major threat. Yet none of the schools rules out the possibility of a major quake and the dangers that might be associated with it. An earthquake causes unaccountable damage, and sometimes heavy destruction of life and property. During an earthquake, it is unsafe to remain inside a multi-storied house. It is better for the inmates of houses to come out in the open at the time of an earthquake. In Japan, an earthquake is a common phenomenon. It takes place frequently than in other coun­tries in the world. In Bangladesh, earthquake is, however, felt from time to time in mild form in different parts of the country. Alarmed by the recurrence of quakes during recent years, experts have called for the development of an earthquake resistant building code that all buildings should follow as mandatory to reduce the losses.

Significance of the Shaheed Minar

Hamidur Rahman was the man who gave shape to the concept and design of the Shaheed Minar, by combining all the aspirations of Bengali identity and nationalism. When he was assigned to make the design, he was full of enthusiasm focussing on the language movement as the central concept. He experimented with basic horizontal and vertical forms to bring out the concept of Bengali solidarity and unity for their national identity. The vertical lines of his design provided the manifestations of inner strength. The four columns on both sides of the central structure reflect the balance and harmony of a united stand. The original design had included stained glass, with hundreds of eyes, through which the sunlight could pass. The marble floor was to reflect the moving shadows of the column in an unending process of revolt from dawn to dusk. In the basement of the Minar he had designed a grand fresco work of 1500 square feet, depicting the language movement. This was to be his masterpiece, again reflecting the theme of geometric horizontal and vertical motifs of unity and strength. Rahman was fully conscious of the tropical damp climate of Bangladesh and therefore worked out such materials for the Minar that would withstand the climate. He ensured that the columns be made of such mixture of iron rods and cement as to stand for centuries. Today the Shaheed Minar is a symbol of freedom, strength and unity. He is no more with us but we remember him with great admiration and pride for his remarkable design of the Central Shaheed Minar.

 

 Adopting unfair means in the examination

The adoption of unfair means in the examination means copying in the examination. It does not simply mean copying from books etc. Inside the hall, it includes any sort of malpractice in or outside the hall to succeed in the examination. It is one of the signs of other degenerating conditions existing in out society. Many students without preparing lessons waste their valuable time in gossiping, roaming, playing, travelling etc. As a result they are compelled to adopt unfair means in the hall. By adopting unfair means a student frustrates the very purpose of the examination. Merely committing to memory and vomiting it in the examination halls cannot determine the merit of a student. In order to solve copying in the examination the govt. has taken some preventive measures. First of all the govt. is trying to raise public awareness through mass media. Recently the government has enforced a law that if any student is found copying in the examination hall, she/he will be expelled from the examination hall. If any invigilator is found helping any examiner, legal action will be taken against her/him. Even if outsiders are found involved in helping any examiner in copying, they will also be punished. The government has interchanged the examination centers and formed invigilation teams to monitor the overall condition of the examination center. The very system of education should be changed. Above all the government, the teachers, the guardians, the students, the intellectuals, the politicians and all the conscious sections of the country should come forward to tackle the problem.

 

Duties of a Student Or, Students and Social Service

Students are the greatest force as well as the future leaders of a Country. They can build or destroy a nation. The primary duty of students is to acquire knowledge and to make themselves worthy citizens. It is needless to say that they get much time for merry making, playing, amusements, touring etc. apart from their routine life of study.Then they should pay attention to the welfare of the society. Students have no worries about earning their livelihood. They have strength and capacity. Students should go to the villages and serve the villagers during vacation. They can make the illiterate masses aware of their rights and duties. Hence the students can guide the people of digging canals or constructing educational institutions. Sympathy and fellow feeling should be imparted the students to do some noble works for the people. Students can co-operate with people on matters of public interest such as education, sanitation, trade and commerce. Students can participate in cleaning drains, ponds during the leisure hours. They can help people during natural calamities such as earth quake, flood, drought, cyclone by collecting funds from different sources. Students have a spirit to work but the guardians and, teacher should guide them in the right way. Student must be the servants of humanity. The aim of all true education is to teach a man how to live and lot others live. A student can learn this though social service. He gains experience, courage and confidence. Thus social service makes him fit for the greater world.    

Social value

Social values are the customs, belief, tastes, social, practices and norms, and attitudes of a particular social community. It refers to the attitude or code of conduct that an individual in certain society has to conform to. Social values determine course of social life of a person and regulate his of her life to a great extent. It is one’s commitment to social values that one cannot get involved in anti-social and criminal or notorious activities. Social values direct an individual to maintain social harmony, to conform to what is accepted majority of the society, and refrain him or her from doing such things those are destructive to social peace and order. In the past social values were very compact and rigid and every individual tried best to maintain or conform to that values. But now people are unconscious and sometimes callous to social values. Lust, greed for money and power, injustice and discrimination in society, excessive desire to achieve something illegally and unfairly, and desire for material gain are the causes of present degradation of social values. Violation and degradation of social values have adverse effects in the society. As we see around us that Younger don’t show any respect to their superiors, family ties breakdown, often a family disintegrates, children go astray, young people become drug addicted, or get involved in various anti-social and immoral activities. These are all signs of people’s loss of the sense of morality of ethics resulting from social degradation. We should be alert to preserve social values. To do so , we can develop social relationship among its members, keep an eye on our younger so that that they are not derailed , and not allow any such things to happen that destroy people’s morality and goad them to do unsocial and anti-social things.

 

Satellite Television Channels

Television channels broadcast by the use of satellite is called satellite TV channels. Television is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any live programme from the remotest part of the world. Television can display many programmes at a time. Satellite TV has added a new dimension in our oriented life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and articles. So we can easily collect educative information of agriculture, science and technology, politics, education, business, invention etc. Television helps us widespread the sight and outlook of the society. Coming to contact with the western societies, we are getting the opportunities to enrich our society and ourselves. But on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress-pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerns. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation. So, we all should be conscious of that.

Role of media

In general, “media” refers to various means of communication channels through which news, entertainment, educationdata, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapersmagazines, TV, radio, billboardsdirect mailtelephone, fax, and internet. In the world of today, media has become as necessary as food and clothing. It has played significant as well as influential role in strengthening the society and making the world a global village. Media is considered as “mirror” of the modern society. The purpose of the media is to inform people about current, new affairs and to tell about the latest gossip and fashion. It also helps to form opinions and make judgements regarding various issues. It has become one way of trading and marketing of products and prejudices. It keeps people updated and informed about what is happening around them and the world. Media can be considered as “watch dog” of political democracy. It serves to reduce the communication gap between the audience, viewers and the media world. For the sake of publicity and selling, important figures, their lifestyles are usually targeted. But unfortunately, media these days has become a commercialized sector. Media has had a bad effect on a generation, mainly because, teenagers and children are strongly influenced by media. The media affects people’s perspective. I believe, if the media identifies its responsibility and work sincerely and honestly, and then it can serve as a great force in building the nation.

Social network services

A social networking service is an online service provided to the public for social interaction between families, friends, and also for gaining new friends over the internet. The advantages of the Internet technology have made it possible to emerge a good number of web sites like Facebook, Google+, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. These services make it possible to connect people sharing interests and activities across the borders. They have made a lot for the users to feel that they really live in a global village. Social networks are expanding so fast because one can make use of them free, paying a very little to one’s Internet service provider. Secondly, one can make one’s personal profile public before the entire online community. It is like presenting oneself before the entire world. One can also look into other people’s profile if one is interested. It is simple and easy. Thirdly, social networks allow users to upload pictures, multimedia contents and modify the profile. Some like Facebook allow users to update their profiles. Fourthly, networks allow users to post blog entries. User profiles have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. Finally, there are privacy protection measures too. A user himself or herself decides over the number of visitors/ viewers, and what information should be shared with others. In short, the social network connects people with each other over the internet, along with businesses, educational institutions, health, and religious organizations all over the world.

Digital Bangladesh

Digital Bangladesh means digitalizing Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line. Here all the possible tasks of government or semi-government will be performed using digital technology. The motto of digital Bangladesh is to establish technology based digital governance, e-commerce, e-agriculture, e-production, e-education etc. The benefits of digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a digital Bangladesh, corruption will be reduced radically.  It will make people think globally and connect them with the whole world economically, socially, politically, academically and even culturally.  It will improve our banking and financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce – all these sections will be highly benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. To make our country digital first of all, uninterrupted power supply has to be ensured and we have to develop computer network skill and ensure equitable access. Finally, our education should be computer based and in primary and secondary schools students should get easy access to the computer.   Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital transmission. We will be able to buy and sell goods through the electronic screen if we can make a Digital Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, encouraging development towards digitalization of Bangladesh by 2021 can be possible. The ambitious dream for a Digital Bangladesh will remain a dream if the government can not equip the people with the technology needed for establishing the digital era.     

For all Classes

Water pollution

Water, an important element of human environment, is essential for human and plant life. It is next to air. Water can be polluted in many ways. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their fields to grow more food. The rain and floods wash away some of the chemicals. They get mixed with river water, canal water and pond water. Mills and factories pollute water by throwing the waste and even sail boats can pollute water by throwing oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers and canals. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside standing on the banks of the rivers and canals also pollute water. The unsafe drains running into the rivers and canals cause water pollution. Water pollution from industrial discharge, the industrial disposal of toxic chemicals and the dumping of human waste into rivers and canals causes poisoning and water-borne disease such as cholera and diarrhea. Clean water is safe for use and polluted water is harmful for man. Water pollution can be prevented in many ways. First of all, we should make the people aware of the fact that water is next to air. It is called life. Mills and factories should not throw the waste materials and unsold products into rivers and canals. Steamer, motor launches and even sail boats should not throw oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers and canals. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside should not be built on the banks of the rivers and canals. In fine, awareness should be created in the public.

 

My Favourite Personality

My best personality of the world, Hazrat Muhammad (S.M), is the last prophet of Allah and the leader of all prophets. He is the greatest of man and teachers ever born of earths. He is the embodiment of all that is noble, pure and good. The prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s.m) was born in the famous Quraish tribe of Mecca in 570 A.D. Before his birth, his father Abdullah died and his mother Amina died when he was only six. So in his infancy he became an orphan who was brought up by a nurse named Halima. He was handsome, of medium height, very active, walked rapidly which forced his companions to race to keep up with him. People reported seeing light around his body and in his face, which they compared to the sun or the full moon. His skin was white and turned rosy from exposure to the sun. He had black eyes and a thick beard. Everybody believed him and called Al-Amen or the trusty one. The prophet taught the people the virtue of forgiveness. He advised them to do well to others and worship Allah. The Qur’an was revealed to him by Allah and the Hadith which contains his sayings taught the Muslims many noble virtues. He always thought about the evils of Arab life which was dirty and barbering killing, robbery, injustice and barbarism prevailed everywhere in Arab. This great and noble soul passed away in 632 A.D. at the age of 63. But his work and teachings remain and will be followed as long as the world lasts. He made Muslims brothers of one another, built a great nation and powerful state. At present one fifth of the people of the world are the followers of this great and noble prophet.

 Environmental pollution

Nature, air, water, land and all other things around us in which we live are called environment. Any unexpected and abnormal change in chemical, physical and biological characteristics in environment is called the environmental pollution. Now our environment is getting polluted every moment in many ways. In major cities and towns motor vehicles, mills and factories are creating fume and smoke. Man makes fires to cook food, to make bricks, to melt tar for road construction and to do many other things. Fires create smoke and pollute the air. Railway engines and powerhouses create smoke by burning coal and oil. Water, another vital element of the environment like air, is also polluted in many ways. Man pollutes water by throwing waste into it. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers, canals and seas. Chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds, and thus pollute water. Moreover, water vehicles, unsafe drains and unsanitary latrines are also responsible for water pollution. Forests and trees are being cut down on a large scale. So, the ecosystem of the environment is now in great danger. The noise of motor vehicles, mills and factories, aeroplanes, domestic appliances, radios, cassette players, CDs, televisions etc pollutes sound and it affects our hearing. Government and people of all classes should come forward to control this environmental pollution because it is necessary for our own existence.

Travelling

Travelling means going from one place to another in different purposes. Travellers always travel the most beautiful places of the world which uphold the existence of nature. There are many means to see the unseen and know the unknown, but travelling is the best of all. For example reading books gives us literary knowledge, listening story gives us indefinite ideas, but travelling gives us visual as well as concrete knowledge. Someone travels to gain knowledge and experience, someone travels for pleasure, someone travels for business purposes etc. There are different types of travelling like- travelling by air, bus, boat, train, bus etc. Every travelling has much educative value. It is a part of education. Our education and bookish knowledge remain imperfect without travelling. For this reason, we can learn many things by travelling. It teaches us trade and commerce, language, sociology, customs, culture, history, geography and so on. Therefore, the educative value of travelling beggars description. Besides, there are some special benefits of travelling. If a man stays at one place for a long time, he becomes monotonous and his life becomes boring and callous. Travelling removes our monotony and gives pleasure. Similarly, it also broadens our outlook and refreshes our mind. A good traveler can easily educate others. He can give us first-hand knowledge of men and matters of other country. I like travelling very much.

Importance of Games and Sports

Games and sports are important for success not in studies but in every walks of our life. Boys and girls may practice races, jumps, discuss throw and javelin throw and thus pass their afternoon in useful activities. They may play various games like footballcricket, hockey, volleyball, basket ball, badminton etc. The importance of games and sports can never be minimized. First of all, they are good exercises and help to make mentally alert and physically strong. Secondly, by displaying their feats before many spectators, one can overcome nervousness. Thirdly, they are good diversions and give energy to learn their lessons well. Fourthly, it gives the necessary break from the everyday monotonous life. Fifthly, games and sports help building a sense of cooperation and team-spirit in an individual. When people of different nations get together on the occasion of an international sporting event, they come closer to each other, sharing views, opinions and friendship. Therefore, we learn to socialize and strengthen international brotherhood through games and sports. For these reasons, every civilized nation values the importance of games and sports and spends large sum of money on improving the standard of games and sports. However, games should be played for the sake of enjoyment, pleasure and recreation. If played in the right spirit, games become an important part of life – a better and healthy life.

Begum Rokeya

Begum Rokeya was a famous writer, a social worker, feminist and a social worker in undivided Bengal in the early 20th century. She is most famous for her efforts on behalf of gender equality and other social issues. She was born in 1880 in the village of Pairabondh, Rangpur. Her father, Jahiruddin Muhammad Abu Ali Haidar Saber, was a highly educated landlord. She had two sisters and three brothers. Rokeya’s eldest brother and elder sister had great influence on her life. She learnt Bangla and English from her eldest brother Ibrahim. She believed that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men have in the society. So she fought for their cause throughout her life. In 1896 she was married to Khan Bahadur Sakhawat Hussain who was the Deputy Magistrate. He was very cooperative, and always encouraged Rokeya to go on with her activities. Rokeya had great love for her mother tongue. She launched her literary career in 1902 with a Bangla story entitled Pipasa (Thirst). Her famous novels are Sultana’s Dream (1905), Motichur (1908), Padmaraga (1924) and Oborodhbashini (1928). Rokeya established Sakhawat Memorial Girls’ High School. It started in Bhagalpur, a traditionally Urdu-speaking area, with only five students. She also founded Islamic Women’s Association. In her life, she remained busy with the school, the association, and her writings for the rest of her life. She died of heart problems on December 9, 1932. The date of her death, 9 December, is now commemorated as ‘Rokeya Day’ in Bangladesh.

Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. It is a very good habit which is very much essential for sound health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. Once one gets into the habit of rising early, one is able to set a routine and that obviously leads to better productivity both at work and home. The man who rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air refreshes both body and mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning.  All these make them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works earlier. He had nothing to worry. He can earn more and become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. So, all of us should adopt a healthier way of living and reap those benefits.

Leisure/Leisure Pursuit/Pastime

Leisure is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. The monotonous working hours of a hectic and busy life load their brains with tiredness and stress. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized or recharged. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Most of the people of Bangladesh pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games, reading for exams, listening to music, visiting relatives on weekends, attending music lessons, going to movies occasionally, helping parents with housework, going on a picnic with family or friends, walking in the park on holidays are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.  

The Selfish Giant

Once there was a selfish giant who had a very beautiful garden in front of his place with soft green grass, beautiful flowers, fruit trees etc. He went to his friend in a distant land and stayed with them for seven years. In the meantime every afternoon children came back from school and used to go and play in the Giant’s garden. One day when the giant came back, he saw the children playing freely in his garden. This made him seriously angry and he drove them away. He built a huge wall round the garden to stop entrance into it. So the children could not play. Then the garden became lifeless without any flower or bird. Though it was the season of spring, winter prevailed in the garden. The giant found no trace of spring in his garden. Then one day he could hear the chirping of birds and looked out of the window. He saw that children were playing in the garden. It was full of flowers and birds. He come out of his castle into the garden and seeing him coming, the children ran away. At once the garden became lifeless again with cold. He could realize the matter and felt sad. Then he allowed them to enter into it and play freely. The garden immediately regained its life with flowers leave. From that time the giant and the children become close friends.

 

My First Day at School

The day a student goes to school for the first time in life is called first day at school. Human life is the collection of some forgettable as well as memorable events. My first day school is an event which will remain ever fresh in my heart. When my parents declared the news of my schooling, I became very much excited and started leaping and dancing in great joy. I was always thinking about the school, the teachers, and the students of the school. I couldn’t even sleep at night. The next morning my mother woke me up early in the morning. I had a bath and put on my best clothes. Having breakfast, my father and I started walking towards the school. After reaching school, I saw many students on the school campus playing and talking to each other. My father took me to the headmaster’s room. My heart beat fast. But his smiling face and gentle words put me at ease.  As I could answer all of his questions, he became pleased. He called in a teacher and sent me to my class with her. My classmates received me very cordially and made friendship with me within a short time. The school broke up at 2 pm. My father again came and took me home. I left the school with a cheerful mind. That day was very remarkable in my life.

 

 A Good Teacher/An Ideal Teacher

A man or woman, who teaches the students to discover hidden treasures in any educational institutions, is called a teacher. He is a friend, philosopher and a guide to the students. Generally a teacher is judged whether he is good or bad according to the temperament of the students. But an ideal teacher must have some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. He who knows the art of teaching, is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. An ideal teacher treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistakes, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his students realise his mistake. An ideal teacher is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He influences young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school.

 

 The Importance of Using Dictionary

A dictionary is a book or electronic resource that lists the words of a language alphabetically, gives their meaning, provides information about pronunciation, origin, and usage. Dictionaries are very important books in the life of a student as it can be both a teacher and a good friend. It lists the words in a language alphabetically so that the reader may find them easily. A dictionary entry gives us the accepted spelling of a word, its division into syllable, its pronunciation, its origins along with its meanings. It informs what part of speech does a certain word belong. Sometimes a dictionary also provides synonyms, or opposites of a word. In addition, if the word is a noun that describes a visible thing, the dictionary may provide a picture of it. In this connection, it guides us in writing words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs. Sometimes examples sentences are also provided. When one wants to use the word and does not know where to put the word, one can look example sentences. However, searching words by using a dictionary takes a lot of time. Using a talking dictionary, words can be searched immediately. We can find some words in a few minute. To sum up, a dictionary does a great help for everyone, especially students who are learning a language and who are interested in language learning to explore new words and enrich vocabulary.

 

 

My Best Friend

A good friend might be someone who’s there to provide support when times are tough, or someone you can rely on to celebrate a special moment. I have a very good friend who really has loyalty and with whom I can share all feelings. My best friend, X is very punctual, obedient, tolerant, leadership in nature, tall, fair in complexion, smart, broadminded, co-operative and respectful. He lives with me as my neighbour in the same colony. We met each other in the nursery class on the very first day. We sit together in the classroom and share everything very happily without any problem. He is very good in studies and behaves well with everyone. He does his class work and homework very attentively. We share our Tiffin in the lunch time. Many things of us like hobbies, likes, dislikes, etc are similar. We love to listen music, watching cartoons and playing carom at home. We take care of each other in the school and playground. We share school copies and help each other whenever one of us remain absent in the school. We love drawing sceneries and arts in our spare time. We go at tour and picnic with our parents together in every winter and summer vacation. I am really proud of him.

 

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

A visit to the historical interest

Man is not satisfied with what he has seen and known. He wants to see more and know more. He wants to get flavor of the historical places, so whenever I get an opportunity, I visit a place of historical interest. I got such an opportunity to visit Bagerhat, a great historical place in Bangladesh. The Mazar of Khan Jahan Ali is a fine one storied building. It has a beautiful dome. Hazrat Khan Jahan Ali was buried there. The tomb is made of cut of stones. It can not be accurately said where from these were brought. It is said that Pir Khan Jahan Brought these fromchittagong by flotting on water, on the tomb there are inscription in Arabic. An inscription says that he died on 25th October 1459. There is a small mosque nearby. A close associate of Khan Jahan Ali was buried outside the tomb. On the night of the full moon of the Bangla Month Chaitra a big fair is held beside the Mazar. Many people attend the fair. There is a big tank in front of the Mazar, the local people call it the Dighi of Khan Jahan Ali. There are some crocodiles in the big tank. They come near fakirs call them and give them something to eat. I saw the Dighi with my own eyes and derived much pleasure. It is a big and beautiful building which is beautifully decorated. It is said that it was used both as a mosque and the court by Pir Khan Jahan. The mosque has great attraction for the tourists and visitors. Bageraht is really a place of historical interest. I shall never forget this visit. It is a wonderful experience that I have ever achieved.

 

 

A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

River gypsies

River gypsies, known as bedey to local people, are one of the ethnic groups in Bangladesh. The gypsies have their own lifestyle and culture. They are used to live a nomadic life travelling from one place to another in small country boats. These boats are their houses. They are an integral part of our waters. Throughout the monsoon, they remain busy with both fishing and diving for natural pearls in waters. Sometimes, they camp for a couple of weeks. Men catch snakes and entertain people with snake charming and sell herbal cures. Women go from door to door to sell bangles, cosmetics and other things. They also try to heal pains of old people often by sucking out blood from their body. When many water bodies dry up in winter season, they return to the mainland and live in make-shift tarpaulin tents on open river banks. Their men can be seen relaxing in the tents. Women often pick off lice in twos or threes sitting in a row. Gypsy people are losing their customers due to the rapid urbanization process. Voting rights, permanent housing, mobile boat-schools and bank loan facilities should be offered to them to survive in the mainstream population.

 Nakshi Kantha

Nakshi kantha is a kind of embroidered quilt. The name ‘Nakshi kantha’ was derived from the Bengali word, ‘naksha’ which implies artistic pattern. It is a type of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The art has been practiced in pastoral areas of Bengal for centuries. The name ‘Nakshi kantha’ gained popularity after the poet Jasimuddin’s poem ‘Nakshi kanthar Math’ which was published in 1929. Traditional kanthas are made especially by the women for family use. Old or new cloth and thread are used to make these quilts. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Rajshahi, Faridpur, Bogra and Jessore are most famous for this craft. Now it is produced commercially. It can be found in many expensive handicraft shops in cities. Because of the colourful patterns and designs embroidered on them, the quilts are now in great demand. Finally, it goes without saying that “Nakshai Kantha” signifies a token of Bengali culture.

 

The wheel

A wheel is a circular object which can rotate around its axis and help easy movement of things across a surface. Although it is a very important invention, the history of its origin is unknown. Experts guess that the first wheel was developed from a circular object. The early man observed that a huge piece of stone could be rolled easily if it was circular in shape. Thus, early man took advantage of rolling objects and developed the first wheel. Apart from its mechanical advantage, a wheel’s mobility has contributed much to the civilisation.The wheels are, in fact, everywhere. They are on our cars, trains, planes, wagons and so on. Besides, they are on most factory and farm equipment. Fans, propellers, turbines are also other types of wheels. So the wheel is very important. They have brought great civilization to the world through this invention. Today we cannot imagine modern life without wheels.

 

 

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

 

A visit to the historical interest

Man is not satisfied with what he has seen and known. He wants to see more and know more. He wants to get flavor of the historical places, so whenever I get an opportunity, I visit a place of historical interest. I got such an opportunity to visit Bagerhat, a great historical place in Bangladesh. The Mazar of Khan Jahan Ali is a fine one storied building. It has a beautiful dome. Hazrat Khan Jahan Ali was buried there. The tomb is made of cut of stones. It can not be accurately said where from these were brought. It is said that Pir Khan Jahan Brought these fromchittagong by flotting on water, on the tomb there are inscription in Arabic. An inscription says that he died on 25th October 1459. There is a small mosque nearby. A close associate of Khan Jahan Ali was buried outside the tomb. On the night of the full moon of the Bangla Month Chaitra a big fair is held beside the Mazar. Many people attend the fair. There is a big tank in front of the Mazar, the local people call it the Dighi of Khan Jahan Ali. There are some crocodiles in the big tank. They come near fakirs call them and give them something to eat. I saw the Dighi with my own eyes and derived much pleasure. It is a big and beautiful building which is beautifully decorated. It is said that it was used both as a mosque and the court by Pir Khan Jahan. The mosque has great attraction for the tourists and visitors. Bageraht is really a place of historical interest. I shall never forget this visit. It is a wonderful experience that I have ever achieved.

 

 

A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

 

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

 

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

A Railway/ Bus Station

 A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and depart from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. It has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, station master’s room and waiting rooms for passengers. The stationmaster, all in all in a station, is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. It generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. It is a thronged and noisy place; both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here. Some evil doers like beggars, thieves, swindlers and pickpockets often flock in the station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

A Road Accident

Among daily’s unfortunate occurrences, street accident is very common. Despite all efforts to prevent accident, it happens every day. Busy and narrow road, careless driving, it takes place very frequently. Day before yesterday a terrible accident took place just before my eyes. It occurred in front of Bangla College while I was going to the New Market. When I reached the college gate, suddenly I heard a scream of a boy who was trying to cross the Mirpur Road. He was run over by a speedy truck. When the truck was a few feet away from him, he got puzzled and ran backwards and forwards. The driver tried desperately to hold the break but failed. He was crushed under the wheels of the truck and his body was changed into a lump of flesh. The truck was stopped. The passers-by crowded there. The boy was taken up from the pool of blood. A gentleman offered his car to carry the boy to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In the evening I came to know that the boy had passed away on way to the hospital. I was greatly shocked at this incident. The truck along with the driver had been taken to police custody. But that horrible scene still haunts my mind. However, we all should always bear in mind that life is more valuable than time. Moreover, some proper steps should be taken and some strict rules should be introduced to stop street accidents. 

The life of a fisherman

A fisherman is a person who catches and sells fishes from various sources to maintain his life. Generally he lives in a village near a river or a sea. He is hard working and painstaking. He uses nets and boats in fishing. Some have nets but no boats. Some who have boats and nets, employ the boat less ones and work in a group. A fisherman is always at work. While at home, he repairs his boats or nets and paints his boats or dyes his nets. He catches fish in the seas, rivers, haors, beels and ponds. His women-folk make new nets; his children dry fishes in the sun and sell them in the market. The life of a fisherman is very risky and challenging because there may have storms and cyclones at any time. Some fishermen go to fish at night; some go to fish in the deep water or in the sea from home for many days. If he can not earn a day, his family is to starve. He feels happy when he earns the needful amount. After all a fisherman does much good to us by supplying fishes. In spite of being hard working, he can hardly make both ends meet. Government should take some pragmatic steps for the development of minimum standard of their livelihood.

A Tea Stall

A tea stall is a small shop where tea and other things are sold for the passers-by. It is a common place to all classes of people. It is usually found at the turn of the road, bus stands, railway stations, Bazar or even beside an office where the common people are available. It opens early in the morning and closes at late night. Biscuits, bread, banas, betal leaf and different kinds of handmade snacks are available there. A tea stall is furnished with some benches and tables. An ordinary tea stall is dirty. A boy is employed in a tea stall to serve the people. Sometimes, the owner himself serves as the boy and the cashier. People who come to a tea stall usually do not leave it immediately after taking a cup of tea. People refresh themselves with a cup of tea in a tea stall. It is also a place where social disputes are settled. They mainly talk about politics, local events and current affairs. This is why it is called a Mini Sangsad. Intact, tea stall is now –a-days an important place of social gathering and at the same time a place of charm for the common people. So a tea stall occupies an important place in our day-to-day life.

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

Mobile/ Cell Phone

Mobile phone is such a cordless phone by which people can communicate with others immediately. It is a telephone system that works without any wire. Today, mobile phone has become popular to everybody since it is very convenient. For instance, one can contact easily to anyone by calling or sending messages everywhere. Specially, businessman and the service holders are much benefited through the use of mobile phone. But it is also useful for the people who are shopping and supplying valuable information sitting in their houses. Moreover, one can relax with mobile phone’s applications, for example, play games, listen to music, or chat with your friends. A mobile phone in one’s hand can solve many issues and hold most of information around the world. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages. Using a lot mobile phone can harm your brain. If you use mobile phones too much, you will get bad effects like dizzy, blood-brain barrier, or ears problems. Terrorists are using it to spread out terrorism all around the world. In addition, when you use mobile phones while you are driving, you will get an accident. Moreover, “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum”, has proved by many scientist. But in spite of all these disadvantages, it can be finalized here that the necessity of a mobile phone in exchanging messages, cannot be denied in the true sense of the term in our practical life.

 

 

 

 

Adopting unfair means in the examination

The adoption of unfair means in the examination means copying in the examination. It does not simply mean copying from books etc. Inside the hall, it includes any sort of malpractice in or outside the hall to succeed in the examination. It is one of the signs of other degenerating conditions existing in out society. Many students without preparing lessons waste their valuable time in gossiping, roaming, playing, travelling etc. As a result they are compelled to adopt unfair means in the hall. By adopting unfair means a student frustrates the very purpose of the examination. Merely committing to memory and vomiting it in the examination halls cannot determine the merit of a student. In order to solve copying in the examination the govt. has taken some preventive measures. First of all the govt. is trying to raise public awareness through mass media. Recently the government has enforced a law that if any student is found copying in the examination hall, she/he will be expelled from the examination hall. If any invigilator is found helping any examiner, legal action will be taken against her/him. Even if outsiders are found involved in helping any examiner in copying, they will also be punished. The government has interchanged the examination centers and formed invigilation teams to monitor the overall condition of the examination center. The very system of education should be changed. Above all the government, the teachers, the guardians, the students, the intellectuals, the politicians and all the conscious sections of the country should come forward to tackle the problem.

 

Eve-teasing

Eve teasing means molestation or exciting young girls sexually by making indecent remarks or vulgar comments on them. It usually starts with winking eyes and making obscene gestures and may go to the extent of physical assault and harassment. Generally school and college-going girls become victims of eve teasing. It is a matter where boys use bad language to the girls who silently hate them without taking any kind of revenge. In naturally his violations reach the girls to suicide. For removing it forever from the society everybody should careful about it. Everybody should behave each other like brother and sister. Here religion rules can contribute a lot. If anybody makes this again they should be punished for their deeds. And we should take immediate action to them if any body makes this violations. Boys who see their fathers treating their mothers with respect will automatically grow into men who think likewise. Boys and girls should be allowed to mingle freely so that they learn to respect each other’s individuality. Men need to realize that every woman is some mans wife, or daughter, or sister, or mother; and must be treated with the same respect, they would accord their own. Eve teasing is a social crime and it should be prevented at any cost. The law-enforcing authorities should deal severely with the eve teasers. People’s conscience and consciousness must also be aroused to stop this nuisance.

 Victory Day of Bangladesh

Victory means the rebuilt of self-immolation of 30 lacs people. The 16th December is the victory Day of Bangladesh. This day reminds us of the supreme sacrifice of our freedom fighters who will ever shine in our hearts like the luminous stars in the sky. It is a red letter day in our national calendar of Bangladesh. In 1971, Bangladesh discloses herself as a new country and gets a place in the world map. The occupation forces surrendered unconditionally to the allied forces, and with their surrender we got our victory. It is a government holiday. The national flag is hosted in all important offices, buildings, institutions and shops. All important places are tastefully decorated. Meetings and seminars are held to explain the importance of the day. On this day we pay rich tributes to the memory of the day. People from all walks of life irrespective of ages, castes and creeds celebrate Victory Day with huge enthusiasm and inspiration. Different cultural organizations hold various programmes and bring out colourful rallies to mark the day. Radio and television broadcast special programmes, and newspapers publish special supplementary on this day. The parks, museums etc. remain crowded from dawn to dusk with lots of people enjoying their time. We pray to almighty Allah for the martyrs of our liberation war. The victory day symbolizes the triumph of justice over tyranny, of truth over falsehood. So the 16th December is a very important day in the history of Bangladesh.

 

Zahir Raihan

Zahir Raihan, one of the most talented film makers, was born on 19 August 1935 in Feni district of Bangladesh. He was an active worker of the Language Movement, took part in the mass movement in 1969, joined the Liberation War in 1971. All through his life, Zahir dreamt for a democratic society that will ensure freedom of speech and will. He had many dreams about our film industry too. He made a legendary film Jibon Theke Neya based on the Language Movement of 1952. It was a revolt against the then autocratic government. During the liberation war this film was shown outside Bangladesh and earned appreciation. Zahir gave all his money to the Freedom Fighters’ trust that he got from his film shows. Besides, his great documentary on Pakistani atrocities, Stop Genocide, helped create world sentiment in favour of our liberation war. His brother Shahidulla was captured and killed by the Pakistani army and the local collaborators during the last days of the war. On 30 December 1971, someone informed Zahir about an address somewhere at Mirpur, where he might find his brother. Accordingly Zahir left home to get his brother back and he never returned. Zahir’s dream was fulfilled. He could see the inception of a free independent Bangladesh though he did not get back his brother. And it’s a pity that this dreamer was missing at such a time when his dream came true.

Floral culture

Floral culture has widely been flourished in our country because of a rosy environment full of colour and fragrance. It is not only an interesting pastime but also a moneymaker if it can be handled professionally. A florist specializes in the selection and arrangement of flowers for a variety of events such as weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, marriage days, Valentine ’s Day, official receptions and even funerals. Although formal education or a diploma is not always essential, florists must have a good taste, good eye for colours, shapes and proportion. They have to have good sense for selecting flowers, ribbons and other accessories to make beautiful arrangements. Professional florists are knowledgeable about not only flowers but also designs and techniques. Most florists learn the trade mainly through apprenticeship in a previous flower farming job and also by attending formal floral schools and courses. Every flower is with its distinct colour, design, significance and meaning which flower designers have to know well. We know that conventionally roses are meant for romance and anniversaries and tulips for birthdays. However, a true passion for flowers and a bit of aesthetic sense are all that can make a florist’s career successful. Flower designers earn fairly handsome money. But the bonus is that they belong to a fresh fun job. They work in flowers all day long in a nice atmosphere with fresh air, pleasant smells and vivid colours around. But there is a disadvantage too, if you are inclined to see so. Florists deal with flowers, but miss their honey!

 Zainul Abedin

Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin, the founding father of Bangladeshi art, is widely reputed for his Bengal ‘Famine Sketches’. Through a series of sketches, he depicted extremely shocking pictures with human compassion. He developed a knack for drawing and painting when he was a high school student. He graduated with the first position in first class in 1938. He was appointed teacher of the Art School while he was still a student there and later attended the Slade School of Arts, London. His 65-foot long scroll portraying heightened the non-cooperation movement against the Pakistan regime. He organized nabanna exhibition which is a milestone in demanding cultural and political freedom. His dynamic style of work is evident in a 30 foot long scroll painting of devastating cyclone of 1970 called Manpura. He designed the pages of Constitution of Bangladesh. He founded the Folk Art Museum at Sonargoan, and also Zainul Abedin Shangrahasala in Mymensingh in 1975. The river Brahmaputra has a significant role in his paintings and a source of inspiration all through his career. He was awarded by the Governor’s Gold Medal in an all-India exhibition in 1938. During his life time, he produced a series of brush and ink drawings, which later became iconic images of human sufferings.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa, the mother as well as the servant of humanity, was born in Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. At the age of twelve, she realised that what she wanted to do most of all, was to help the poor. She decided to train for missionary work and joined the Sisters of Loretto with a mission in Kolkata. In 1928 she took her initial vows as a nun. She taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata from 1929 to 1948. The suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls disturbed her. She left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poor in the slums of Kolkata. Soon she was joined by many voluntary helpers. This made it possible for her to start ‘The Missionaries of Charity’ for the dying destitute. She persuaded the people that leprosy is not contagious. She founded Nirmol Hridoy, Mahatma Gandhi Leprosy Ashram and many other organizations. Mother Teresa was awarded the Padma Shri and Bharat Ratna. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1979. She passed away in 1997. Though she is no more, she has left a message behind: ‘faith and compassion can heal the world’. She will always be remembered by the world for her selfless service to the poor and the sick.

The Shat Gambuj Masjid

The Shat Gambuj Masjid is one of the greatest tourist attractions and best architectural beauties of Bangladesh. Saint and warrior Ulugh Khan Jahan, the earliest torchbearer of Islam in the South, founded this multidomed mosque in Bagerhat district. The stately fabric of the monument stands on the eastern bank of a vast sweet water tank, clustered around by the heavy foliage of a low-lying countryside characteristic of a seacoast landscape. The mosque is roofed over with 77 squat domes, including 7 chauchala or four-sided domes in the middle row. The vast prayer hall is provided with 11 arched doorways on the east and 7 each on the north and the south for ventilation and light. It has 7 longitudinal aisles and 11 deep bays by a forest of slender stones columns. The arches are six feet in thickness, have slightly tapering hollow and round walls. The interior and the exterior of the mosque give a view of rather plain architecture but the interior western wall of the mosque is’ beautifully decorated with terracotta flowers and foliage. Besides being used as a prayer hall, the mosque was also used as the court of Khan Jahan Ali.

The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty, originally called Liberty Enlightening the World, is a statue on Liberty Island in the harbour of New York. It symbolises liberty in the form of a woman wearing flowing robes and a spiked crown. She holds a torch aloft in her right hand and carries in her left hand a book inscribed “July 4, 1776”. Broken chains, symbolizing the overthrow of tyranny, lie at her feet. The statue was designed by the French sculptor Frederic Bartholdi and was given by France to the USA to commemorate the centennial of US independence in 1876. France raised funds, by popular subscription to pay for the statue; US donors financed the pedestal and installation of the monument. President Grover Cleveland dedicated the work on October 28, 1886. The statue, the island, and nearby Ellis Island were declared a national monument in 1924. The statue formed of copper sheets riveted to an iron framework, is one of the largest in the world. It measures 93.5 m from the bottom of the pedestal to the tip of the torch.  Its head is reachable by staircase or emergency lift. The statue weighs 250 tons. Originally conceived as a gesture of international friendship, the statue has become a global symbol of freedom, marking the arrival of millions of immigrants to the United States.

Steven Paul Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs, the co-founder, chairman and CEO of Apple Inc, was the pioneer of the personal computer revolution. He is the foster son of a car mechanic Paul Jobs and Clara jobs. His mother taught him how to read and write before he went to the elementary school. He became famous through the marketing of Apple computers. In 1985, Jobs left Apple after losing a power battle. He then founded NeXT, a computer platform development company. After returning to Apple as an adviser, he brought back Apple to profitability from the verge of bankruptcy. He supervised the development of iMac, iTunes, iPod, iPhone and iPad. The success of these products and services helped Apple to become the world’s most valuable company. Jobs has changed people’s perspective computer, and how they use it and communicate with each other. Hence i-Books, i-Phones, i-Pods and i-Pads have become extremely popular. It is he who made Wi-Fi a standard feature of every laptop. So Jobs’ dream to be anywhere anytime became a reality. Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios. He became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company. In fact, he has been highly acclaimed as a visionary leader in the electronic field of computers and consumers.

 

 My most favourits song
There are many songs that appeal to my mind. In fact, the list of my favourite songs is rather long. But if I am asked to choose my most favourite song, I have to mention just one that comes to my mind instantly. The song is known as ‘Dhana dhanyo pushpo bhora’. This song is written and composed by the great poet and lyricist Dwijendralal Roy, popularly known as D.L. Roy. This is a song of patriotism which reflects the glory of our motherland. This is one of the most beautiful patriotic songs I have ever heard. It is said in the song that our motherland is the queen of all the lands on this earth and it is made of dreams and enfolded with memories. The song is a tribute to the matchless natural richness of our motherland. Throughout the song we have vivid descriptions of the wonderful natural blessings, love and affection that we enjoy in this land. The song ends with the yarning that this land that nurtured us from our birth will be the place of our final breath on earth. A sense of pride fills me when I listen to this composition. I salute my motherland as I listen to this song. It depicts our love and respect for our own country and nation. There is one more reason why this song is so close to my heart. I grew up listening to this song. Every time I listen to this song, I go back to my mother’s lap and hear her melodious voice singing ‘Sokol desher rani she je amar jonmobhmi’.

 

Deforestation

Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation means cutting down trees at random. According to the ecologists, for live able environment there should be forest on the 25% land of the total land area. In Bangladesh there is 16% forest of the total land. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel or timber, while cleared land is used for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. Trees are useful to us in various ways. They are also a great source of food, vitamins and furniture and they help to prevent drought and floods. To draw quick profit from trees, men cut them down in large numbers. This destruction disturbs our ecological balance. It leads to soil erosion and deprives us of fruit and timber and causes economic loss. Trees play a pivotal role in maintaining ecological balance. Trees produce oxygen and receive carbon dioxide. In absence of trees carbon dioxide is increasing worldwide. As a result there is global warming. The sea level is rising. Any time in future the earth may be engulfed by seas. So, we have to realize the bad effects of deforestation. In fact, if deforestation goes on, our country will be changed into a desert. The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. So, we have to educate our common people and to persuade them to abstain from cutting down trees. We should create awareness among the general people about the evils of destroying forests and motivate them to plant more and more trees. Otherwise the forests of our country will slowly disappear and we will be in great miseries. So, I think every man and woman should plant at least a tree every year.

 

Physical exercise

Physical exercise is the performance of some activity in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and overall health. There are various forms of physical exercise such as – walking, swimming, and riding, running, as well as playing cricket, football, hockey, badminton, tennis and various forms of gymnastics. But all forms of exercise are not equally suitable to all of us for the young all kinds’ games such as cricket, football, hockey, badminton, tennis are quite good. For the women badminton, table tennis, are quite nice. On the other hand, walking is good for the weak and the old. Without physical exercise not any can take pleasure in good health. Physical exercise confers some other profit too. It keeps us free from diseases and makes us physically strong and healthy. We need a sound body and a sound mind in order to live to fine. It is physical exercise which permits us to have a sound mind in a sound mind body. “Build up your body if you want to build up your mind”, was the dialogue of the ancient Greeks. It takes our mind away from the drudgery of work and fills it with joy. It gives us fresh energy, refresher our mind and helps us to return to work with renewed vigor. It increases our longevity too. It ensures us healthy and happy life. It prolongs our life and keeps our body and mind fit for work. It also teaches us the code of discipline and reliability. We should take some sort of physical exercise regularly. We should also remember that morning and evening are the best time for talking physical exercise. And no exercise should be taken in empty stomach or immediately after talking meal.

 

 

Bangla New Year/ Pohela Boishakh

In Bengali, Pohela stands for ‘first’ and Boishakh is first month of Bengali calendar. The festival is celebrated according to the Bengali Calendar. Bangla New Year’s festivities are closely linked with rural life in Bengal. Usually on Pohela Boishakh, the home is thoroughly scrubbed and cleaned; people bathe early in the morning and dress in traditional clothes. They spend much time of the day visiting relatives, friends and neighbours. Boishakhi fairs are arranged in many parts of the country. Various agricultural products, traditional handicrafts, toys, cosmetics, as well as various kinds of food and sweets are sold at these fairs. The fairs also provide entertainment, with singers and dancers staging jatra, pala gan, kobigan, jarigan etc. They present folk songs as well as baul, marfati, murshidi and bhatiali songs. Among other attractions of these fairs are puppet shows and merry-go-rounds. Panta Ilish – a traditional platter of leftover rice soaked in water with fried Hilsa a popular dish for the Pohela Boishakh festival in Bangladesh. The most colourful New Year’s Day festival takes place in Dhaka. Large numbers of people gather early in the morning under the banyan tree at Ramna Park where Chhayanat artists open the day with Rabindranath Tagore‘s famous song. A similar ceremony welcoming the new year is also held at the Institute of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka. Students and teachers of the institute take out a colourful procession and parade round the campus. Social and cultural organisations celebrate the day with cultural programmes. Newspapers bring out special supplements. There are also special programmes on radio and television. Pohela Boishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal one’s class, religion, or financial capacity.

 

A Birthday Party

birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored. In our country rich people are seen to celebrate this day festively .In this day, the drawing room is beautifully decorated. Friends, relatives, well-wishers are invited on this occasion. A special cake is ordered for celebrating this day. My birthday cake was in the shape of a chess board and looked very tempting. Besides, different kinds of delicious dishes are prepared. At the appointed time the invited guests begin to come and are welcomed by the person for which the day is being celebrated. At the appointed time the time the person concerned merrily cuts the cake. A round of applause follows. Plates full of delicious food items are then handed round. Everybody falls to with a good deal of zest. The eating is accompanied by a lot of taking and giggling. Camera is clicked on. After the meal, jokes may be made. Then the presents given by the invited guests may be unpacked one by one. And the person concerned expresses his or her gratitude to the guests. And the party may be rounded off with a chorus “ Happy birthday to you”.

A trade fair

A trade fair is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities.  International trade fair is such a fair where goods of many countries of the world are displayed and sold within a fixed time. The event is expected to provide an immense opportunity both for buyers and sellers to establish new business contacts. A wide range of products including textile & garments, leather & leather goods including footwear, machinery equipment pharmaceuticals,carpets,chemical& allied products, cosmetics & beauty aids, dairy products, electrical and electronic items, food stuff, gift & novelty items,handicrafts, household appliances, furniture, building materials, sports goods, sanitary ware, toys and stationery and watches, clocks & jewellery will be displayed at the fair. International trade fair  of Bangladesh is held at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar just north side of Sngsad Bhaban. Many foreign countries come to participate in this trade fair. Specially China, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Iran, Thailand, Japan, Korea and many other countries join in this fair with their varied commodities. I went their to observe and purchase some national an international commodities. Of course, I had also latent desire to com close contact with culture and things of foreign countries. I enjoyed my self well in Iternational Trade Fair. It will remain ever fresh in my mind.

 

 

Television

Television is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any live programme from the remotest part of the world. Television can display many programmes at a time. Satellite TV has added a new dimension in our oriented life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and articles. So we can easily collect educative information of agriculture, science and technology, politics, education, business, invention etc. Television helps us widespread the sight and outlook of the society. Coming to contact with the western societies, we are getting the opportunities to enrich our society and ourselves. But on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress-pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerns. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation. So, we all should be conscious of that.

Load Shedding

Load-shedding is the suspension of electricity supply on certain lines when demand is greater than the generation. It occurs when the generation of power is less than the demand. It has become a very common affair in our daily life these days. In the modern world electricity plays a very important role in regulating our life. Any interruption in the supply of this vital item of energy can put the whole system out of order. In our country there is hardly any area which is not affected by load shedding. It creates many problems of far-reaching consequences in the economic and social development of the country. Most of the mills and factories become idle and for this reason industrial production declines and workers are retrenched. Social works and activities cannot go in order. Students cannot study properly because of the failure of electricity. During load shedding they are to study in dim candlelight. The housewife gropes in the darkness in the kitchen. The shops are to close down before the closing time. Spectators in the cinema hall spend hours in stuffy suffocation for load shedding. All types of productions stop and the entire life comes to a standstill during the period of load shedding. So, proper steps should be taken to stop load shedding. By establishing more power plants, power houses and by stopping unplanned distribution of electricity, illegal connection and reducing system loss, we can solve this problem.

 

 

A street beggar

One who begs for alms from street to street is called a beggar. The beggar is a common sight in Bangladesh. Beggars are of different kinds and description. Some are old, some are young. Some can walk, some limp, a few move on push carts. There are singing beggars as well as whining beggars. Begging is regarded as a serious social problem because it encourages idleness and aversion to work. There are some beggars who are professionals. These are idlers. They find it easier to beg than work. But majority of the beggars are homeless and hungry. Nobody employs them. They suffer and ultimately become unfit for work. The first thing that begging creates in a beggar is the loss of his sense of honor. There is no certainty in a beggar’s life. The only certain thing in his life is that each day will be full of misery. He does not have any definite place to live in. His home is wherever he sleeps. There are no fixed hours for his work. If the weather is inclement he suffers most. The fortune of a beggar lies in his capacity to approach people. In fact, he is a man without fortune. He looks forward to the days of religious festivals when people are more charitable than other days. Reasons for begging are many. The unemployment problem and poverty are the two main reasons. Moreover, labour is not always viewed as dignified. Arrangement should be made to turn them into a working force.

 

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 Sound pollution or Noise pollution

When the exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears, it creates noise pollution. Today it is one of the talked topics of the day. It has reached an unbearable level. The unnecessary use of powerful vehicular horns is the main source of sound pollution in the City. The other sources are aircraft noise and rail noise. Besides transportation noise, other sources are office equipment, factory machinery, appliances, power tools, lighting and audio entertainment systems. Construction equipment also produces noise pollution. Besides, faulty vehicles, construction sites, loud speaker and thousand of workshops let out loud noises round the clock. This sound pollution damages millions of children’s power of hearing. Sound pollution is so much harmful that it can cause a wide range of malfunctions in the human body including heart attack, high-blood pressure, chronic depression, respiratory disorders etc. Noise leads to emotional disturbances, however, are difficult to measure. Irritating noise at work place reduces concentration efficiency and working capacity. We should take necessary measures to control sound pollution. By developing public awareness and careful awareness and careful town planning sound pollution can be controlled. Strict law should be enforced regarding sound pollution. Use of hydraulic horns should be banned strictly.

 

Air pollution

Air pollution is actually the addition of any harmful substances to the atmosphere, which causes the damaging of the environment, human health and the quality of life. Air is the most important element of human environment. Man cannot live a single moment without it but we do not think it is we who pollute this most vital element. Clean air is essential for life. Air is polluted in many ways. With the development in industry, came along the increase in air pollution, which occurs inside homes, schools, offices even in the countryside. Man makes fires to cook his food, to make bricks burns effuse, melts pitch for road construction and burns wood. All these things produce heavy smoke and this smoke pollutes air. Railway engines, power houses, mills and factories use coal and oil. Buses, trucks and cars use petrol and diesel oil. Again all these things create smoke and cause air pollution. The most serious air pollution occurs in big industrial areas where there are many mills and cars plying the street every day. Sometimes men in industrial area become so sick by inhaling polluted air that they cannot be cured. So proper measures and steps should be taken to prevent air pollution. Consequently there has been an increase in the death rates resulting from various diseases caused by air pollution varying from breathing problem to lung cancer. Air pollution does not only affect people but it also damages the whole ecological system in which plants and animals are harmed as well.

 

 

 

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa is remembered by the world for her selfless service to the poor and the sick. Mother Teresa was born in Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. At the age of twelve, she realised that what she wanted to do most of all, was to help the poor. She decided to train for missionary work and came to India at the age of nineteen to join the Sisters of Loretto, an Irish community of nuns with a mission in Kolkata. In 1928 she took her initial vows as a nun. From 1929 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls disturbed her. In 1948, Sister Teresa became Mother Teresa. In the same yea, she became an Indian citizen. She left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poor in the slums of Kolkata. She had no money so she started an open-air school for homeless children. Soon she was joined by many voluntary helpers. Help flowed in from various authorities. This made it possible for her to start her own order ‘The Missionaries of Charity’ to love and take care for those persons whom nobody was prepared to look after. Now the Missionaries of Charity are working in 125 countries with more than 750 centers. She persuaded the people that leprosy is not contagious. She founded Nirmol Hridoy, Sishu Bhava, Mahatma Gandhi Leprosy Ashram and many other organizations. Mother Teresa was awarded the Padma Shri and Bharat Ratna. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1979. She passed away in 1997. Though she is no more, she has left a message behind: ‘faith and compassion can heal the world’.

 

 

 

A Village fair

Village fair is an annual affair in Bangladesh and is a great event in the life of the villagers. It is generally held on the occasion of some religious festivals or some local important events. It is an occasion for show, sale of various goods and entertainments. It is held in some open place, either on the bank of river or in the yard of a temple. Some fair also sits in an open field under a big ancient tree or in the market place, or by the side of a big road. A village fair is an occasion of great joy and excitement among the villagers. Village fair is a kind of exhibition in miniature of hand made things. The rural artisans and craftsmen make various useful articles which are brought to the fair and offered for sale. It thus acts like a market for cottage industries. Small traders come from far and near to sell their goods. They bring clothes of various kind, ready-made garments, cheap fancy goods, dolls, utensils, sweets and other things. There are many forms of amusement in a village fair. Travelling jatra parties, Circus parties, magic shows, merry go rounds mockfights, jarigan (song) are additional attraction of a fair. Cinema parties also show picture to the people. But the largest crowd gathers around the place where jugglers show their feats. There are the dancing of dolls and feats of skill done on ropes and bamboos. Some of these are really wonderful. A village fair is a much looked-for occasion for all. Everybody waits for this fair with hope and attends it with profound pleasure.

The Necessity of Learning English

We need to learn English because we live in a global village. There is no alternative to learning English to lead a decent life and to prepare ourselves for global challenges. Statistics show that 350 million people speak English as a first language and another 300 million use it as a second language. It is the official or semi-official language in more than 60 countries and of many international organizations.Today more than 80% of all information in the world’s computer is in English. For many reasons, English has achieved the prestige of being global language. English has become the only medium for international communication. Now- a- days not only for international purposes but also for national reasons English is a must. When we look for any good job, advertisements often ask for proficiency in English. The electronic transfer of information regarding banking, financial activities and transaction of business-all are done through English language. We can easily see how English is necessary in every sphere of our lives. Bangladesh is a nation with a bright future, but lack of proficiency in English often appears to be a key hurdle. So, a nation- wide awareness needs to be established by the government to emphasize the necessity of learning English. If proper awareness is created, Bangladesh will reach the optimum levels of their potentials and thus can overcome language barriers.                 

 

Annual Sports Day of our college

 Annual Sports Day is an important event in the life of every school or college. Sports in themselves are an indispensable part of study. The Annual Sports Day of our college was held last week. It was held in our spacious college grounds. We decorated the playground and the college building very gorgeously. The Deputy Commissioner was the chief guest. A huge “shaman” was pitched on one side of the ground to accommodate guests. The whole play-ground had been decorated with flags, buntings and balloons a day earlier. The chief guest arrived in time. He took the salute. The sportsmen and women and O.K. cadets and U.S.A volunteers participated in the march past. The first event was a hundred meter race and then started long and high jumps. Simultaneously there were other actions like the Javelin and the Discus throw. The events which evoked the greatest interest were the 400 meter race, bicycle race, ‘chat’ race and hurdle race by girls. The tug-of-war between the science and arts faculty members was very interest­ing. The last item the musical chairs race in which the guests participated was vied amusing. The dope read out the achievements of the school in sports during the year. The chief guest gave away prizes to the winners. He highlighted the importance of sports in life and hinted at India’s dismal performance at the Olympics. He promised all help to the school in the matter of sports. The Principal then thanked him and other guests. The chief guest declared the sports meet closed and it was over.

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of the air surrounding the earth as a result of heat being trapped by environment pollution. Most climatologists believe that the greenhouse effect is the likely cause of this global warming. This is exemplified by the destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, by traffic that clogs up city streets, by the rapid growth of industry, the use of chlorofluorocarbons in packing and manufacturing commercial products, the use of detergents such as washing powder and washing-up liquid and so on. The oceans are also said to be affected both because of human waste and because of pollution caused by industrial waste products, oil seeping from damaged supertankers and from other maritime disasters. However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century, temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should be taken to put on end to the causes and sources emitting carbon dioxide. These are the measures we can take with a view to preventing global warming.

 

Pastime or Leisure pursuit

 Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.  

 Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. It is a very good habit which is very much essential for sound health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. Once you get into the habit of rising early, you are able to set a routine and that obviously leads to better productivity both at work and home. The man who rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air refreshes both body and mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning.  All these make them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works earlier. He had nothing to worry. He can earn more and become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. So, all of us should adopt a healthier way of living and reap those benefits.

 Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic is a kind of metallic as well as fatal poison. Arsenic pollution means arsenic contaminated water. It is found in the ground water level of the earth. When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened, stained, granulated and one time he suffers from gangrene. Our ignorant people are drinking arsenic polluted water from tube wells and are human being affected by arsenicosis. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. Arsenic is such a poison that is damages all the vital organs ore after another resulting in the subsequent death o the sufferer. The specialists should be sent to different parts of the country which are affected by Arsenic. They should identify the Arsenic contaminated tube-wells. The tube-wells which are polluted by Arsenic should be marked as red sign and the tube-wells of pure water should also be marked as greed sign. They should suggest another alternative easy way to find out pure drinking water. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Recently the World Bank authority has taken some effective steps to identify the arsenic affected countries of the world. An affected person should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. The govt. should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 The Postman

Postman is a person who delivers letters, money orders, post cards, parcels and other postal articles to the proper addressees. He is a familiar figure both in the towns and in the village. He usually wears a khaki dress and carries on his soldiers a bag. Though a postman is a low-great employee of the postal department, he performs a responsible job. His daily work begins with the sorting out of letters, parcels, money orders etc. in the post office. After having finished this job in the post office, he goes out on his beat to deliver them to their addressees. A town postman often drops letters into letterboxes or pushes them through some opening of the door. A village postman generally goes on his beat twice or thrice a week. A postman is really good man and a good friend to us. The postman is a very important person in our society, though he does not enjoy a good social status. When he brings letters of good news, we become happy. He renders and great service to the society. He is such a great friend to us that everybody we expect his nock on the door. He behaves amiably with all. The economic condition of a postman is very miserable. Though he works very hard he gets a very small salary. With it, he cannot maintain his family decently. So he leads a miserable life. No doubt he serves the society as well as the country greatly in the field of postal communication. He should be given good salary so that he can lead a better life and serve us well.

 The 21st February

International mother language day

 21st February of the year is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day. The 21st of February, a red letter day, is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. This day reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. They protected our mother tongue in exchange of their blood. This day has given us the freedom to speak in our mother tongue. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. It is also observed as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. The put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

 

A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

 

 

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

 

Good Health

Good health means the soundness of body and mind. The body which is free from all sorts of diseases is considered to be healthy. It is the result of living in accordance with the natural laws, pertaining to the body, mind and environment. These laws relate to fresh air, sunlight, balanced diet, regular exercise, rest, relaxation and sleep, cleanliness internal and external, right attitudes of mind, good habits and good patterns of living. One can keep good health by way of observing the rules of health, eating a balanced diet and living a disciplined life. But unfortunately, many people of our country do not get the food they need for good health. While the rich and educated people of our country are conscious of the rules of health, the bulk majority of the common people are ignorant of them. They seem to have no sense of hygiene and sanitation. As a result, they suffer terribly because of their ill-health. Moreover, life has become complicated in this age of technology. And the complexities of life have an adverse impact on our health. Frozen and artificial rather than fresh and natural food make us fall prey to various serious ailments (অস্বাস্থ্য) causing great damage to our health and happiness.  So, to keep in good health we need an environment which is free from air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and menus pollution. I thoroughly believe in the fact that simple and carefree life is conducive to good health. Preservation of health should be the primary duty of mankind.

Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day is celebrated to honor all mothers, thank them for their efforts in giving them life, raising them and being their constant support. Mothers Day came into being due to the efforts made by Ms Julia Ward Howe and Ms Anna Jarvis. In our country Mother’s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May with joy and devotion. In observance of the day discussion programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs and cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the capital city. Television channels air special programs, and newspapers publish special features and columns to mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers and gifts featuring mothers are in high demand at the shops and markets.Young children get especially excited about Mother’s Day and put a lot of effort into making cards and presents for their Mums. For mothers, it is like having a second birthday. It is common for children to cook for their mother so she can have breakfast in bed. She also receives presents, flowers and cards. Mother is a creative and caring woman. She takes time to teach us things like how to read and how to write.  My mother cooked special dishes for us. Actually the celebration of Mother’s Day is the external expression of gratitude of a child to its loving mother.

Book Fair

A fair is the display of different items of necessary things for the consumers and buyers. Therefore, it does the same purpose as it looks for the reader’s interest. It spreads the message vie books are our best friend and it makes our life glorious. The largest book fair in our country is the book fair held in February to observe the Language Movement Day in the Bangla Academy premises. More than hundred of pavilions were set up. The stalls were decorated beautifully to draw the attention of the readers. All sorts of books, text books, fictions, children books, religious books, story books, novels, books on various dramas, books on poems, autobiographical books, books on science and technology, books on raising social awareness, etc. are usually available in a book fair. A book fair becomes crowded specially in the evening. The renowned artists, poets and intellectuals gather there and take part in the seminars and cultural programmes. A book fair promotes the publication of books to spread education and widen the sphere of our knowledge.  It also inspires the young readers for reading books. Some writers are also seen sitting in the stalls and their fans gather there for autographs. Even some stalls are found in a book fair to sell snacks, cigarettes and trifling items of daily necessities. Sometimes in a book fair some unpleasant incidents take place for the evil motive of the miscreants. In fact, a book fair is considered to be an occasion of great festivity to the book-lovers.

An ideal teacher/A good teacher

Generally a teacher is judged whether he is good or bad according to the temperament of the students. But an ideal teacher must have some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. A good teacher is one who knows the art of teaching. He is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. An ideal teacher treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistakes, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his student realise his mistake. An ideal teacher is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He does not allow us to be lazy. He makes a simple living but his thinking is great. He influences our young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school.

 

  

My Leisure pursuit or Pastime

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time.  Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. I need to work to live but at the same time I cannot work continuously. I need leisure to be recharged. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. I pass my leisure either playing in the field or gossiping with friends. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor games are the types that I usually do in my leisure. Occasionally, I select walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as my leisure activities. I also like to sing and dance. In the holidays, I usually sleep a lot and pass my free time visiting friends, neighbor, relatives etc. Spending time with family and friends strengthens relationships and thereby strengthens the society as a whole. Inspite of getting a bit time to spare, I want to use it effectively. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. It revives and gives me a new life. However, like others one activity that is common is watching television at night. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.

How to become a good citizen

A good citizen is one who properly fulfills his or her role as a citizen. Human beings are used to living under laws and patterns that are dictated to us by society, but following those patterns does not make us good citizens. To be a good citizen, firstly one has to prepare oneself to do good work in society.To become so, in addition to food shelter, company, etc, one needs knowledge, skills and to change attitudes. Being knowledge based society, we should have knowledge about our country, government, history, tradition, culture and religion. Besides, one must be able to apply one’s knowledge to do good things practically. Finally, knowing and doing things will bring about a change in one’s outlook towards others. Through regular group work it can be highly expected that there will be noticeable changes like freely mixing, disappearance of shyness, behaving in a democratic way.  It develops the attitude of helping and cooperating with others.Most importantly, these behavioural changes taking place in one inside the classroom will be carried over outside the classroom, in real-life situations.Values and ethics should be inculcated to people as they mature, as that kind of information will built them for being good citizens.  

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

May Day/ International Worker’s Day

May 1st, International Workers’ Day, commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world, and is recognized in most countries. It is the day of establishing the legal right to the workers of the world. This day is memorable to the owners of the world for their defeat against the working class people. All  the  privileges  workers  enjoy  today came  about  due  to  the  sacrifice  of  the  workers  in 1886. The history behind it is very sorrowful. On May 3, 1886, some workers gathered in demand of a minimum wage, safety laws and eight hours work day. Police fired in the crowd of strikers at the Mc Comick Harvest Machine, Chicago. Here at least one person was killed and some others were seriously wounded. At the beginning of Industrial revolution people had to work long hours both by day and at night. It was simply inhuman. It stopped when all labourers stood up. The event of May Day 1886 is a  reminder  that  workers  will  continue  to  be  exploited  until  they  stand  up  and  speak  out  to  gain better  working  conditions,  better  pay  and  better  lives.  In fact, May Day is a milestone of snatching away the rights from the blood-sucking owners by the exploited workers of the cosmos. The sacrifices of so many people cannot be forgotten or we’ll end up fighting for those same gains all over again. This is why we should celebrate May Day with profound respect.

 

 Pastime

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.Pastime or Leisure pursuit

 

 

A School Magazine

A school magazine is an annual publication containing the literary works and other information of a school mostly written and contributed by the students. It is published once a year. In order to conduct the work of publication of the school magazine, at first a magazine committee is formed with the Head master as the Chairman and chief patron. The editor, business editors and the assistant proofreaders are selected from the students. A magazine fund is also made up of the school ‘Magazine Fee’. The editor invites writings both in Bangla and English. The students of the school submit their articles to the notified persons at the notified time.Then, after proper scrutiny, the best ones are selected for publishing. Generally, the magazine has two sections-Bangla and English. There are messages from the Head teacher and the secretary of the school, annual reports, essays, short stories, short plays etc in it. It also contains jokes, quizzes and puzzles. The young writers get immense pleasure and confidence when they can see their writings in print. So, they feel encouraged to build themselves as poets, play-wrights, essayists and artists. It plays an important role in one’s school life. It is a forum through which our Juvenile learners can express the green ideas and imagination of their mind. Besides, it promotes team-spirit, fosters to express the dormant power of thinking as well as writing of the young learners. The sight of a magazine reminds the old boys of their sweet bygone school days. The school magazine of the school In fact, the school magazine is the first stepping stone to flourish themselves as future writers and poets.

 

Pahela Baishakh

In our Bengali year we celebrate Pahela Baishakh on the first Baishakh every year. As it is one of our festival days, it is celebrated with traditional festivities across the country. On this day different types of people of different social classes come out from their respective residence and enjoy the carnival enthusiastically and publicly because it is a public holiday. Traders and shopkeepers open halkhata and offer sweets to their customers and clients with a view to satisfying them keeping the age-old tradition. At the very dawn they go outside to celebrate Pahela Baishakh eating panta vath and hilsha fish. Most of the girls adorn themselves wearing fresh dress and flowers in their locks. Young and adult boys like to sing with the traditional musical instruments like ektara, dotara, bamboo-flute, sarinda etc. and somebody likes to wear mask of different things. Different socio-cultural organisations draw up elaborate programmes to celebrate Pahela Baishakh. The day’s first programme begins at dawn at Ramna Batamul where Chhayanat, a leading cultural organisation, organises it. Bangla Academy, Shilpakala Academy, Bulbul Lalitakala Academy, Jatiya Press Club, Liberation War Museum, Bangladesh National Museum, Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University and many other organisations bring out colourful processions with festoons, placards, posters, banners, masks etc. Bangladesh Betar, BTV, ETV telecast different lively programmes describing and showing the festival activities of Pahela Baishakh. We can’t but memorise this day with great pleasure.

 

Landing on the moon

In the history of human civilization, landing on the moon is an epoch making achievement. Before landing on the moon, most of the people of the world thought that nobody could go to the moon. On July 16, 1969 Armstrong along with Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins departed for the moon in Apollo 11, the space craft which was used to reach the moon. On July 20, 1969, the Lunar Module, Eagle, landed on the moon, in a place called the Sea of Tranquillity. Commander Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. As he stepped off the ladder and put his foot on the moon’s surface, he said, ‘One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.’ Armstrong was joined on the moon by Buzz Aldrin, and together they spent two and a half hours on the moon’s surface. They performed a number of experiments and collected rocks and soil to bring back to Earth. They left an American flag on the moon. This historic visit was broadcast live on TV to the world, watched by approximately 600 million people.The top part of the Lunar Module Eagle took them back to the Command Module Columbia, which had remained in orbit around the moon, piloted by Michael Collins, while they explored. These three astronauts have become world famous heroes because of their great achievements. It proves that man can conquer anything if he wishes and the impossible task of today would become possible by tomorrow. History will always remember them.Their names are written with golden letters in the history of space technology.

 

 

Traffic Jam

When the road is blocked with so many vehicles and we cannot move forward, we call it traffic jam. Generally in capital city and other divisional cities traffic jam is a common phenomenon. There are various causes of traffic jam. In proportion to our population roads have not increased. The drivers are not willing to obey the traffic rules. Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. The people of our country often park their vehicles on improper places. Many persons set shops both sides of the road. So vehicles cannot move freely and cause traffic jam. When we fall in a traffic jam, we feel bored. We lose many working hours of our life. As a result we are lagging behind. We feel much helpless and frustrated when we get stuck in a traffic jam. Many people fail to attend their office duty in time. The worst victims are the patients carried in the ambulances to hospitals and clinics. The transportation of the daily commodities gets delayed. To stop traffic jam, we must make more wide roads and flyovers. Widening the streets, making flyovers at the main crossings, reducing the number of rickshaws are mentionable. Well planned spacious roads should be constructed. One way movement of vehicles should be introduced. Traffic rules should be followed properly. Above all growing public awareness is necessary for removing traffic jam. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. After doing all these things we can hope to have a good traffic system for our easy and comfortable movement. 

 

The 21st FebruaryInternational mother language day

21st February, a red letter day, is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day. It is also observed as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. It is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. This day reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. They protected our mother tongue in exchange of their blood. This day has given us the freedom to speak in our mother tongue. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. They put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

 

A village market

A village market is a temporary center for buying and selling goods to fulfill the need of the locality. It which may be either daily or weekly, is generally situated on the bank of a river or by the side of a highway or under a big tree. It begins in the afternoon and ends almost after the sunset. Most of the shops here are temporary but a few permanent shops also may be found here. Temporary sheds are made with straw and bamboo to protect the sellers from heat and rain. It is a place where they go to buy or sell the goods which are needed for their everyday life. Food grains such as rice, dal, wheat, etc. are sold in one row. Vegetables are sold in another row. Fish, meat and dried fish are sold in a different row. Domestic materials, utensils, bangles, cloths and stationeries are sold in different stalls which stand in a special row. There are a few tea stalls. There are tailors who temporarily set up the tailoring machines to make new bags and to repair old bags. The villagers come not only to buy and to sell goods but also to meet with others. So, it can also be regarded as the biggest gathering place for the villagers. A village market with its economic value also bears social value. A village market has some disadvantages too. It is a noisy and unhealthy place. The pickpockets gather there. Besides due to lack of cleanliness, it often turns into an unhygienic place. Infact it is the backbone of the rural economy. Through this village market, people can certainly save their time and money and get their desired goods in this village market.

 

Our National Flag

The flag which denotes the freedom and sovereignty of a nation is known as a national flag. The national flag of Bangladesh is bottle green in color and rectangular in size with the length to width ratio of 10:6. It bears a red circle on the background of green. The color in the background represents the vitality, youthfulness and greenery of Bangladesh while the red circle symbolizes the rising sun and the sacrifice of lives in our freedom fight in the Liberation War of 1971. The national flag was designed by painter Kamrul Hasan. Its size is confined to10:6. It was first hoisted on the March 3, 1971 by ASM Abdur Rab at the historic ‘Bat tala’ in Dhaka University  campus. It is hoisted at govt. offices, semi-government, self-autonomous buildings, educational institutes etc everyday. But it is kept at half-mast on any national or international mourning days. Our glorious national flag was purchased at too great a price at the cost of a sea of blood. The national flag of Bangladesh is our pride. Our feeling about the flag is very sensational and respectful. When we see our national flag, our heart is fulfilled with joy and respect. We bow down our heads towards it. Our duty towards it should be responsible and sacrificial. We should take an oath that we must save the honor and dignity of this flag even instead of our lives. The flag is the source of spirit, hope and inspiration.

 

  

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 

 

Traffic Jam

 

When the road is blocked with so many vehicles and we cannot move forward, we call it traffic jam. Generally in capital city and other divisional cities traffic jam is a common phenomenon. Most often it occurs at office time and also at the time when the officer break. Sometimes it is so heavy that it blocks half a kilometre.  It kills our valuable time and our works are hampered. It causes great sufferings to the ambulance carrying dying patients and the fire brigade vehicles. There are various causes of traffic jam. The number of vehicles is greater than roads. The roads are also narrow and traffic control system is so poor. The drivers are not willing to obey the traffic rules. They often park their vehicles on improper places. Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. Many persons set shops both sides of the road. In big cities there are processions, agitations and demonstrations also. So vehicles cannot move freely and cause traffic jam. When we fall in a traffic jam, we feel bored. We lose money, petrol, diesel and many working hours of our life. As a result we are lagging behind. However, this problem can be solved by adopting some measures. To stop traffic jam, well planned spacious roads should be constructed. One way movement of vehicles should be introduced. Traffic rules should be impost strictly so that the drivers are bound to obey them. Sufficient traffic police should be posted on important points. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. Traffic rules should be followed properly. Above all our people should be made more conscious.

 

A School Magazine

 The school magazine is an annual or periodical publication of the school mostly written and contributed by the students and teachers. Almost every well established school publishes a magazine every year. It plays an important role in one’s school life as it highlights the various aspects of the school development programme. It is a forum through which our Juvenile learners can express the green ideas and imagination of their mind. In order to conduct the work of publication of the school magazine, at first a magazine committee is formed with the Headmaster as the Chairman and chief patron. The Headmaster selects the editor from among the teachers. Both teachers and students write in it. There are messages from the Headmaster and the secretary of the school, annual reports, essays, short stories, short plays, jokes, quizzes and puzzles and other writings relating to school affairs are published in the magazine. The editor at first invites writings from the teachers and the students for the magazine. After proper scrutiny and correction the best ones are selected and sent to the press for printing. The school magazine helps the young learners and writers to develop their latent faculties. It helps them develop their power of thinking and writing. One cannot write something without a clear judgment, imagination and good knowledge of the thing. School magazine provides a scope for writing independently. The young writers get immense pleasure and confidence when they can see their writings in print that can inspire one a lot to become a writer and a poet in later life. In fact, the school magazine is the first stepping stone for the future writers.

 

 

 

 

 

Independence Day of Bangladesh

March 26, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the West Pakistan rulers started to exploit শোষণ, cheat, and oppress জুলুম Bangladeshi people. After the massive attack beginning from the early hours of 26 March, 1971, the undisputed অবিসংবাদী leader of East Pakistan declared independence and told the countrymen to fight against the barbarian Pak Army. The day is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervour. As it is a national holiday, all offices, educational institutions, shops and factories remain closed on this day. People get up early morning by hearing the bombing sounds of gun. Coming with rallies and processions মিছিল, people of all walks of life place floral wreaths at the National Musolium at Savar to pay rich tributes শ্রোদ্ধাঞ্জলি to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. The country also witness a smartly dressed parade of defence forces, border guards, police, ansars and the VDP at the National Parade Ground. School children, scouts and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. Besides, various cultural programmes throughout the day highlighting the heroic struggle and sacrifice in 1971, tournaments including the exciting boat race are organised throughout the country on the day. Milad Mahfil was organized by the different mosque especially in the National Mosque Baitul Mukarram. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated আলোকিত to give the capital city a dazzling উজ্জ্বল look.This day certainly makes bridges between the spirit of Independence Day and the future generations. May Independence Day always be the spirit of prosperity of our nation.

Environmental pollution

Environmental pollution refers to any unexpected and abnormal change in chemical, physical and biological জীববিদ্যাসংক্রান্ত characteristicsবৈশিষ্ট্য in the environment. Now our environment is getting polluted every moment in many ways. Man makes fires to cook food, to make bricks, to melt tar for road construction and to do many other things. In major cities and towns motor vehicles, mills and factories are creating fume and smoke and they pollute air. Railway engines and powerhouses create smoke by burning coal and oil. Man pollutes water another vital element of the environment by throwing waste into it. Chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds, and thus pollute water. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers, canals and seas and water is polluted. Moreover, water vehicles, unsafe drains and unsanitary latrines are also responsible for water pollution. The noise of motor vehicles, mills and factories, aeroplanes, domestic appliances যন্ত্রপাতি, radios, cassette players, CDs, televisions etc pollutes sound and this polluted sound affects our hearing. Forests and trees are being cut down on a large scale. So, the ecosystem of the environment is now in great danger. It gives rise to ecological imbalance and brings about natural disasters in this world. This could horribly reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy wildlife, raise sea level and thereby may cause floods. We should plant more trees and work for forestation. Cutting down trees and hill should be restricted. To prevent pollution, government as well as all the conscious people should come forward to develop civic sense to reduce all kinds of pollution.

Climate Change

Climate change refers to an increase in average global temperatures due to the consequence of unchecked pollution. Most climatologists opine that boh natural events and human activities are contributing to the increase in average temperatures surrounding the earth. This is caused primarily by the increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2). However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. The destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, traffic that clogs up city streets, the rapid growth of industry, the use of CFCs, detergents, maritime disaster, human and industrial waste products etc are highly responsible for this change. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century; temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Pragmatic as well as drastic steps should be taken to create awareness to stop the causes and sources of emitting carbon dioxide. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. These are the measures the whole world needs to be concerned with a view to preventing global warming.

A Road Accident

Among daily’s unfortunate occurrences, street accident is very common. Despite all efforts to prevent accident, it happens every day. Ours is a very over-populated country. Here roads are very busy and narrow. That is why street accidents take place very frequently. Careless driving is also responsible for this. Day before yesterday a terrible accident took place just before my eyes. It occurred in front of Dhaka College. I was going to the New Market. When I reached the college gate, suddenly I heard a scream of a boy. I found that a boy, who was crossing the Mirpur Road, was run over by a speedy truck. When the truck was a few feet away from him, the boy got puzzled and ran backwards and forwards. The driver tried desperately to hold the break but failed. The truck ran over the boy. He was crushed under the wheels of the truck and his body was changed into a lump of flesh. The truck was stopped. The passers-by crowded there. The boy was taken up from the pool of blood. A gentleman offered his car to carry the boy to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In the evening I came to know that the boy had breathed his last on way to the hospital, and I was greatly shocked at this. The truck along with the driver had been taken to police custody. But that horrible scene still haunts my mind. However, we all should always bear in mind that life is more valuable than time. Moreover, some proper steps should be taken and some strict rules should be introduced to stop street accidents. 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices, narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint or daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. So, all of us have to try to be an ideal student to reach the highest peak of the desired success.

A Winter Morning

Of the six seasons, winter is undoubtedly the coldest season of the year in Bangladesh. A morning in winter is misty and cold because of dense fog everywhere. Sometimes it is so dense that the sun rays can’t be seen.Things even at a little distance can hardly be seen. It causes disruption to the communication system. Few drops fall on leaves and blades of grass at night. They look like glittering pearls when the rays of the morning run falls on it. Sometimes shivering cold causes serious sufferings to people and animals. The poor have hardly warm clothes. They gather straw and dry leaves to make fire to warm them. The old and the children bask in the sun. Usually people get up late. In a winter morning people in Bangladesh enjoy different kinds of ‘pithas’. Delicious sweetmeats are also prepared with date juice. But a winter morning is a curse for the poor. They suffer much for want of warm clothes. The scene of a winter morning disappears as the day advances. The best time to visit Bangladesh is in winter when the weather is dry and fresh. It’s possible to observe and photograph a large number of migratory bird species. The Bengali month of Kartik, that is early winter, is celebrated by Jibanananda Das as a period that reveals the inner beauty and soul of Bengal. A winter morning has both advantage and disadvantage. My personal feeling about a winter morning is that it is a bane for the poor but a boon for the rich.

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

Greenhouse Effect

 Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of the air surrounding the earth as a result of heat being trapped by environment pollution. Most climatologists believe that the greenhouse effect is the likely cause of this global warming. This is exemplified by the destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, by traffic that clogs up city streets, by the rapid growth of industry, the use of CFCs in packing and manufacturing commercial products, the use of detergents and so on. The oceans are also said to be affected both because of human waste and because of pollution caused by industrial waste products, oil seeping from damaged supertankers and from other maritime disasters. However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century; temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should be taken to put on end to the causes and sources emitting carbon dioxide. These are the measures we can take with a view to preventing global warming.

Importance of games and sports

The ideal of a good and perfect life is to have a sound mind in a sound body. This is recognized by all as the best means of performing our duties. Body and mind should work at their best, and they cannot do so unless both are in good order. The best way to keep the limbs fit is to exercise them in sports and games of physical skill and strength. This indeed is the importance of games, there is no society, which has not its own special kinds of games. Sports and games supposed to be looked upon as a means of building up the body beautiful. Sports and games have now come to stay in our civilization as an essential feature of human activity, and their object is not merely fun, they also instill the sprit of discipline and team-work. Game like cricket, hockey and foot ball are popular because of the sprit of team work which they inspire. The discipline that gained in playing up games is invaluable in later life. It makes for a life of co-operation and team work which could be used for building up a great society and a nation. Our young man and woman should take active part in sports and games. It is good that our educational institution encourage sports and games by organizing matches and awarding prizes and trophies. The habit of taking part in games and sports is good in several ways. Apart from making us strong, healthy and fit, it teaches us how to use our energy in the right way. But all good things sometimes become bad. This is a strange but the true fact about human activities. Sports and games should be so organized that they will not interfere with studies of our youth. Life is not all sports. They are only a part, though a very important part.

The ways of keeping good health

Health is the condition of our body and mind. Good health means healthy body free from diseases. It is essential for everyone to lead a happy life. If we are not in good health, we cannot concentrate on any activity in our life. A proverb goes, ‘Health is Wealth’ It means health is equally valuable as gold or any other personal possessions. We may have vast wealth and property, but if we are not healthy we cannot enjoy them. To keep ourselves healthy, we have to do certain things. We have to eat a balanced diet.We must exercise regularly to keep our body fit for work. We should go to bed early at night and rise early in the morning. Peace of mind is another condition for good health. So we must not worry over small things of life. Hygiene is important for our good health because we cannot achieve anything physically, mentally or spiritually if we are unclean in our body, mind and soul. We must keep our body clean. We should have a bath every day and wash our hair regularly. This will keep the body and hair free from dirt and bacteria. Secondly, we should wash our clothes regularly. Dirty clothes give off bad smell and invite germs. We should wear socks and shoes when we go out to protect our feet from dust and germs. It is also important to wash our hands before meals and after using the toilet. We should brush our teeth twice a day, after breakfast and supper. We must also cut our nails regularly. Our drinking water must be pure. We can get pure water by boiling and filtering. Finally, we should keep our surroundings and environment clean. If we do and follow all the above things properly, we will be able to lead a happy, healthy, wealthy, comfortable and diseases free life.

 Michael Madhusudan Dutt

Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a popular Bengali poet and dramatist in the 19th-century, was born in Sagordari on the bank of the Kopotaksho River under Jessore district. From an early age, Dutt aspired to be an Englishman in form and manner. Though he was born in a sophisticated Hindu family, he took Christianity as a young man and adopted the first name Michael. In his childhood, he was recognised by his teachers as a precious child with a gift of literary talent. Since his adolescence he started believing that he was born on the wrong side of the planet, and that his society was unable to appreciate his intellect. He also believed that the West would be more receptive to his creative genius. Michael was an ardent follower of the famous English poet Lord Byron. So after adopting Christianity, he went to Europe and started composing poetry and drama almost entirely in English. They proved his higher level of intellectual ability. However, he failed to gain the right appreciation. With his utter frustrations he saw that he was not regarded as a native writer of English literature. Out of his frustration he composed a sonnet in Bangla “Kopotaksha Nad”, which earned him huge reputation in Bangla. Gradually he could realise that his true identity lies here in this Bengal and he was a sojourner in Europe. Afterwards he regretted his attraction for England and the Occident. He came to Bengal and devoted himself to Bangla literature from this period. He is the poet to write the first Bangla epic Meghand Badh Kabya. His lavish lifestyle, which included drinking, added to his financial difficulties and his health also began to fail. Sadly he died in 1873, and was given a Christian burial service.

May Day/ International Worker’s Day

May 1st, International Workers’ Day, commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world, and is recognized in most countries. It is the day of establishing the legal right to the workers of the world. This day is memorable to the owners of the world for their defeat against the working class people. All  the  privileges  workers  enjoy  today came  about  due  to  the  sacrifice  of  the  workers  in 1886. The history behind it is very sorrowful. On May 3, 1886, some workers gathered in demand of a minimum wage, safety laws and eight hours work day. Police fired in the crowd of strikers at the Mc Comick Harvest Machine, Chicago. Here at least one person was killed and some others were seriously wounded. At the beginning of Industrial revolution people had to work long hours both by day and at night. It was simply inhuman. It stopped when all labourers stood up. The event of May Day 1886 is a  reminder  that  workers  will  continue  to  be  exploited  until  they  stand  up  and  speak  out  to  gain better  working  conditions,  better  pay  and  better  lives.  In fact, May Day is a milestone of snatching away the rights from the blood-sucking owners by the exploited workers of the cosmos. The sacrifices of so many people cannot be forgotten or we’ll end up fighting for those same gains all over again. This is why we should celebrate May Day with profound respect.

 

 

 

Independence Day of Bangladesh

March 26, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the West Pakistan rulers started to exploit শোষণ, cheat, and oppress জুলুম Bangladeshi people. After the massive attack beginning from the early hours of 26 March, 1971, the undisputed অবিসংবাদী leader of East Pakistan declared independence and told the countrymen to fight against the barbarian Pak Army. The day is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervour. As it is a national holiday, all offices, educational institutions, shops and factories remain closed on this day. People get up early morning by hearing the bombing sounds of gun. Coming with rallies and processions মিছিল, people of all walks of life place floral wreaths at the National Musolium at Savar to pay rich tributes শ্রোদ্ধাঞ্জলি to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. The country also witness a smartly dressed parade of defence forces, border guards, police, ansars and the VDP at the National Parade Ground. School children, scouts and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. Besides, various cultural programmes throughout the day highlighting the heroic struggle and sacrifice in 1971, tournaments including the exciting boat race are organised throughout the country on the day. Milad Mahfil was organized by the different mosque especially in the National Mosque Baitul Mukarram. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated আলোকিত to give the capital city a dazzling উজ্জ্বল look. This day certainly makes bridges between the spirit of Independence Day and the future generations. May Independence Day always be the spirit of prosperity of our nation.

My roots

 

Human beings have roots but unlike the roots of the trees. They are invisible and lie in our minds. Our families, land of birth, relatives, our culture, traditions, or surroundings are our roots. It’s these roots that make a bond between us and family members, inlaws, friends, neighbours or even between us and the land where we were born and grew up. It’s our roots that develop our identity making us what we are. And whereever we stay, we have a continuous pull of our roots. Eveyone wants to share happiness on different festivals with their near and dear ones. So most of the people, who are living outside their home for different reasons have a strong desire to get back home during the vacations. As a result, there is a mad rush in the buses, trains, or launches for the home-bound people. This often causes transport accidents that take away many lives. However, it cannot stop people’s desire to meet their family, in-laws, or friends. Due to this pull of the roots, people rush for their homes in spite of serious hazards. When we lose that bond, we become rootless. Human beings, who do not have any root or contexts, do not have their own identity. Such persons are devoid of values, humanity, and social responsibilities. They don’t know where they are from, and/or where they are heading towards. This often makes them feel empty and lost. So in spite of forgetting our roots, we should cherish it in our core of heart for our own existence.

Board question JSC second paper

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Barisal Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: ─ 0.5×6=3

Drug addiction is now (a) — global problem. It has spread its poisonous claw ail over (b) — world. Frustration is (c) — main cause of drug addiction. Drugs bear (d) — terrible effect on (e) — human body. It kills a man little by little. No physician can stop the changes that lake place in the organs of (f) — addict

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: ─ 0.5×6=3
to of  since for  out  to

The moon is a very familiar figure (a) – all of us. She awakens the feelings (b) — love and tenderness in our beans. Even the infant in arms stretches (c) — its hands to grasp this beautiful object. Nor is her appeal confined (d) — only children. Ever (e) — the stirring of the poetic faculty in man, she has furnished a theme (f) — poets and artists

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─         1×4=4
A lad wished  to find out the ability of the boy.
 He Went  his desire to acquire knowledge.
The learned man expressed  to a famous teacher
devoted  himself in earning knowledge.
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ 1×4=4

“I’ve lost my tooth,” said Samira. “How ugly will I look!” “Don’t worry,” said Mina. “Just put your tooth into a rat’s hole and a rat will give one of its finest teeth.

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─ 1×5= 5

(a) Today corruption is very familiar term in Bangladesh. (Negative) (b) Corruption is the most dreadful weapon to destroy a Society (Positive) (c) It lies in every phase of our society. (Interrogative) (d) Some drastic steps have been taken against corruption. (Active) (e) Social awareness is very essential to resist corruption. (Interrogative)

  1. Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─ 0.5×6 =   3

father said to his son why are you making so late go to school now I am not going to school today I feel dizzy said his son

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ 0.5×8=4

Most students get (a) nerve about examinations. As a result, they often forget the answers they get by heart. They fail to answer the questions (b) proper. Many parent put undue (c) press on their (d) child. This in turn makes them all the more (e) tense. During the exam there are (f) invigilate. They are (g) teach who watch over the (h) exam.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms: ─0.5×8=4
give help supply bring play grow think be

The tree (a) — a major role for die welfare of human being. So, it (b) — said that tree is our life. We cannot (c) — of an environment without trees. The tree (d) — us in many ways. It (C) — us food, shelter, medicine etc. The tree (f) — us oxygen without which we cannot live. Fruit trees (g) — all over the country. Trees (h) — rains to keep the atmosphere cool and fresh.

 

Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose, you are Rahim/Rahima. Your friend, Tuhin has sent you a nice gift on your 13 birthday. Now, write an e-mail thanking him/ her for sending the gift. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words: ─ 12

“Duties of a Student”

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Sylhet Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: 0.5×6=3

My mother is (a) — very religious woman. She always advises me to follow (b) — path of (c) — truth and honesty. She bears (d) — good moral character. She is very kind to (e) — poor. She is (f) — ideal housewife.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: ─ 0.5×6=3
for to in with about after

Money is a must (a) — our life. But one should not run after because money those who hanker (b) — money cannot enjoy mental peace. Sometimes, it may lead one (c) ── some unexpected troubles. It also happens that greed (d) — money brings (e) — many problems. So, we should be contented (f) — what we have.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─ 1×4=4
Corruption    is increasing with the passages of time
It have to be aware of it
 People     A great problem in Bangladesh
    high time we stopped corruption
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ 1×4=4

Father said to Saima, “Read attentively in order to get GPA-5.” “I am reading seriously. Please pray to Allah for my success.” said Saima.  “May Allah bless you.”

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─ 1×5= 5

A flower is a glowing gift of nature. (a) Everybody likes flowers. (Interrogative) They are the symbol of love and beauty. (b) Flowers are used on different occasions. (Active) (c) The rose is the best of all flowers. (Positive) (d) It is a very beautiful flower. (Exclamatory) (e) It has both charm and commercial value. (Negative)

  1. Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─0.5×6 =   3

the old man said can you give me some food ive been starving for two days the maid said why do you beg cant you work

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ 0.5×8=4

Teaching is a noble (a) profess. In the classroom a good (b) teach acts like an (c) act. He teaches (d) moralamong the students. Moreover, he makes the students (e) dated. He also advises them to avoid (f) fair means in the examination hall. A teacher is thought to be the (g) build of a nation. So, he must be (h) selfish and devoted to his work.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms: ─ 0.5×8=4
begin attain cost form learn Remain respect show

(a) — good manners is an important part of our education. Our education (b) — incomplete if we do not (c) — good manners. In our behaviour with others, If we do not (d) — respect to them, they will not (e) —us. Good manners (f) — us nothing. Our children should (g) — good manners from the very (h) — of their life.

 Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose, you are Rafi / Rafia studying outside your home district. New, write an e-mall to your father asking for some money. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words: ─ 12

‘Newspaper.’

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Chittagong Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: 0.5×6=3

The main aim of (a) ── education is not only to pass exam get (b) — good job but also to gain knowledge and widen (c) — third eye. (d) — ideal student should realize (e) — real fact. Otherwise, he purpose of education will be (f) — incomplete one.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: ─ 0.5×6=3
of with from of to after

A poor but happy man suffers (a) — many problems. He is destitute many (b) — wealth He is also deprived (c) — the basic needs. He is often contented (d) — what he has. He does not run (e) — money. He likes (f) — lead a very simple life.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─ 1×4=4
Flood know our communication
It is in our country
 It often disrupts   a natural disaster
 We occur what flood do to us
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ 1×4=4

“Have you offered your prayer today?” said my father. I replied, “No, I have forgotten.” “Go to the prayer hall now. May the creator bless you.” said he.

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─  1×5= 5

(a) By reading books, we can enrich our minds. (Negative)

(b) Books contain noble thoughts of great men (Interrogative)

(c) Some books give us immense pleasure. (Passive)

(d) Books are greater than any other thing in the world. (Positive)

(e) Don’t you know about e-books? (Assertive)

  1. Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─ 0.5×6 =   3

what is time by your watch sir he said its half past nine i replied i want to go to  college he said

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ 0.5×8=4

Success in life depends on the proper (a) utilize of time. Those who waste their (b) value time in (e) idlereduce the time of their important work. (d) Punctual is another great virtue of human beings that (e) richthe (f) man life. If one takes lessons from the autobiography of (g) success persons, one will learn that they did not make any (h) waste of time.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms:    0.5×8=4
attain  form cost show respect begin  learn remain

Good manners (a) — an important part of our education. Our education (b) — incomplete if we do not (e) — good manners in our behaviour with others. If we do not (d) — respect to them, they will not (e) —us. Good manners (f) — us nothing. Our children should (g) — good manners from the very (h) — of their life.

Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose, you are Atik/Atiya and your e-mail address is aatik / aatiya91@yahoo.com. You are going to enjoy a picnic with some of your friends. Now, write an e-mall to your friend, Neela whose e-mail address is neela 1999@gmail.com inviting her to attend the picnic with you. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words. 12

“Duties of a Student”

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Jessore Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: 0.5×6=3

Mr Hassan is an English (a) — teacher. He is (b) — M.A. in English. He serves in (c) — famous institution. He tries to lead (d) — honest life. He is (e) — most favourite teacher to (f) ── students.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: ─ 0.5×6=3
to in from to by for

An honest man is true (a) — his word. He does not deviate (b) — the path of honesty. He knows that peace consists (c) — honesty. So, he does not fall a victim (d) — any greed. He has no ambition (e) — worldly things. He is loved (f)—all.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─ 1×4=4
We   is  sick by drinking polluted water.
Clean Water become  polluted in many ways
 Water     important  for our health
 Polluted water   harmful for us.
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ 1×4=4

Sakif said to his brother, “Where are you going? I want to go with you.”  “No, you cannot go with me. Stay at home and study attentively for the ensuing examination,” said his brother.

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─ 1×5= 5

(a) The idle only curse their fate. (Passive)

(b) They can improve their condition by working hard. (Interrogative)

(c) Everybody dislikes an idle man. (Negative)

(d) An idle student is never punctual to attend his classes. (Affirmative)

(e) An industrious student is better than an idle student. (Positive)

  1. Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─     0.5×6 =   3

havent you heard the name of kazi naznil islam very few poets in bengali literature are as famous as nazrul islam nazruls writings were full of hope and aspiration

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ 0.5×8=4

An ideal students is (a) care about his (b) responsible. He is a (c) follow of great men who became (d) successin (e) world life. He has (f) able to be successful because he is (g) merit and (h) industry.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms:  0.5×8=4
contribute kill  come flee be take get have

Today we (a) — a free nation. We (b) — lo take great pains to gain freedom. Our War of Liberation (e) — place in 1971. People of all walks of life (d)—- forward and (e) involved in the war directly or indirectly. Many a man (f) — in the battle field. They (g) — from the battle field. Rather all of them (h) — much to achieve independence.

Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose, you are Salman / Salma. Your friend is Nahian / Nuha. You are going to arrange a picnic in the next month. Now, write an e-mail inviting him / her to attend the picnic. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words: ─ 12

“A Journey by Boat”

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Rajshahi Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: (0.5×6=3)

Once I went to (a) — mango orchard.  One of my friends was (b) — owner of the orchard. While walking I found (c) — mango lying under (d) — tree.  (e) — mango was ripe. Seeing (f) — mango in my hand, my friend said, “It will taste sweet.”

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: (0.5×6=3)
for of from in with of

Once there was a rich man. He was not contended (a) ── what he had. But he knew that happiness lies (b) ─── contentment. Ambition (e) — worldly things made him unhappy. So he became devoid (d) — conscience and deviated (e) ─── the path of honesty. In fact, he forgot the real way (f)── being happy.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─ (1×4=4)
There   wanted fond of knowing his future
He was the capital of the king.
 An astrologer   visited to know his future from him.
 The king   a king
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ (1×4=4)

The father said to his daughter, “Do you know why I have sent you to school?” The daughter said, “Yes, I know. I have been sent to school to learn to read and write.”

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─( 1×5= 5 )

Usain Bolt, the world sprint champion, has become a legend in the history of race competition. (a) He ran the fastest of all in the last Olympic Games. (Positive) (b) Only he could break his own record (Negative) (c) He had to practise a lot for this. (Negative) He believes that practice makes a man perfect. He has become successful for his own effort and perseverance. (d) Now everybody knows him. (Interrogative) (e) He is called a hero for his achievement. (Active)

  1. Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─ 0.5×6 =   3

man is the greatest creation of almighty as he is very kind to us we should be grateful to him

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ 0.5×8=4

(a) Literacy is a curse. For having (b) adequate institutions all citizens of our country do not get proper (c) educate. As a result they remain ignorant about nutrition, technology etc. and so they suffer from (d) nutrition and many other problems. The (e) govern should take some steps to eradicate the problem. Because, no (f) develop is possible keeping most of the people (g) literate. Illiterate people do not know how to use scientific method in their (h) respect fields.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms: ─   0.5×8=4
start find  reach  meet arrive come reach arrive

He (a) — my office before the train (b) — at the station. After (c) — my office, he (d) — me. The Headmaster and Secretary of our school (e) – by the train. So, we (f) — for the station to receive him. No sooner had we (g) — at the station, than we (h) — our Headmaster.

 Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose you are Jahin / Jarin. You have a friend named Ortho / Orpa. Now, write an e-mail to your friend inviting him / her to spend the summer vacation in your village. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words: ─ 12

‘The Wonders of Modern Science’

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Dhaka Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

 

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: ─ 0.5×6=3

Lutfur is (a) — street boy. He is (b) — orphan. He lives in the street of Chittagong (c) — city. One day he went to Newmarket. He saw a fruit-seller selling different kinds of (d) — fruit. There he found (e) — old man buying some apples. (f) — apples looked very fresh.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: ─ 0.5×6=3
to in from on of to

A good student is fond (a) ── books. He is attentive (b) — his studies. He always tries (c) — cut a good figure (d) — the exanimation. He never deviates (e) — his duties because he knows every success depends (f) — hard work.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─         1×4=4
A piece of land   was was given to the class 8 students.
It gave about twelve metres long and six metres wide.
 The Headmaster     chosen by the Headmaster and Mr Anis Ahmed.
 The land     it to them.
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ 1×4=4

“Have you taken your meal, Tania?” said the mother. “Yes, I have taken my meal,” replied Tania.  “Will you eat any fruit? Eat some mangoes,” the mother said.

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─   1×5= 5

(a) Cricket is a very exciting game. (Make it Exclamatory)

(b) People of all ages enjoy this game. (Make it Passive)

(c) At present u is one of the most popular games in our country. (Make it Comparative)

(d) Everybody likes a cricketer. (Make it Negative)

(e) Would that I could be a great cricketer! (Make it Assertive)

  1. Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─ 0.5×6 =   3

have you bought the pen said  selina  yes said salam the pen is very interesting

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ 0.5×8=4

(a) Honest is the best of all virtues.  An honest man is always (b) truth. He is never (c) harm anybody. Nobody is (d) satisfied with him. On the other hand, everybody (e) like a (f) honest man. People remember an honest man (g) respectful even after his death. Without honesty peace and happiness is (h) possible.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms: ─ 0.5×8=4
see  destroy  loses causes  cut pose plant increase

Global warming is (a) — day by day. It is mainly (b) — by the destruction of forests. Every day we are (c) — down trees recklessly but do not (d) — a single tree. As a result, wild animals are (e) — their living places.  Many birds and animals are (f) — no more. This loss (g) — threat to our environment by (h) — the ecological balance.

Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose, you are Salam / Salma. Your best friend Arif / Arifa made an excellent result in the last JSC Examination. Now, write an e-mail to him / her congratulating on his / her brilliant success. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words: ─ 12

“A Journey You Have Made”

 

 

 English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Comilla Board,2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article: (0.5×6=3)

Truthfulness is (a) — greatest of all (b) — virtues which make (c) — man really great. If we don’t cultivate (d) — habit of speaking (e) — truth, we can’t command (f) — confidence of others.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate preposition given in the box below: (0.5×6=3)
after for about with after to

One should not run (a) — money because those who hanker (b) — money can’t enjoy mental peace. Sometimes, it may lead one (c) — some unexpected troubles. It also happens that greed (d) — money brings (e) — many problem. So, we should be contented (f)—what we have.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table: ─         (1×4=4)
Socrates   was to educate people
He didn’t the wisest philosopher and teacher of his time.
  His mission  die a natural death.
 killed by the rulers of Athens.

Change the following passage into indirect speech: ─ (1×4=4)

Lubna said to me, “Have you finished reading the book I gave you yesterday?” “Yes, I have finished reading the book,” I replied. “What an interesting book it is! I wish I could borrow the book earlier,” I said. “Will you return the book to me today?” she asked.

  1.  Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets: ─ (1×5= 5 )

(a) My friend invited me to pay a visit to Cox’s Bazar. (Interrogative)

(b) I gladly accepted the invitation. (Passive)

(c) My friend received me cordially. (Interrogative)

(d) I was very glad to see the sea beach. (Exclamatory)

(e) It was one of the most memorable journeys in my life (Positive)

  1.  Rewrite the following passageusing capitalization and punctuation: ─        (0.5×6 =   3)  

do you think it is  easy to pass english said musa no said rana but why are you so careless of english i dont feel  interest in  the subject oh i see

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text: ─ (0.5×8=4)

(a) Deforest is  going on in our country. It means (b) destroy of forest. People are cutting down trees for housing or (c) cultivate.  Thus, they are making the environmental (d) pollute. To make up the loss of trees we need (e) afforest. Loss of trees will be (f) danger for our country. Our (g) develop will be (h) serious affected if we don’t plant tree.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right forms: ─     (0.5×8=4 )  
leave  run get think walk snatch begin be

Last evening, I was (a) — along the Sadar Road. My younger sister (b) — with me. Suddenly, a young man came (c)—and (d) — her gold chain out from her neck. I (e) — to run after the snatcher. But after a while, I (f) ── it was not wise to (g) ── my sister alone as it was (h) ── dark.

 

Section B── Composition

 Marks──20

  1. Suppose, you are Labib / Lubna. You have a friend named Rahim / Rahima. Now, write an e-mail to your friend about your preparation for the JSC Examination. 8
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words: ─ 12

 ‘Importance of Reading Newspaper’

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Dinajpur Board, 2015

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero article. (.5X6=3)

Our life is (a)_____ sum total of hours, days and years. But all days are not equally memorable to us. Most of (b)______ days are forgotten with (c)______ passage of time. Only (d)______ few days remain ever fresh in our memory. My first day at (e)_____ school is such (f)______ amazing day.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with preposition given in the box bellow. ( .5X6=3)
of to at with for by

Digital Bangladesh is (a)_____ present a buzzword (b)the people (c)______ all classes. It means digitalising Bangladesh (d)_______ ensuring an ICT based society. It will make people think globally and connect them (e)______ the whole world economically. Digital governance will curb crime and corruption and pave the way (f)_____ our country’s rapid development.

  1. Make four sentences from the substitution table given below. (1X4=4)
Getting up early should beneficial to our body and mind
It is no bad effects
Every student has get up early in the morning
Undoubtedly a good habit
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech. (4)

The traveller said to the peasant, ” Can you tell me the way to the nearest inn?” The peasant said, ” Yes, I can. Do you want one in which you can spend the night?” The traveller said, ” I do not wish to stay there, but I only want a meal.”

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets. (1X5=5)

(a) Today corruption is a very familiar term in Bangladesh. ( Make it negative without changing meaning)

(b) Corruption is the most dreadful weapon to destroy a society. ( Positive)

(c) It lies in every phase of our society. ( Make it interrogative without changing meaning)

(d) Some drastic steps have been taken against corruption. ( Active)

(e) Social awareness is the most essential thing to resist corruption.

  1. Rewrite the following passage using capitalization and punctuation.

the old man said can you give me some food ive been staying for two days the maid said why do you beg cant you work.

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined in the text. ( .5X8=4)

(a)Overeat is not a good habit. It means eating (b) excess food. Some people (c) occasional eat too much. It results in (d) digestion which is (e) injure to health. People suffer from (f) digest trouble because they cannot resist their (g) tempt for overeating. They are (h)tolerant.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right form.
see destroy cut plant lose cause pose increse

Global warming is (a)_______ day by day. It is mainly (b)______ by the destruction of forests. Everyday we are (c)_______ down trees recklessly but do not (d)_______ a single tree. As a result, wild animals are (e)________ their living places. Many birds and animals are (f)______ no more. This loss (g)_______ a threat to our environment by (h)______ the ecological balance.

Section B : Composition ( 20 Marks)

  1. Suppose, you are Selim/Salima. You are  a student of class VIII in Faridpur Zilla School. There are not enough books in your library to meet your needs. Now, write an application to the Headmaster for purchasing more books for the school library. (8)
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words. (12)

“Your Favourite Hobby”

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Dinajpur Board,2016

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

  1. Fill in the gaps of the follow text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) where is no article applicable. ( .5X6)

Each and every student wants to make a good result in the examination. But it is not (a)____ easy task. (b)______ student has to do something with this end in view. From (c)______ very beginning he must be very serious. He should read (d)_____ texts again and again. He must not make (e)_____ notes from (f)_____ common source.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with prepositions given in the box. (.5X6=3)
to with for in with of at

Our English teacher, Mr Rahman is very popular (a)________ us (b) __________ his skill. He is very good (c)_______ English. He is very friendly (d)_______ us. He is very careful (e)_______ his duties. Really, he is very skilled (f)_______ common source.

  1. Make four meaningful sentences from the substation given in the box. (.5X6=3)
Getting up early should beneficial to our body and mind
It is no bad effects
Every student has get up early in the morning
Undoubtedly a good habit
  1. Change the following passage into indirect speech.

“Rojina, have you done your English lesson today?” said the teacher. “Yes, sir, I did it. But I haven’t understood some grammatical points.” Replied Rojina. “Where is the problem?” said the teacher.

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets. ( 1×5-5)

(a) Trees are our best friends ( Make it negative). (b) Very few things are as useful as trees ( Make it superlative). (c) They are a great source of food and vitamins ( Make it interrogative). (d) Various kinds of fruits are given by them ( Make it active). (e) We use them for various purposes (Make it passive).

  1. Rewrite the following passage using capitalization and punctuations. ( .5×6=3)

kamal dont be so silly he will come soon said anis we need not wait for him he failed to keep his word replied kamal.

  1. Add prefix, suffix or both to the underlined words in the following text. ( .5×8=4)

Our education remains (a)complete if we do not lean good manner.s In our behaviour we must be (b)respectof others. We should never (c)behave towards anybody because our (d)conduct may hurt others. We should not create any (e)necessary quarrel with others. The (f)important of good manners is (g)measurable(h)Reala man of good manners is a gentleman.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right form.
become receive come be get contribute play work

Today women (a)_____ important role in all spheres of life. They (b)______ no longer confined within the four walls of their parents or husbands’ house. They have (c)_____ out of the kitchens and are (d)_______ hand in hand with men in the development programmes of the country. By (e)______ education they (f)______ pilots, doctors, engineers, teachers, administrators etc. If they (g)_____ more opportunities, they (h)______ much to the development of the country.

Section B : Compositions ( 20 Marks)

  1. Imagine, you are Bashar/Bashira of College Road, Rajshahi and recently you have visited your friend Siam/Sumaya’s house at Asian Highway,Chittagong. You have been very much charmed by the warm hospitality of your friend. Now, write an email to your friend thanking him for his/her hospitality. (8)
  2. Write a composition on the following topic in 250 words. (12)

“Your aim in life.”

 

 

 

English 2nd Paper

Subject Code: 108

Rajshahi Board,2016

Total Marks – 50

Time : 2 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A : Grammar ( 30 Marks)

 

  1. Fill in the gaps of the following text with appropriate articles. Put a cross (x) for zero articles. ( .5×6=3)

Truthfulness is (a)———- greatest of all (b)  virtues that make (c)———man really great. If we don’t cultivate (d)———- habit of speaking (e)———- truth, we can’t command (f)———- confidence of others.

  1. Fill in the blanks of the following text with appropriate prepositions given in the box below. (.5×6=3)

An honest man is true (a)——— word. He does not deviate (b)——– the path of honesty. He knows that peace consists (c)——— honesty. He may have wanted, (d)——-money but greed cannot overpower him. He has no ambition (e)———-worldly things. He is contented (f)——– what he has.

  1. Make four meaningful sentences from the substitution table.(1×4=4)
  2. Change the following passage into indirect speech. (1×4=4)

Father said to Rina. “Do you know, why I have sent you to school?” Rina said, “Yes, I know, I have been sent to school to receive an education.” “Right,” said he.

  1. Change the following sentences as directed in the brackets. (1×5=5)

(a) Book is the, best of all friends (Make it comparative), (b) We all should read books, (Make a passive) (c) A book delights us. (Make it interrogative sentence) (d) Who does not like a book? ‘(Make it assertive sentence) (e) It is a very valuable thing. (Make it exclamatory sentence).

  1. Rewrite the following passage using capitalization and punctuation. (.5×6=3)

human beings have invented many important things so far do you know which  invention is the greatest it is the wheel

  1. Fill in the gaps used in the following text by adding suffix, prefix or both with the root words underlined In the text.

An (a) healthy man leads a (b) pain life. He cannot enjoy (c) happy. He suffers both (d) physical and (e) mental. He passes his days with (f) happy. His life is very (g) misery. He is (h) active too.

  1. Complete the following text with suitable verbs in the box with their right form. (.5×8=4)

The foods that we eat can be (a) ———– into six kinds according to what substance they (b)———  and what benefits they (c)———-  to us. Fish, meat, peas and milk (d) ———– us with protein and (e)———— our body and help us grow. If we (f)———- all these, we can (g)———- well. Vitamins and mineral salts (h)———– us from diseases. They keep us fit for work.

 

Section B : Composition (20 Marks)

  1. Suppose, you are Salam/Salma. You have a friend named Arif/Arifa. Now, write an email to your friend about your preparation for the JSC Examination. (8)
  2. Suppose, you are Salam/Salma. You have a friend named Arif/Arifa. Now, write an email to your friend about your preparation for the JSC Examination. (12)

Board question JSC first paper

English 1st Paper

Subject Code: 107

Chittagong Board,2016

Total Marks – 100

Time : 3 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A: Reading Test (Seen Passage)

Read the text carefully and answer the questions 1, 2 and 3. 

Nakshi Kantha is a kind of embroidered quilt. The name was taken from the Bengali word, ‘naksha’  Which means artistic pattern.It is a kind of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The art has been practised in rural Bengal for centuries. The name ‘Nakshi Kantha’ became popular after the poet Jasimuddin’s poem ‘Nakshi Kanthar Math’ was published in 1929.

Traditional kanthas are made for family use. Old or new cloth and thread are used to make these are used to make these quilts. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Rajshahi, Faridpur, Bogra and Jessore are most famous for this craft. Now it is produced commercially. You can find them in many expensive handicraft shops in cities. The quilts are now in great demand because of the colourful patterns and designs embroidered on them. [Unit-1; Lesson-2 (B)]

  1. Choose the best answer from the alternatives. (1×5=5)

a) The word ‘Nakshi Kantha’ comes from an/a —— word.

(i) English                 (ii) Bengali                  (iii) Hindi          (iv) Burmese

b) Nowadays ‘Nakshi Kantha’ is produced –

(i) Traditionally     (ii) Nationally     (iii) Commercially          (iv) Normally

c) What does the word ‘Pattern’ mean?

(i) Step by step             (ii)Series    (iii) Artistic design          (iv) Handmade work

d) Where has the art been practised?

(i) Large cities      (ii) Urban area           (iii) Rural area          (iv) Rich family

e) ‘Nakshi Kanthar Math’ is written by –

(i) Kazi Nazrul Islam              (ii)        Farrukh Ahmed          (iii) Jasimuddin       (iv) Rabindranath

  1. Answer the following questions.(2×5=10)

a) What is ‘Nakshi Kantha ?

b) Which districts are. famous for ‘Nakshi Kantha’?

c) When does Nakshi Kantha’ become famous?

d) Why are the quilts now in great demand?

e) What kind of craft is it?

Read the passage and summarize it in your own words in about 70 words. (10)

Reading Test (Unseen Passage)

Read the following text carefully and answer the questions 4 and 5.   

John Donne was born in 1573 in London. His father was a rich merchant. He had a name and fame in his circle. But he died in 1576. He was at first educated as Catholic. He entered Oxford in 1584 and left it in 1587. Then he studied at Cambridge for three years. He was removed to London in 1591. He then entered Lincoln’s Inn to study Law in 1592. When Donne came of age, he had a considerable fortune. Donne traveled Italy, Spain and other countries of the continent, between 1594 and 1597. He joined Essex Expedition to Cabiz in 1590. During this time he wrote several poems. His lyrical poetry was mainly the outcome of three years. In 1609 he began to compose his great prose work ‘Pseudo- Martyr’. It was printed in 1610. In 1611 he wrote a satirical prose piece.

  1. Complete the following table with the information given in the passage. (1×5=5)
Who/What Events/Activity Place Year
Donne entered (i)_________ in 1584
He shifted to London (ii) __________
He (iii) ___________ Lincon’s inn in 1592
(iv) ____________ travelled Italy, Spain and on the continent between 1594 to 1597
John Donne (v) ____________ Essex Expedition to Cabiz in 1590
  1. Read the passage again and write true or false beside the following statements. Give the correct answer for the false statements. (1×5=5)

a) John Donne had studied at Cambridge for three years.

b) He was born in Oxford. .

c) He was a son of a teacher.

d) John Donne’s father was famous beyond his circle. .

e) His father breathed his last in 1576.

  1. Fill in the gaps with appropriate words. (1×5=5)

Honesty is a great virtue. It helps a man to (a)________ in life. An honest man is loved and (b)_______ by all. Nobody believes a (c)_____ man. A man may be (d)­­­­­­­_______ ­­by means of dishonesty but that is short lived. A dishonest man (e) ________ in the long run.

  1. Rearrange the following sentences in correct order. (1×10=10)

a) One said, “I have lost my husband”.

b) A poor woman once came to Buddha.

c) The sorrowful mother went from door to door seeking the mustard seeds but at every door she met with sad replies.

d) She returned with a heavy heart to the great teacher and told him the result of her great search.

e) He told her that there was only one medicine which could revive her son.

f) Another said, “Our youngest child died last year.”

g) Then Buddha told her affectionately that she must not think much of her own grief-since sorrow and death are common to all.

h) The holy man was touched by the great sorrow of the woman.

i) She asked him whether he could give her any medicine to restore her dead child to life.

j) He told her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a’ house where death had never entered.

  1. Fill in the gaps using clues from the boxes. There are more words than necessary. (5×10=5)
with what seek who desires have
brings wordly for rather has happiness

It is true that complete (a)______ does not exist in (b)_________ life. A man cannot (c)___________ all the things that he (d)_______ in life. It is better not to (e)________       more and more of a thing, (f)________ one should be satisfied (g)_______ what one gets. Contentment is the key to happiness. One should not always think about (h)______ he does not have. There are some people (i)_______ think’ that it is money that (j)________ happiness in life.

9.The phrases in column A are the beginnings of some sentences. The phrases in column B are the endings. Match the phrases in column A with the phrases in column B to make complete sentences.  ( 1×5=5)

Column A Column B
(i) Frustration is the cause (a) not only a national but also a global problem
(ii) Drugs kill the addicts (b) effect on human body
(iii) Drugs bear a terrible (c) slowly but surely
(iv) Addiction means (d) of drug addiction
(v) Drug addiction is ‘ (e) strong attraction for harmful things

Section B – Writing Test

  1. Suppose, you are Rana/Rani and you have a friend named Ripon/Runa. Your friend is interested in a reading newspaper. Now, write a dialogue between you and your friend about the importance of reading newspaper.(10)

11.Write a paragraph on ‘A Tea Stall’ by answering the following questions ( 10)

a)What is a tea stall? b) Where is it found? c) How is it furnished? d) What things are sold here? e) What do the customers do in the tea stall?

12.Read the beginning of the story. Complete it in about 150 words in your own way:(10)

Once there lived a farmer in a village. He had a wonderful goose and it laid a golden egg every morning. One day ————

13.Suppose, you are Moni/Munia. You have a friend named Rahim/Rahima. Now, write a letter to your friend describing what you intend to do after JSC Examination.(10)

 

 

 

English 1st Paper

Subject Code: 107

Dinjapur Board,2015

Total Marks – 100

Time : 3 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A: Reading Test  (60) (Seen Passage)

 

Read the text carefully and answer the, questions 1, 2 and 3.

The word ‘hygiene’ means the practice of keeping ourselves clean. It also means to keep our home and workplaces clean. It is important for our good health.

Hygiene is thought to be next to godliness. It is because we cannot achieve anything physically, mentally .or spiritually if we are unclean in our body, mind and soul. Nobody likes an unclean person either. So we must follow the rules of hygiene.

First, we must keep our body clean. We should have a bath everyday and wash our hair regularly. This will keep the body and hair free from dirt and bacteria.

Secondly, we should wash our clothes regularly. Dirty clothes give off bad smell and invite germs. We should wear Socks and shoes when we go out to protect our feet from dust and germs. It is also important to wash Our hands before meals and after using the toilet. We should brush our teeth twice a day, after breakfast and supper. We must also cut our nails regularly. Our drinking water must be safe. We can get safe water by boiling and filtering.

Finally, we should keep our surroundings and environment clean. If we do and follow all the above things properly, we will be able to lead a healthy and happy life. (213 words) [ Unit – 3 : Lesson -2 (A)]

  1. Choose the best answer from the alternatives. 1×5=5

(a) Hygiene is _____ godliness.

(i) as important as (ii) more than  (iii) nearer to  (iv) equal to

(b) Cutting our nails regularly is a _______

(i) fashion (ii) must  (iii) style  (iv) bad habit

(c) The word ‘important’ means —

(i) foul (ii) abortive (iii) meaningless  (iv) vital

(d) Cleanliness has positive impact on our

(i) body (ii) soul (iii) body and mind  (iv) mind

(e) The similar meaning of the word ‘follow’ is ______

(i) abide by (ii) reject (iii) avoid  (iv) detach

  1. Answer the following questions.

(a) What do you understand by the word ‘hygiene’?

(b) How is an unclean person treated?

(c) Why should we put.on clean clothes?

(d) When should-we brush our teeth?

(e) How can we lead a happy and healthy ,life?

  1. Read the text in A again. Now, write the summary of it in around 70 words.  10

Reading Test (Unseen Passage)

Read the following text carefully and answer answer the questions 4 and 5.

Albert Einstein, one of the greatest scientists of modem age, was born of Jewish parents in Germany in 1879 A.D. At the age of twenty-one, he graduated from the Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich. Two years later, he joined a service in Bern. He obtained his Doctorate in 1905. Four years after his Doctorate, he took, the post of Associate Professor at the University of Zurich. He resigned the next year to become a full Professor at a German University. He received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. When Hitler became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, Einstein was in America as a Visiting Professor. For Hitler’s cruelty to the Jews, he did not return to his homeland. Einstein became famous for his Theory of Relativity. At the request of a group of Scientists, he wrote to the American President Roosevelt to use atomic energy in bombs.

  1. Complete the following table with the information given in the text above.         1×5=5
Who/What Activity/Event Place/Country Time/Year
Albert Einstein (i) ………….. Germany 1879
His graduation Federal Institute of Technology (ii) ……….
He joined a service (iii)…………….. 1902
(iv) ………. was received 1905
Nobel Prize (v)…………………. 1921
  1. Read the passage again and write True or False beside the following statements. Give answers for the false statements.    1×5=5

a) No other scientist is as great as Einstein in modern age.

b) He took the post of Associate Professor at the University of Zurich in 1909.

c) He received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

d) He did not return to his homeland because of Hitler’s cruelty towards the Jews.

e) A group of politicians requested Einstein to write to the President Roosevelt to use atomic energy in bombs.

  1. Fill in the gaps with appropriate words. 1×5=5

Sincerity is the key to success, (a) ———— who are sincere in performing their (b) ————–  become successful. On the other hand, (c)—————– people always lag behind. Sincerity doesn’t (d) —— only to do the work (e)——- .

  1. Rearrange the following sentences in correct.  10

a) So, he asked for the wise counsellor’s advice.

b) The applicants were asked to meet the Sultan one by one.

c) He wanted to appoint an honest man as his tax collector.

d) A number of people applied for the job. ,                                                                                              .

e) Once there lived a Sultan in a country.

f) Accordingly he invited applications.

g) All the applicants blushed and refused to dance except one.

h) They came through a passage where gold coins were kept.

i) Then he found the desired man.

j) When they all arrived, the Sultan asked them to dance.

8.Fill in the gaps using clues from the boxes. There are more words than necessary. .5×10=5

assist physically virtue provides talents knowledge
society material supposed self-reliant truly genius

Proper education (a)———– a learner with opportunity to improve all his (b)———— . Its aim is to develop him (c)——- and mentally so that he can be useful to himself and to the (d) -——-. An educated’man is (e)——–— but he can also (f) ———– others in attaining this great virtue. He is (g) ———— to be well- mannered, kind and sympathetic. So, a man who has acquired (h) ——-— and skill cannot be called a (i)——- educated man only for his (j)——— development.

  1. The phrases in column A are the beginnings of some sentences. The phrases in column B are the endings. Match the phrases in column A with the phrases in column B to make complete sentences. 1×5=5
Column A Column B
(i) To every man death (a) lives a few years more or less than another
(ii) But it matters little if a man (b) by our deeds and actions
(iii) Our life is not (c) must come sooner or later
(iv) It is only measured (d) die unhonoured and are not remembered
(v) The people who live only for their interest (e) measured by months or years

 


Section B – Writing Test (40)

  1. Suppose, you are Nabil/Nabila and you have a friend named Rashed/Rasheda. Your friend wants to know about your preparation for the coming JSC Examination. Now write a dialogue between you and your friend about it.  10
  2. Write a paragraph on ‘Tree Plantation’ by answering the following questions.   10

i) What does tree plantation mean?

ii) What is the best time for tree plantation?

iii) Where can we plant trees?

iv) Why is tree plantation important?

v) How can we make the tree plantation programme successful?

  1. Read the beginning of a story. Now, complete it in 150 words. 10

There was a clever fox in a jungle. One day he fell into a trap as he was walking through the jungle. He could get out of the trap but lost his tail behind. Without his tail, the fox looked very strange. ” What should I do now?” , he cried……………………………….

  1. Suppose, you are Abib/Abida and your younger brother is Nahian. He is indifferent to his study. He keeps himself with bad company and while away his time. Now, write a letter to your younger brother advising him to be sincere in and attentive to his studies. 10

 

 

 

English 1st Paper

Subject Code: 107

Dinjapur Board,2016

Total Marks – 100

Time : 3 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A: Reading Test  (60) (Seen Passage)

 

Read the text carefully and answer the questions 1, 2 and 3 :

The word ‘hygiene’ means the practice of keeping ourselves clean. It also means to keep our home and work places clean. It is important for our good health. Hygiene is thought to be next to godliness. It is because we cannot achieve anything physically, mentally or spiritually if we are unclean in our bpdy, mind and soul. Nobody likes an unclean person either. So we must follow the rules of hygiene. First, we must keep our body clean, We should have A bath every day and wash our hair regularly. This will keep the body and hair free from dirt and bacteria. Secondly, we should wash our clothes regularly. Dirty clothes give off bad smell and invite germs. We should wear socks and shoes when we go out to protect our feet from dust and germs. It is also important to wash our hands before meals and after using the toilet. We should brush our teeth twice a day, after breakfast and supper. We must also cut our nails regularly. Our drinking water must be pure. We can get pure water by boiling and filtering Finally, we should keep our surroundings and environment clean. If we do and follow all the above things properly, we will be able to lead a healthy

and happy life. (215 words) [Unit – 3 Lesson 3 (A)]

 

  1. Guess the meaning of the following words and choose the correct meaning closest to the text. 1×5=5

(a) hygiene –
(i) untidy (ii) smartness (iii) cleanliness (iv) freshness
b) godliness –
(i) deny (ii) devotion to God (iii) worship (iv) defy
(c) mentally –
(i) bodily (ii) organic (iii) organ (iv) psychologically
(d) give off –
(i) keep (ii) contain (iii) retain (iv) emit ‘
(e) protect –
(i) devastate (ii) ruin (iii) destroy . (iv) preserve

  1. Answer the following questions : 2×5

(a) What does the word ‘hygiene’ mean?

(b) How can .we get pure water?

(c) When should we brush our teeth?

(d) What do the dirty clothes produce?

(e) Why is ‘hygiene’ thought next to godliness?

  1. Read the text in ‘A’ again. Now, write the summary of it in around 75 words. 10

Reading Test (Unseen passage)

Read the following text carefully and answer the questions 4 and 5 :

Ferdousi, the great poet, had a very set hand. He informed the Sultan of writing something remarkable. Then he began to write “The Shahnama” in honour of Sultan Mahmud. The Sultan promised to pay him a piece of gold coin for each verse. But when the epic was finished, it was found to contain sixty thousand verses. When the epic was taken to him, the Sultan now offered Ferdousi only sixty thousand pieces of silver coins instead of gold coins. The poet refused to accept. The Sultan repenting, sent him sixty thousand pieces of gold coins. But the messengers arrived too fate. When they reached the poet’s house, they met the dead body being carried out for burial. The messengers came to the palace. They reported to the Sultan. The Sultan sat grave. He did not tell anything to anybody. Last of all, he called his courtiers and asked them to accompany him. The Sultan went there.. He expressed his deep shock for the departed poet.

  1. Complete the following table with the information given in the passage: 1×5=5
Name Event/Activity What/Why
Ferdousi wanted to write (i) ……………………….
(ii) ………………………. was written in honour of Sultan Mahmud
The Sultan promised to give (iii) ……………………….
(iv) …………………… contained sixty thousand verses
The Sultan (v) ………………………. to express his deep shock
  1. Read the passage again and write true or false beside the following statements. Write answers for the false statements:                                                                                                                                                 1×5=5

a) Sultan Mahmud was a great poet.

b)Ferdousi wrote ‘The Shahnama’.

c) The Sultan sat happily.

d) Ferdousi had a very set hand.

e) Ferdousi wrote the epic in honour of Sultan Mahmud.

  1. Fill in the gaps with appropriate words : 1×5=5

Most of (a)——- farmers of our (b)———- are very poor. They do not (c)———— how to read and (d)———– .They have no (e) -— of their own.

  1. Rearrange the following sentences in correct order :         10

a) The woman said to him that they had been starving for three days.

b) He went there.

c) Hearing this his heart was filled with pity.

d) Hazrat Omar (R.) was the second Caliph of Islam.

e) He asked the woman y/hy the children were crying.

f) He went to the royal treasury and brought food for them.

g) He found a woman and three children.

h) At night he used to walk alone in the streets of Medina.

i) One night while he was walking, he heard the sound of crying coming out from a hut.

j) His aim was to see the condition of the people with his own eyes.

8. Fill in the gaps using clues from the boxes. There are more words than necessary

kill spend boat while people their
songs area land role popular boatman

Bangladesh is predominantly a riverine (a) ——— and this structure plays an important (b) ———- in the life of its people. Bhatially (c) ———- are river oriented and very (d) ————-  in southeastern low lands of Bangladesh locally known as bhati (e) ————-  . They are traditional (f) ————  songs. The (g) ———- of Mymensingh, Sylhet, Dhaka, Comilla, Faridpur, Pabna and Barisal (h)————- quite a lot of time in (i)——— boats and sing in a specific style (j)———– sailing down stream.

  1. The phrases in column A are the beginnings of some sentences. The phrases in column B are the endings. Match the phrases in column A with the phrases in column B to make complete sentences : 1×5=5
Column A Column B
(i) Drugs bear a terrible effect (a) not very easy.
(ii) They kill them (b) drowsy.
(iii) Drug addicted people feel (c) slowly but surely.
(iv) The remedy for drug addiction is (d) a punishable offence.
(v) Drug business is (e) on human body.

 

Section B : Writing Test (40)

  1. Suppose, you are Rounok and your friend is Rupak. Make a dialogue between you and your

friend about the importance of reading newspaper.                                                                      10

  1. Write a paragraph on ‘Your School Library’ by answering the following questions. Your

paragraph should not exceed 100 words :                                                                                        10

a) What is library?

b) What is the importance of school library?

c) Where is it located?

d)How are books arranged?

e)How do you feel of your school library?

  1. Read the beginning of the story. Now, complete it in 150 words : 10

One day a lion was sleeping in its cave. A mouse was playing nearly. While playing it by chance ran over the lion’s body. At this, the lion woke up ……………………………

  1. Suppose, you are Rassel living in Kazla, Rajshahi. Your friend is Banna living in Medical Mor, Rangpur. Now, write a letter inviting him to attend your sister’s marriage ceremony on next Friday.  10

 

 

 

English 1st Paper

Subject Code: 107

Chittagong Board,2016

Total Marks – 100

Time : 3 hours

[NB—The Figures in the right margin indicate full marks]

Section A: Reading Test (Seen Passage)

Read the text carefully and answer the questions 1, 2 and 3. 

Nakshi Kantha is a kind of embroidered quilt. The name was taken from the Bengali word, ‘naksha’  Which means artistic pattern.It is a kind of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The art has been practised in rural Bengal for centuries. The name ‘Nakshi Kantha’ became popular after the poet Jasimuddin’s poem ‘Nakshi Kanthar Math’ was published in 1929.

Traditional kanthas are made for family use. Old or new cloth and thread are used to make these are used to make these quilts. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Rajshahi, Faridpur, Bogra and Jessore are most famous for this craft. Now it is produced commercially. You can find them in many expensive handicraft shops in cities. The quilts are now in great demand because of the colourful patterns and designs embroidered on them. [Unit-1; Lesson-2 (B)]

  1. Choose the best answer from the alternatives. (1×5=5)

a) The word ‘Nakshi Kantha’ comes from an/a —— word.

(i) English                 (ii) Bengali                  (iii) Hindi          (iv) Burmese

b) Nowadays ‘Nakshi Kantha’ is produced –

(i) Traditionally     (ii) Nationally     (iii) Commercially          (iv) Normally

c) What does the word ‘Pattern’ mean?

(i) Step by step             (ii)Series    (iii) Artistic design          (iv) Handmade work

d) Where has the art been practised?

(i) Large cities      (ii) Urban area           (iii) Rural area          (iv) Rich family

e) ‘Nakshi Kanthar Math’ is written by –

(i) Kazi Nazrul Islam              (ii)        Farrukh Ahmed          (iii) Jasimuddin       (iv) Rabindranath

  1. Answer the following questions.(2×5=10)

a) What is ‘Nakshi Kantha ?

b) Which districts are. famous for ‘Nakshi Kantha’?

c) When does Nakshi Kantha’ become famous?

d) Why are the quilts now in great demand?

e) What kind of craft is it?

  1. Read the passage and summarize it in your own words in about 70 words. (10)

Reading Test (Unseen Passage)

Read the following text carefully and answer the questions 4 and 5.   

John Donne was born in 1573 in London. His father was a rich merchant. He had a name and fame in his circle. But he died in 1576. He was at first educated as Catholic. He entered Oxford in 1584 and left it in 1587. Then he studied at Cambridge for three years. He was removed to London in 1591. He then entered Lincoln’s Inn to study Law in 1592. When Donne came of age, he had a considerable fortune. Donne traveled Italy, Spain and other countries of the continent, between 1594 and 1597. He joined Essex Expedition to Cabiz in 1590. During this time he wrote several poems. His lyrical poetry was mainly the outcome of three years. In 1609 he began to compose his great prose work ‘Pseudo- Martyr’. It was printed in 1610. In 1611 he wrote a satirical prose piece.

  1. Complete the following table with the information given in the passage. (1×5=5)
Who/What Events/Activity Place Year
Donne entered (i)_________ in 1584
He shifted to London (ii) __________
He (iii) ___________ Lincon’s inn in 1592
(iv) ____________ travelled Italy, Spain and on the continent between 1594 to 1597
John Donne (v) ____________ Essex Expedition to Cabiz in 1590
  1. Read the passage again and write true or false beside the following statements. Give the correct answer for the false statements. (1×5=5)

a) John Donne had studied at Cambridge for three years.

b) He was born in Oxford. .

c) He was a son of a teacher.

d) John Donne’s father was famous beyond his circle. .

e) His father breathed his last in 1576.

  1. Fill in the gaps with appropriate words. (1×5=5)

Honesty is a great virtue. It helps a man to (a)________ in life. An honest man is loved and (b)_______ by all. Nobody believes a (c)_____ man. A man may be (d)­­­­­­­_______ ­­by means of dishonesty but that is short lived. A dishonest man (e) ________ in the long run.

  1. Rearrange the following sentences in correct order. (1×10=10)

a) One said, “I have lost my husband”.

b) A poor woman once came to Buddha.

c) The sorrowful mother went from door to door seeking the mustard seeds but at every door she met with sad replies.

d) She returned with a heavy heart to the great teacher and told him the result of her great search.

e) He told her that there was only one medicine which could revive her son.

f) Another said, “Our youngest child died last year.”

g) Then Buddha told her affectionately that she must not think much of her own grief-since sorrow and death are common to all.

h) The holy man was touched by the great sorrow of the woman.

i) She asked him whether he could give her any medicine to restore her dead child to life.

j) He told her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a’ house where death had never entered.

  1. Fill in the gaps using clues from the boxes. There are more words than necessary. (5×10=5)
with what seek who desires have
brings wordly for rather has happiness

It is true that complete (a)______ does not exist in (b)_________ life. A man cannot (c)___________ all the things that he (d)_______ in life. It is better not to (e)________       more and more of a thing, (f)________ one should be satisfied (g)_______ what one gets. Contentment is the key to happiness. One should not always think about (h)______ he does not have. There are some people (i)_______ think’ that it is money that (j)________ happiness in life.

9.The phrases in column A are the beginnings of some sentences. The phrases in column B are the endings. Match the phrases in column A with the phrases in column B to make complete sentences.  ( 1×5=5)

Column A Column B
(i) Frustration is the cause (a) not only a national but also a global problem
(ii) Drugs kill the addicts (b) effect on human body
(iii) Drugs bear a terrible (c) slowly but surely
(iv) Addiction means (d) of drug addiction
(v) Drug addiction is ‘ (e) strong attraction for harmful things

Section B – Writing Test

  1. Suppose, you are Rana/Rani and you have a friend named Ripon/Runa. Your friend is interested in a reading newspaper. Now, write a dialogue between you and your friend about the importance of reading newspaper.(10)

11.Write a paragraph on ‘A Tea Stall’ by answering the following questions ( 10)

a)What is a tea stall? b) Where is it found? c) How is it furnished? d) What things are sold here? e) What do the customers do in the tea stall?

12.Read the beginning of the story. Complete it in about 150 words in your own way:(10)

Once there lived a farmer in a village. He had a wonderful goose and it laid a golden egg every morning. One day ————

13.Suppose, you are Moni/Munia. You have a friend named Rahim/Rahima. Now, write a letter to your friend describing what you intend to do after JSC Examination.(10)

Exercises on transformation for HSC

Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed. 

(a) Once a cook roasted a duck for his master. (Passive).

(b) The roast looked so delicious that the cook could not resist the temptation. (Simple) He ate

one of the drumsticks.

(c) When his master sat down to eat, he quickly noticed the missing drumstick. (Compound).

(d) The master enquired of the missing leg. (Interrogative).

(e) But the cook told him that this duck had only one leg. (Negative).

2. (a) Watching violent stories, young people become violent. (Compound)

(b) I recognized her at first glance and helped her recognize me. (Passive Voice)

(c) He had to feel pity for the lion. (Negative)

(d) Man is the best of all creatures. (Positive)

(e) It burns prettier than any other wood. (Superlative)

3. (a) He is the first President of Bangladesh. (Comparative)

(b) Neither Rony nor Krishna is guilty. (Affirmative)

(c) Sin never goes unpunished. (Affirmative)

(d) Rahim is the better student of the two. (Positive)

(e) Only fresh air is essential for the living of any creature. (Interrogative)

4. Rabindranath, the 14th child of Debendranath wrote his first verse at the age of eight. (a) When he was 17 years old, he was sent for studies (Simple).

(b) He described London as a dismal city(Passive).

(c) Though he was happy in Brighton, a friend of the family persuaded his brother to

send him to London (Compound).

(d) He was lucky to get a friendly English family (Complex).

(e) Rabindranath is one of the greatest poets in the world (Positive). In 1880, Rabindranath was called back to India.

5. Stephen Hawking was born in 1942. He was born in an educated family. (a) He is considered

the greatest physicist after Einstein. (Active)

(b) In 1979, he joined Cambridge University.(Complex)

(c) When he was thirty-two years old, he received the prestigious Albert Einstein

Award. (Simple)

(d) He wrote a book explaining cosmology for general public. (Compound)

(e) He is one of the greatest scientists in the present world. (Positive)

6. (a) Very few insects are as busy as bees. (Make it comparative)

(b) They live together. (Make it negative)

(c) They fly from flowers to flowers and collect honey. (Make it simple)

(d) They store honey in hives. (Make it passive)

(e) In winter, they remain idle but they work in spring. (Make it complex)

7. (a) Our parliament house at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar in Dhaka is triumph of modern architecture and technology. (Complex)

(b) A famous American architect, Louis I Kahn, designed this magnificent building (Passive).

(c) It is one of the largest and most spectacular parliament buildings. (Positive)

(d) As it is a highly complex structure, its annual maintenance cost is about 50 million taka. (Simple)

(e) It is very difficult for a poor country like Bangladesh to bear these high expenses. (Negative)

8. (a) Reazuddin Munsi, an owner of scanty property, was not solvent at all. (Complex)

(b) Yet he tried to educate his children so that he may see them established in life. (Simple)

(c) His children too were meritorious enough to pass all examinations well. (Compound)

(d) Of all the students of their respective classes, they always secured the best results both in internal and external examinations. (Comparative Degree)

(e) So, the people of their village always praised them in the highest possible language. (Passive Voice) All these were possible for the sacrifices of an insolvent and illiterate ploughman.

(f) Indeed, his sacrifices for children cannot be measured. (Active)

9. A man may become great and good if he loves and respects his parents. (a) George Washington cut a tree in his father’s garden (Make it passive).

(b) When his father saw it, he became very angry (Make it simple).

(c) Though the boy trembled in fear, he did not tell a lie (Make it compound).

(d) His father expressed happiness for his truthful son (Make it complex). Again, at the time of his leaving for service, his mother got upset. So, he decided not to go away breaking his mother’s heart.

(e) He was one of the most devoted sons (Make it positive).

10. (a) I went back to work, closing the door. (compound)

(b) At first the sound of the boy’s dragging brush annoyed me. (passive) He began to chop.

(c) The blows that he made were rythmic and steady. (simple)

(d) The sound of his blows were more rythmic than a consistent rain. (positive)

(e) Having forgotten the boy I went back to sleep. (compound)

11. Anger is nothing but a vice. (a) It begets only the worst. (negative)

(b) Anger is one of the most inhuman vices. (positive)

(c) So, we should control it for our own sake. (passive)

(d) He who is taken by anger causes a lot of troubles. (simple)

(e) Realizing it, everyone should try to be emotionally balanced. (complex).

12. (a) Cricket is a very exciting game. (Complex)

(b) People all over the world enjoy this game very much. (Passive)

(c) At present cricket is one of the most popular games in our country. (Comparative)

(d) Thought it is a very costly game, young men and children get a great deal of delight

playing it. (Compound)

(e) It is a matter of sorrow that the performance of Bangladesh Cricket Team is not up to the

mark. (Exclamatory)

13. (a) There is water everywhere. (Negative)

(b) I know the cause of his coming here. (Complex)

(c) The forbidden books lasted the longest of all the rest. (Positive)

(d) At first the sound of dragging brush annoyed me. (Passive)

(e) He bought not only a flat but also a car. (Simple)

14. Bangladesh is my adoring country. (a) It is an independent country (Make it a complex sentence).

(b) We gained our freedom in 1971 at the cost of supreme sacrifice (Make it passive).

(c) As soon as we gained independence, we did a glowing homage to the martyrs (Make it a negative sentence without changing the meaning).

(d) Now we are trying our level best so that we can achieve our political and economic emancipation (Make it a simple sentence).

(e) How sweet the taste of independence is! (Make it an assertive sentence).

15. (a) Water, a vital element of environment is polluted by various ways (Complex). It is called life.

(b) The water which is pure is necessary for us (Simple).

(c) People pollute water by throwing waste into it (Compound).

(d) The farmers use water in time of cultivation largely (Passive).

(e) It is one of the most important elements of all living beings (Positive).

16. (a) Sundrabans that is the unique creation of nuture is called the 52nd World Heritage Site (Simple).

(b) It is called the mangrove forest (active). It is situated in the southern part of

Bangladesh.

(c) It is one of the biggest mangrove forests in the world (Positive).

(d) Sundarban protects southern part of our country in time of natural disasters (Complex).

(e) Many people go to Sundarbans to observe the natural beauties (Compound). In the forest, you not only find a natural and peaceful atmosphere there but you may be lucky enough to see the famous Royal Bengal Tigers or spotted deer.

17. (a) Traffic jam is the most serious problem in Dhaka City (Make it comparative).

(b) It has become a common affair here (Make it negative). It occurs mostly during office hours.

(c) Sometimes a traffic jam is so acute that it blocks about half a kilometre of a street (Make

compound).

(d) It kills our valuable time and works (Make it passive).

(e) However, this problem can be solved by adopting some pragmatic steps (Make it complex).

18. (a) Everybody longs for money. (Interrogative)

(b) But people who have little money are very happy. (simple)

(c) People want to be happy and they earn money. (Complex)

(d) We are sure that it is a wrong idea. (Compound) More money brings more anxiety.

(e) We should not be guided by money. (Passive)

19. (a) What a nice idea! (Make it assertive)

(b) Charles Karoro lives in a small apartment. (Make it compound)

(c) Nairobi is one of the most expensive cities. (Make it positive)

(d) He has two school going children. (Make it complex)

(e) His wife loves gardening. (Make it negative)

20. No person can be happy without friends. So (a) everybody wants friends. (Negative)

(b) The heart is formed for love and cannot be happy without the opportunity of giving and receiving love. (Complex) But

(c) you cannot receive affection unless you give it also. (Simple) You cannot find others to love you unless you love them.

(d) You cannot be happy without it. (Interrogative)

(e) As love is divine, everybody wants love. (Compound).

21. (a) Do you know that success will not come to one’s life naturally? (Make it passive)

(b) An industrious boy will shine in life. (Make it complex)

(c) A life with an assignment is an actual life. (Make it negative without changing the meaning)

(d) None can receive any reward unless he works hard. (Make it simple)

(e) One cannot be successful without it. (Make it interrogative)

22. (a) Despite of having talent, some people do not work hard. (Make it compound)

(b)  We should work hard. (Make it imperative)

(c) None but the industrious succeeds in life. (Make it affirmative)

 (d)  Success is very difficult. (Make it exclamatory)

(e) A successful man is the most respected person in the society. (Make it comparative)

23. (a) But at last God took pity on him. (make it negative without changing the meaning)

(b) One day the old sailor was watching the water snakes swimming round the ship. (Make it passive) Their colors were very beautiful and

(c) he was filled with a strange wonder. (Make it active) Then he felt great love for them and blessed them from his heart.

(d) At once the dead albatross fell from his neck into the sea, and the old man fell into a deep sleep. (Make it complex)

(e) When he woke up, it was raining. (Make it simple)

24. (a) The campus of Joypurhat Govt. Women’s College is one of the finest campuses in

Bangladesh. (Positive)

(b) We keep this campus clean. (Passive)

(c) The students studying in this college sit by the pond. (Complex)

(d) There are many tall trees in the college campus. (Compound)

(e) The students who are escapist, spend their time under these trees. (Simple)

 

Set-1.

(a) Day-to-day life in Dhaka is expensive (Negative).

(b) People living below the poverty line leads a miserable life (complex).

(c) Price hike is one of the biggest problems for them (positive).

(d) The government has taken necessary measures to keep the price hike under control (passive).

(e) The people who are greedy are responsible for price spiral (simple).

Answer: (a) Day to day life in Dhaka is not inexpensive/cheap. (b) People who live below the poverty line lead a miserable life. (c) Very few problems are as big as price hike for them. (d) Necessary measures have been taken to keep the price hike under control by the government. (e) The greedy people are responsible for the price spiral.

Set-2.

(a) Cox’s Bazar sea beach is the longest sea beach in the world (complex).

(b) It is one of the most beautiful sea beaches in the world (positive).

(c) It is called pleasure seeker’s paradise (active).

(d) The visitors go there for enjoying natural beauties (compound).

(e) Those who become tired may go to relax there (simple).

Answer: (a) It is Cox’s Bazar sea beach which is the longest sea beach in the world. (b) Very few sea beaches are as beautiful as it. (c) People call it pleasure seeker’s paradise. (d) The visitors go there and enjoy the natural beauties. (e) Tired people may go to relax there.

Set-3.

(a) Very few insects are as busy as a bee (comparative).

(b) It lives together (negative).

(c) It flies from flower to flower and collects honey (simple).

(d) It stores honey in the hive (passive).

(e) In winter, it remains idle but it works hard in spring (complex).

Answer no. 3:

(a) A bee is busier than most other insects. (b) It does not live alone. (c) Flying from flower to flower, it collects honey. (d) Honey is stored in the hive by it. (e) Although it remains idle in winter, it works hard in spring.

Set-4.

(a) Cricket is very exciting game (complex).

(b) People all over the world enjoy this game very much (passive).

(c) At present cricket is one of the most popular games in our country (comparative).

(d) Though it is a very costly game, young men and children get a great deal of delight plying it (compound).

(e) It is a matter of sorrow that the performance of Bangladesh Cricket Team is not up to the mark (exclamatory).

Answer no. 4:

(a) Cricket is a game which is very exciting. (b) This game is enjoyed very much by people all over the world. (c) At present cricket is more popular than most other games in our country. (d) It is a very costly game but young men and children get a great deal of delight playing it. (e) What a matter of sorrow it is that the performance of Bangladesh Cricket Team is not up to the mark.

Set-5.

(a) The Jamuna is one of the biggest rivers in Bangladesh (comparative). (b) When it is summer, it becomes emaciated (simple). (c) During the rainy season, it assumes a terrible shape (complex). (d) Everybody knows it (interrogative).

Answer no. 5:

(a) The Jamuna is bigger than most other rivers in Bangladesh. (b) During summer, it becomes emaciated. (c) When it is rainy season, it assumes a terrible shape. (d) Who does not know it?

Set-6.

(a) Pahela Baisakh is undoubtedly the most celebrated festival in Bangladesh (complex). (b) It is the day of the year when the roads get so jam packed (simple). (c) Almost everyone enjoys the day in his own way (passive). (d) Although I hate gathering, I enjoy activities of the flood of massive this day (compound). (e) How enthusiastic the people look on this day (assertive).

Answer no. 6:

(a) There is no doubt that Pahela Baisakh is the most celebrated festival in Bangladesh. (b) The roads get so jam packed on this day of the year. (c) The day is enjoyed by almost everyone in his own way. (d) I hate gathering but I enjoy activities of the flood of masses this day. (e) The people look very enthusiastic on this day.

Set-7.

(a) Robert Frost lives in a small apartment in the capital city Toronto (complex). (b) His wife Catherine loves gardening (negative). (c) Toronto is one of the most expensive cities of the world (positive). His relatives often come to stay with him. (d) They don’t realize the high cost of living in Toronto (interrogative). However, he loves his relatives a great deal (passive).

Answer no. 7:

(a) Robert Frost lives in a small apartment which is small in the capital city Toronto. (b) His wife Catherine does not hate gardening. (c) Very few cities of the world are as expensive as Toronto. (d) Do they realize the high cost of living in Toronto? (e) However, his relatives are loved a great deal by him.

Set-8.

(a) Health is wealth (complex). (b) A healthy poor man is happier than a sick moneyed man (positive). (c) Though a healthy man is an asset to his family, an unhealthy man is a liability (compound). (d) He can succeed in life (interrogative). (e) Everybody must be conscious of health (negative).

Answer no. 8:

(a) It is health which is wealth. (b) A sick moneyed man is not as happy as a healthy poor man. (c) A healthy man is an asset to his family and an unhealthy man is a liability. (d) Can’t he succeed in life? (e) Mustn’t everybody be conscious of health?

Set-9.

(a) I do not know Raju’s father’s name (complex). (b) But I know the place where he was born (simple). (c) Though he is poor, he is honest (compound). (d) He is the best player (negative). (e) What a simple life he leads! (assertive).

Answer no. 9:

(a) I do not know what Raju’s father’s name is. (b) But I know his birth place. (c) He is poor but honest. (d) No other player is as good as he. (e) He leads a very simple life.

Set-10.

(a) Once a cook roasted a duck for his master (Passive). (b) The roast looked so delicious that he cook could not resist the temptation (Simple). (c) When his master sat down to eat, he quickly noticed the missing drumstick (Compound) (d) The master enquired of the missing leg (Interrogative) (e) But the cook told him that this duck had only one leg (Negative).

Answer no. 10:

(a) Once a duck was roasted for his master by a cook. (b) The roast was too delicious for the cook to resist the temptation. (c) His master sat down to eat and noticed the drumstick. (d) Didn’t the master enquire of the missing leg? (e) But the cook told him that the duck had no more than one leg.

Set-11.

(a) Long long ago there was a king who was very wise (simple). (b) People called him wise Solomon (passive). (c) Actually, at that time he was the wisest of all (comparative). (d) There was another ruler also named queen of Sheba (compound). (e) One day she thought Solomon’s wisdom should not remain untested (complex).

Answer no. 11:

(a) Long long ago there was a very wise king. (b) He was called wise Solomon by people. (c) Actually, at that time he was wiser than all other kings. (d) There was another ruler and she was named queen of Sheba. (e) One day she thought that Solomon’s wisdom should not remain untested.

Set-12.

(a) This admixture may corrupt the nature of the original commodity (passive). (b) The value or the effectiveness of the finished product is destroyed by adulteration (active). (c) We have laws and law-enforcing agencies to stop the dishonest businessman (complex). (d) Their effort has been proved ineffective since adulteration of foods and other commodities is on the increase (compound) (e) It is strong public awareness which is essential for the fight against adulteration (simple).

Answer no. 12:

(a) The nature of the original commodity may be corrupted by this admixture. (b) Adulteration destroys the value or the effectiveness of the finished product. (c) We have laws and law-enforcing agencies that/which can stop the dishonest businessman. (d) Their effort has been proved ineffective and so adulteration of foods and other commodities is on the increase. (e) Strong public awareness is essential for the fight against adulteration.

Set-13.

(a) Water, an important vital element of environment, is polluted by various ways (complex). (b) The water which is pure is necessary for us (simple). (c) Men pollute water by throwing waste in it (compound). (d) The farmers use water in time of cultivation largely (passive). (e) It is one of the most important elements of all living beings (Positive).

Answer no. 13:

(a) Water is an important element of environment which is polluted by various ways. (b) Pure water is necessary for us. (c) Men throw waste in water and pollute it. (d) Water is largely used in time of cultivation by the farmers. (e) Very few elements of all living beings are as important as it.

Set-14.

(a) Health is wealth (complex). (b) A healthy poor man is happier than a sick moneyed man (positive). (e) When a healthy man is an asset to his family, an unhealthy man is a liability (compound). (d) He can succeed in life (interrogative). (e) Everybody must be conscious of health (negative.)

Answer no. 14:

(a) It is health which is wealth. (b) A sick moneyed man is not as happy as a healthy poor man. (c) A healthy man is an asset to his family but an unhealthy man is a liability. (d) Can’t he succeed in life? (e) Everybody can not but be conscious of health.

Set-15.

(a) A cunning fox was passing through a forest (Complex). (b) The fox was thirsty and was looking for water (Simple); (c) It could not find any source of water (Passive). (d) He felt very helpless (Interrogative). (c) It seemed to the fox that it was the happiest animal in the world (Comparative).

Answer no. 15:

(a) A fox which was cunning was passing through a forest. (b) being thirsty, the fox was looking for water. (c) No source of water was could be found by it. (d) Didn’t he feel very helpless? (e) It seemed to the fox that it was happier than any other animal.

Set-19.

(a) But at last God took pity on him (negative without changing the meaning). (b) One day the old sailor was watching the water snakes swimming round the ship (passive). Their colours were very beautiful and (c) He was filled with a strange wonder (active). Then he felt a great love for them and blessed them from his heart. (d) At once the dead albatross fell from his neck into the sea and the old man fell into a deep sleep (complex). (e) When he woke up, it was raining (simple).

Answer no. 19:

(a) But at last God couldn’t but take pity on him. (b) One day the water snakes were being watched swimming round the ship by the old sailor. (c) A strange wonder filled him. (d) As soon as the dead albatross fell from his neck into the sea, the old man fell into a deep sleep. (e) On his waking up, it was raining.

Set-20.

(a) Cricket is a very exciting game (Exclamatory). (b) People of all ages enjoy this game (Passive). (c) At present cricket is the most popular game in our country (Positive). (d) Bangladesh is one of the weakest test playing countries (Comparative). (e) They are fond of watching ‘twenty-twenty’ cricket (Interrogative).

Answer no. 20:

(a) What an exciting game cricket is! (b) This game is enjoyed by people of all ages. (c) At present no other game in our country is as popular as cricket. (d) Bangladesh is weaker than most other test playing countries. (e) Aren’t they fond of watching ‘twenty-twenty’ cricket?

Set-21.

(a) The National Memorial, which is situated at Savar, is a symbol of the nation’s respect (Simple). (b) Standing in front of the graves, we bow down our heads (Compound). (c) The towers symbolize the loftiness of the spirit of the martyred freedom fighters (Interrogative). (d) We always remember their memories (Negative). (e) Everyday many people go to visit it (Interrogative).

Answer no. 21:

(a) The National Memorial at Savar is a symbol of the nation’s respect. (b) We stand in front of the graves and bow down our heads. (c) Don’t the towers symbolize the loftiness of the spirit of the martyred freedom fighters? (d) We never forget their memories. (e) Don’t many people go to visit it everyday?

 

Set-22.

(a) He is considered the greatest physicist after Einstein (active). (b) In 1979 he joined Cambridge University (complex). (c) When he was thirty two years old, he received the prestigious Albert Einstein award (simple). (d) He wrote a book explaining cosmology for general public (compound). (e) He is one of the greatest scientists in the present world (positive).

Answer no. 22: (a) People consider him the greatest physicist after Einstein. (b) It was 1979 when he joined Cambridge University. (c) At the age of thirty two, he received the prestigious Albert Einstein award. (d) He wrote a book and it explained cosmology for general public. (e) Very few scientists in the present world are as great as he.

 

Set-23.

 

(a) Anika wrote a letter to her mother yesterday (Passive). (b) She told her mother to send Tk. 1,000 to buy some books (Complex). (c) In the letter, she told her that she should not worry about her studies (Simple). (d) Her mother often writes to her (Interrogative). (e) She feels that her mother is better than all other mothers in the world (Superlative).

Answer no. 23:

(a) A letter was written to her mother yesterday by Anika. (b) She told her mother to send Tk. 1,000 so that she could buy some books. (c) In the letter, she told her not to worry about her studies. (d) Doesn’t her mother often write to her? (e) She feels that her mother is the best of all the mothers in the world.

Set-24.

 

Anger is nothing but a vice. (a) It begets only the worst (Negative). (b) Anger is one of the most inhuman vices (Positive). (c) So, we should control it for our own sake (Passive). (d) He who is taken by anger causes a lot of troubles (Simple). (e) Realizing it we should try to be emotionally balanced (Complex).

Answer no. 24:

(a) It begets nothing but the worst. (b) Very few vices are as inhuman as anger. (c) So, it should be controlled by us for our own sake. (d) An angry man causes a lot of troubles. (e) As we realize it, we should try to be emotionally balanced.

Set-25.

(a) As her husband has no land, he used to work on other people’s land (Compound). (b) With great effort they married their two daughters off when they reached teenage (Simple). (c) Her only son went to town for earning his livelihood (Complex). WhenAyesha Begum and her husband became hungry, there was nobody to feed. (d) Years of malnutrition and deprivation made them look older (Passive). One day, she started begging in the village to feed her old and invalid husband. (e) Very few women were as needy as Ayesha Begum (Superlative).

Answer no. 25:

(a) Her husband has no land and he used to work on other people’s land. (a) With great effort they married their two daughters off at their teenage. (c) Her only son went to town so that he could earn his livelihood. (d) They were made to look older by years of malnutrition and deprivation. (e) Ayesha Begum was one of the neediest women.

Set-26.

(a) My friend invited me to pay a visit to Cox’s Bazar (interrogative). (b) I gladly accepted the invitation (passive). (c) When I reached there, my friend received me cordially (compound). (d) I was very glad to see the sea-beach (exclamatory). (e) It was one of the most memorable journeys in my life (positive).

Answer no. 26:

(a) Didn’t my friend invite me to pay a visit to Cox’s Bazar? (b) The invitation was gladly accepted by me. (c) I reached there and my friend received me cordially. (d) How glad I was to see the sea-beach! (e) Very few journeys in my life were as memorable as it.

Set-27.

(a) E-mail is a computer-based messaging system (Complex). (b) It eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls (Interrogative). (c) It is cheaper than telephone calls (Positive). (d) It takes only a few seconds to transmit a message from one country to another (Negative). It has, however, not reached everyone, especially in developing countries like ours. (e) But even here people use commercially operated e-mail facilities for important purposes (Passive).

Answer no. 27:

(a) e-mail is a messaging system which is computer-based. (b) Doesn’t it eliminate the time spent in establishing phone calls? (c) Telephone calls are not as cheap as it. (d) It does not take more than a few seconds to transmit a message from one country to another. (e) But even here commercially operated e-mail facilities are used by people for important purposes.

Set-28.

(a) Cox’s Bazar sea-beach is the longest sea-beach in the world (Complex). (b) It is one of the most beautiful sea beaches in the world (Positive). (e) It is called pleasure seekers paradise (Active). (d) The visitors go there to enjoy natural beauties (Compound). (e) Those who become tired may go to relax there (Simple).

Answer no. 28:

(a) It is Cox’s Bazar sea beach which is the longest sea beach in the world. (b) Very few sea-beaches in the world are as beautiful as it. (c) People call it pleasure seeker’s paradise. (d) The visitors go there and enjoy the natural beauties. (e) Tired people may go to relax there.

Set-29.

(a) Acquiring a language is more successful than learning (Negative). (b) Teachers encourage the learners of a second language to practice the language (passive). (c) Students who wish to acquire proficiency in a language should practice the language (simple). (d) Communicative competence can be achieved in a short-time (interrogative without changing meaning). (e) A language learner must shake off reticence and he is sure to succeed in his effort (complex).

Answer no. 29:

(a) Learning is not as successful as acquiring a language. (b) The learners of a second language are encouraged by teachers to practice the language. (c) Students wishing to acquire proficiency in a language should practice the language. (d) Can’t communicative competence be achieved in a short time? (e) A language learner is sure to succeed in his effort if he shakes off reticence.

Transform the Following sentences as directed in brackets.

1. (a) T-20 cricket matches have become one of the most exciting events on earth (Make it positive).

(b) Bangladesh has made tremendous progress in this field lately (Make it passive).

(c) Sakib-Al-Hasan, who tops the world’s best all-rounder ranking has made us proud (Make it simple).

(d) Despite doing an all-round performance both in batting and bowling he failed to bring victory for the team of Bangladesh (Make it complex).

(e) Those who love cricket were much enjoyed to see the match (Make it compound).

Ans: (a) Very few events on earth have become so exciting as T-20 cricket matches.

(b) Tremendous progress has been made by Bangladesh in this field lately.

(e) Sakib-Al-Hasan topping the world’s best all-rounder ranking has made us proud.

(d) Though he did an all-round performance in batting and bowling, he failed to bring victory for the team of Bangladesh.

(e) The cricket-love cricket and they were much enjoyed to see the match.

2. (a) Don’t make any mistake (Make it passive).

(b) Kazi Nazrul Islam is one of the greatest poets of the world (make it positive).

(c) Getting certificates is not so much as education (Make it affirmative).

(d) We should achieve the capability which can make us think from others’ perspective having an unbiased and balanced opinion (Make it simple).

(e) Because of the scorching sun, life becomes miserable (Make it compound).

Ans: (a) Let not any mistake be made (by you).

(b) Very few poets of the world are as great as Kazi Nazrul Islam.

(c) Education is much more than getting certificates.

(d) We should achieve the capability to think from others’ perspective having an unbiased and balanced opinion.

(e) There is the scorching sun and so life becomes miserable.

3. (a) No one suffers as much as the poor (Make it superlative).

(b) Most of them hardly know the traffic rules (Make it passive).

(c) When he was 48 years old, he died (Make it simple).

(d) It begets the worst (Make it positive).

(e) It varies in sizes, it varies in colors too (Make it negative).

 Ans: (a) The poor suffer most.

(b) The traffic rules are hardly known to most of them.

(c) At the age of 48 he died.

(d) Nothing begets as bad as it. Or, No other thing begets as bad as it.

(e) It varies not only in sizes but in colors.

4. (a) The drivers are basically responsible for the accidents (Make it complex).

(b) In the field of education no other contribution of the educationists was as great as that of Sir Salimullah (Make it superlative).

(c) Inside the skin there is a juicy kernel and it holds a stone in it (Make it simple).

(d) The outer show of things and beings concerns them (Make it passive).

(e) Children can neither sleep nor read (Make it affirmative).

Ans: (a) It is the drivers who are basically responsible for the accidents.

(b) In the field of education Sir Salimullah’s contribution was the greatest.

(c) Inside the skin there is a juicy kernel holding a stone in it.

(d) They are concerned with the outer show of things and beings.

(e) Children are unable to sleep and read. 

5. (a) Along with this, we should always equip our mind with rationality that gives us a stand leading to better understanding of and with others and co-existence (Make it passive).

(b) Adulteration of foods and other commodities is on the increase and so their effort has been proved ineffective (Make it simple).

(c) Education is not more getting certificates (Make it affirmative).

(d) Mangoes are grown best in the districts of Rajshahi and Chapai Nawabganj (Make it complex).

(e) There were two people on board (Make it compound).

Ans: (a) Along with this, our mind should always be equipped with rationality that gives us a stand leading to better understanding of and with others and co-existence.

(b) Their effort has been proved ineffective because of the increase of the adulteration of foods and other commodities.

(c) Education is much more than getting certificates.

(d) Rajshahi and Chapai Nawabgang are the districts where mangoes are grown best.

(e) There were two people and they were on board.

6. (a) E-mail is a messaging system which is based on computer (Make it simple).

(b) It is cheaper than telephone calls (Make it positive).

(c) It permits communication between two parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously (Maki it complex).

(d) It takes only a few seconds to transmit a message from one country to another (Make it negative).

(e) But even here commercially operated e-mail facilities are used for important purposes (Make it active).

Ans: (a) E-mail is a computer-based messaging system.

(b) Telephone calls are not so cheap as it.

(c) It permits communication between two parties, though the parties are not actually present simultaneously.

(d) It takes not more than a few seconds to transmit a message from one country to another.

(e) But even here people use commercially operated e-mail facilities for important purposes.

7. (a) If we utilize these resources properly, we can eradicate our poverty (Make it simple).

(b) Then they use hand-fans to fan themselves (Make it passive).

(c) Despite knowing some rules they hardly care for them (Make it compound).

(d) His parents did not dislike him at all (Make it affirmative).

(e) Students want to cross barriers of examination and so they seek chances (Make it complex).

Ans:

(a) By utilizing these resources properly, we can eradicate our poverty.

Or, Proper utilization of these resources can eradicate our poverty.

(b) Then hand-fans are used by them to fan themselves.

(c) They know some rules but hardly care for them.

(d) His parents liked him very much.

(e) Students seek chances so that they can cross barriers of examination.

 8. (a) They are concerned with the outer show of things and beings (Make it active).

(b) What is anger but a vice (Make it assertive)?

(c) Everybody believes education to be the backbone of a nation (Make it compound).

(d) Very few geese of the world were as wonderful as it (Make it superlative).

(e) Nothing but education can give us the light of knowledge (Make it affirmative).

Ans:

(a) The outer show of things and beings concerns them.

(b) Anger is nothing but a vice.

(c) Education is the backbone of a nation and everybody believes it.

(d) It was one of the most wonderful geese of the world.

(e) Only education can give us the light of knowledge.

 9. (a) It does not degrade our mind and pollute our sensibility (Make it affirmative).

(b) As man is curious, he will try to invent new things (Make it simple).

(c) They help us to build new cells at the death of old ones (Make it complex).

(d) Once we were subjugated (Maki it negative).

(e) The cook told him that the duck had not more than one leg (Make it affirmative).

Ans: (a) It ennobles our mind and refines our sensibility.

(b) Man will try to invent new things because of his curiosity.

(c) They help us to build new cells as/when old ones die.

(d) Once we were not independent.

(e) The cook told him that the duck had one leg only.

10. (a) We have to take balanced diet so that we can be healthy (Make it simple).

(b) Everyone can prosper in life by reading books (Make it negative).

(c) There are many things that we can include in technology (Make it passive).

(d) They are called the peaceful people because of their nonviolent nature (Make it compound).

(e) The cook insisted that this duck had only one leg (Make it compound).

Ans: (a) We have to take balanced diet to be healthy.

Or, We have to take balanced diet in order to be healthy.

(b) None can prosper in life without reading books.

(c) There are many things that can be included in technology (by us).

(d) They are nonviolent in nature and so they are called the peaceful people.

Or, Their nature is nonviolent and so they are called the peaceful people.

(e) This duck had only one leg and the cook insisted on it.

11. (a) They grow not less than 24 varieties of crops (Make it affirmative).

(b) Though Hopi women cannot become religious leaders, their children inherit the clan of their mother (Make it simple).

(c) We belong to a country named Bangladesh (Make it compound).

(d) It is more powerful than anything else (Maki it superlative).

(e) Selling the eggs in the market, he became rich (Make it complex).

Ans: (a) They grow as many as 24 varieties of crops.

(b) In spite of Hopi women’s not becoming religious leaders, their children inherit the clan of their mother.

(c) We belong to a country and its name is Bangladesh.

(d) It is the most powerful of all things.

(e) As he sold the eggs in the market, he became rich.

 12. (a) Proper steps being taken, their condition may improve (Make it complex).

(b) No house was raided by him for robbery (Make it active).

(c) When his master sat down to eat, he quickly noticed the missing leg (Make it simple).

(d) The roast looked too delicious for the cook to resist the temptation (Make it complex).

(e) Once a duck was roasted by a cook for his master (Make it active).

Ans: (a) If we take proper steps, their condition may improve.

(b) He did not raid any house for robbery.

(c) His master quickly noticed the missing leg at the time of his sitting down to eat.

(d) The roast looked so delicious that the cook could not resist the temptation.

(e) Once a cook roasted a duck for his master.

13. (a) Different kinds of diseases which are fatal are spread for having these foods (Make it compound).

(b) We should be conscious or we will have to pay a lot for this (Make it simple).

(c) She had none to look after her (Make it complex).

(d) The bereavement overwhelmed the old woman (Make it passive).

(e) It is the most powerful of all things (Make it comparative).

Ans: (a) We have these foods and thus different kinds of fatal diseases are spread.

(b) Without being conscious, we will have to pay a lot for this.

(c) She had none who could look after her.

(d) The old woman was overwhelmed with the bereavement.

(e) It is more powerful than anything else.

14.  (a) Salma is a very good student.(Exclamatory).(b)She is always attentive to his studies.(Negative)(c) She reads attentively to do well in the examination.(Complex) (d) She is hardworking and does not waste time.(Simple)(e) So everybody loves her.(Passive)

Answer:What a good student Salma is! (b) She is never inattentive to her studies.(c) She reads attentively so that she can do well in the examination. (d) Being hardworking she does not waste waste time.(e) So,she is loved by everybody.

15. (a) We should make the habit of reading books so that we may earn knowledge.(Simple) (b) The books written by famous writers is a great source of increasing our knowledge (Complex).(c) Nobody gets perfection in life if he does not read the books of the great writers (Passive).(d) To make the society civilized there is no alternative to reading books.(Interrogative) (e) A book is our greatest friend.(Positive)

Answer:(a) We should make the habit of reading books to earn knowledge.(b) The books which are written by famous writers are a great source of increasing our knowledge.(c) Perfection in life is gotten by nobody if the books of the great writers are not read by him.(d) Is there any alternative to reading books to make the society civilized? (e) No other friend is so great as a book.

16. (a) Cox’ Bazer is the longest sea beach in the world.(Passive).(b) Everyone knows this (Interrogative)(c) Tourists from home and abroad visit this beach.(Passive)(d)They come here to enjoy themselves (Complex).(e) Our government is going to take some steps to make it more attractive.(Passive).

Answer (a) No other sea beach in the world is as long as Cox’s Bazer.(b) Who doesn’t know this? (c) This sea beach is visited by the tourists from home and abroad. (d) They come here so that they can enjoy themselves.(e) Some steps are going to be taken by our government to make it more attractive.

  1. (a) Computer is one of the greatest invention of modern science.(Positive).It renders great service to mankind .(b) A Computer is a blessing on earth.(negative).(c) Though it is a blessing,it has dark sides.(Simple) (d) Computer now a days being used in almost every sphere by the people.(Active)(e) We cannot but depend on it.(Affirmative.)

Answer:Very few inventions of modern science are as great as computer.(b) A computer is not a curse on earth.(c) In spite of being a blessing, it has dark sides.(d) The people are using computers in almost every sphere now-a-days.(e) We must depend on it.  

  1. Though Bangldesh is not a big coutry, too man people live here.(Simple)(b) Most of the people are poor.(Negative)(c) They cannot send their children to school for poverty.(Complex) (d) The monsoon causes rainfall.(Interrogative) (e) The country looks very beautiful (Exclamatory).

Answer (a) Inspite of being a small country, too many people live in Bangladesh.(b) Most of the people are not rich.(c) It is poverty for which they cannot send their children to school.Or They cannot send their children to school because they are poor.(e) Does’t the monsoon cause heavy rainfall?(e) How beautiful the country looks!

  1. Industry is the mother of success.(a) One can prosper in life by working hard.(Negative).(b) We have to work hard to earn money or to gain knowledge(Complex).(c) Those who are idle always lag behind.(simple)(d) Idle people are nothing but the burden of the society (Simple) (e) They give nothing to the country.(Interrogative).

Answer(a) One can  not prosper in life without working hard. (b) We have to work hard so that we can earn money and gain fame.(c) The Idle always lag behind.( d) The Idle are the burden of society.(e) Do they give anything to the country?

  1. Sumit is my friend.(a) He is a regular student.(Negative).(b) He is never late to attend his classes.(affirmative) (c) He wants to be a doctor to serve people.(Complex).For this reason he has been working hard.(d) He sits to read when it is time for reading.(Simple) (e) His is loved by his parents,teachers and friends.(active).

Answer: He is not an irregular student.(b) He is always punctual to attend his classes .(c) He wants to be a doctor so that he can serve people.(d) He sits to read at the time of reading.(e) His parents,teachers and friends love him.

  1. Industry is the key to success.(a) No one can prosper in life without industry.(affirmative).(b) We have to work hard to earn money or to aquire knowledge.(Complex).(c) Those who are idle always lay behind.(Simple).(d) People say that those who work hard see the light to prosperity in life.(Passive).(e) So in the society women work as much as men.(Comparative).

Answer(a) Everyone can prosper in life with Industry.(b) We have to work hard if we want to earn money or to acquire knowledge.(c) The Idle always lag behind.(d) It is said by people that the light of prosperity is seen by those by whom hard work is done.(e) Women work not less than men.

  1. (a) No other country in the world is as populous as Bangladesh.(Comparative).(b) People who live in the village are farmers.(Simple).(c) The farmer are not rich.(Affirmative)(d) The farmers work hard to support themselves.(Complex).(e)They should be taken care of.(active).

Answer:(a) Bangladesh is more populous than any other country in the world.(b) People living in the village are farmers.(c) The farmers are poor.(d) The farmers work hard so that they can support themselves.(e) We should take care of them.

  1. (a) Cricket is a very exciting game.(Exclamatory ) (b) People of all ages enjoy the game.(passive).(c) At present cricket is the most popular game in our country(Comparative)(d) Though cricket is a costly game, people of all classes enjoy playing it.(Simple).There are two versions of cricket, one day cricket and test cricket.(e) Bangladesh is a test playing country but its standard is not high.(Complex).

Answer(a) What an exciting game cricket is! (b) This game is enjoyed very much by the people of all ages.(c) At present, cricket is more popular than most other games in our country.(d) In spite if cricket  being a very costly game, people of all classes get a great deal of delight playing and witnessing.(e) Though Bangladesh is a test playing country, its standard is not high.

  1. (a) Tousif is a regular student (Make it negative).(b) He is never late to attend his class.(make it affirmative).(c) He wants to be a doctor to serve the people (Make it complex).For this he has been working hard.(d) He sits to read when it is time for reading (Simple).(e) He is loved by his parents, teachers and friends.(Active)

Answer: (a)Tousif is not an irregular student.(b) He is always punctual to attend his class.(c) He wants to be a doctor so that he can serve people.(d) During reading time he sits to read.(e) His parents,teachers and friends love him.

  1. (a) The national Memorial which is situated at Savar is a symbol of the nation’s respect.(Simple)(b) Standing in front of the graves we bow down our head (compound).(c) The towers symbolizes the loftiness of the sprit of the martyred freedom fighters. (Interrogative) (d) We always remember their memories.(Negative) (e) It is one of the largest towers in Bangladesh.(Positive)Everyday many people go to visit it.

Answer: The National memorial at Savar is a symbol of the nation’s respect.(b) We stand in front of the grave and bow down our heads .(c) Do not the towers symbolize the loftiness of the sprit of the martyred freedom fighters? (d) We never forget their memories.(e) No other tower in Bangladesh is as large as this.

  1. (a) We work hard to attain success in life.(Complex).(b) Peace and prosperity is not possible without being industrious.(Affirmative).(c) A man who leads an idle life, brings misery for his life.(Simple).(d) He can never help of the society.(Passive).Such kind of man is the burden of the society.(e) Everybody dislike him.(Negative).

Answer: (a) We work hard so that we can attain success in our life.(b) Anything but peace and prosperity is possible without being industrious.(c) By leading an idle life, a man brings misery for his life.(d) People of the society can never be helped by him.(e) Nobody likes him.

  1. Bangladesh is a small country.(a) We are proud of our freedom fighters.(interrogative).(b) Their contribution will never be forgotten.(Affirmative).(c)They were inspired by the common people.(active).(d) Their sacrifice is greater than any other thing.(Positive).(e) but, today many of them lead a very miserable life.(complex)

Answer(a) Aren’t we proud of our freedom fighters?(b) Their contribution will be remembered for ever.(c) The common people inspired them.(d) Their sacrifice is the greatest of all other things.(e) But today many of them lead a life which is very miserable.

 

  1. (a) Unemployment is a state when a man has no work to earn money.(Simple)(b) It is a social evil which hampers the progress of social life.(compound).(c)The prosperity of a society depends upon the reasonable income of its able-bodied person.(complex).So every-able bodied person should have some suitable work.(d)This increases the per capital income.(Passive).This also increases the standard of living of the people and ensures overall progress of the state. On the other hand, unemployment hinders social progress, disturbs peace and leads to social crimes.(e) Unemployment is a social evil which must be cured at any cost .(Negative).

Answer (a) Unemployment is a state of having no work to earn money.(b) It is a social evil and it hampers the progress of social life.(c) The prosperity of a society depends upon the reasonable income of its persons who are able bodied.(d) The per capita income of a country is increased by this.(e) Unemployment is a social evil which must be endured at any cost.

  1. (a)Jamal gets poorer marks than any other students.(Positive).(b) He is not attentive to his lessons.(Affirmative).(c) Moreover, he is lazy(Negative).(d) His preparation is always poor,(Neagtive). So, before the examination he always manages short suggestion of probable question.(Passive).

(a) No other student gets as poor marks as Jamal.(b) He is inattentive to his lessons.(c) Moreover,he is not active.(d) His preparation is never good.(e) So,before the examination  short suggestion of Probable question is always managed by him.

  1. (a) We must eat to live.(Compound).So we see that for the existence of life food plays the role of fuel.(b)Without fuel no machine works.(Complex).Thus food or fuel does the work of an energy source.(c)To work humans and animals need food.(Complex).To achieve itself, a machine needs fuel.In these sense, fuels include food, oil, petrol, digels etc.(d) These fuels produce heat and power.(Passive). (e) Heat and power make animate and inanimate objects move and work.(Passive).The difference is that fuel, needed by humans is called food.

Answer: (a) We must eat so that we may live.(b) If there is no fuel, a machine does not work.(c) It is for working that human and animals need food.(d) Heat and energy are produced by these fuels.(e) Animate and inanimate objects are made to move and  work by  heat and power.

  1. Man is superior to any other creature in the universe.(a) He is superior to all because of his intellect.(complex).(b) Creator has blessed him with conscience to differentiate the right path from wrong one.(Complex).(c) Though he has intellect and conscience, he has lagged behind the humanity.(Simple).(d) Man are being presecuted by men every moment and every where in the world.(active).(e) What a critical time the man kind is passing now.(Assertive)

Answer:(a) Man is superior to all because he has intellect.(b) Creator blessed him with conscience so that he may differentiate the right path from the wrong one.,(c) Despite having intellect and  conscience ,he has lagged behind the humanity.(d) Men persecute men every moment and everywhere in the world.(e) The man kind is passing now a very critical time.

  1. (a) Information technology is a wonderful invention (Exclamatory)(b) There are many things that can be included in technology.(Simple).(c) Computer has preshed the modern age a step ahead .(Complex).It can do many things.(d) Internet is the latest invention in the communication system.(Interrogative).(e) We should know the use of computer and internet in our daily life.(Omit should by using it.)

Answer(a) What an invention information technology is!(b) Many things can be included in technology.(c) It is  computer which has preshed the modern age a step ahead.(d) What is the latest invention in the communication system.(e) It is necessary to know the use of computer and internet in our daily life.

  1. Student life is the time of preparation for future life.(a) Study is the first and foremost duty of a student.(Complex).(b)As they are assets to the nation, they should equip themselves accordingly.(Compound).Proper emphasis should be given to their studies (c) They must be punctual, industrious, preserving and truthful.(Negative).He should also cultivate good manners.(d) If a student is devoted to studies, he will surely shine in life.(Simple).A student should take part in co-curiicular activities which help him to express his invite talents.(e) A good student should be conscious of politics but should not be the cat’s paw of the shrewd politicians.(Complex).

Answer(a) It is the study which is the first and foremost duty of a student.(b) They are assets to the nation and so they should equip themselves accordingly.(c) They cannot become punctual, industrious ,preserving and truthful.(d) Being devoted to studies, a student will surely shine in life.(e) Though a good student should be conscious of politics, he should not be the cat’s paw of the shrewd politicians.

  1. The name of our country is Bangladesh.(a) It is a very beautiful, small and fertile country.(Exclamatory ) Dhaka is the capital of our country. The other name of Dhaka is Jahangir Nagar. (b) He founded the city of Dhaka. (Passive).(c) It is the biggest in Bangladesh.(Positive).Many times I went to Dhaka.(d) When I arrived my friend took me to his house.(Simple).(e) We are proud of our country.(Negative).

Answer (a) How beautiful, small and fertile country it is! (b) The city of Dhaka was founded by him.(c) No other cities in Bangladesh are as big as this.(d) On my arrival my friend took me to his house.(e) We are not ashamed of our country.

  1. Money cannot make a man happy.(a) In this world many people are unhappy though they have money.(Simple).(b) But many people who have little money are very happy.(Simple).(c) People want to be happy and they earn money.(Complex) (d) We can be sure that this is a wrong idea.(Compound).More money means more anxiety.(e) We should not be guided by money.(Passive)

Answer:.(a) In spite of having money, many people in this word  are unhappy.(b) But in  spite of having little money, many people are happy.(c) As they want to be happy, they earn money.(d) This is a wrong idea and we can be sure of it.(e) Money should not guide us.

  1. Knowledge is power. There is no doubt about it.(a) We can control nature with the help of knowledge.(Complex).(b) If we have no knowledge we are helpless.(Simple)(c) As our knowledge is increasing we know more about nature.(Compound).Our life has become much better than it was before.(d)We can think of a very bright future.(Complex).(e) But we should use our knowledge properly.(Passive).

Answer: It is knowledge with the help of which we can control nature. or It is with the help of knowledge that we can control nature.(b) We are helpless without knowledge. Or Having no knowledge ,we are helpless.(c) Our knowledge is increasing and we know more about nature.(d) We can think of a future which is bright.(e) But our knowledge be used properly.

  1. (a) We work hard to attain success in life.(Complex).(b) Peace and prosperity is not possible without being industrious.(Affirmative).(c) A man who leads an idle life, brings misery for his life.(Simple).(d) He can never help of the society.(Passive).Such kind of man is the burden of the society.(e) Everybody dislike him.(Negative).

Answer:(a) We work hard so that we can attain success in our life.(b) Anything but peace and prosperity is possible without being industrious.(c) By leading an Idle life, a man brings misery for his life.(d) People of the society can never be helped by him.(e) Nobody likes him.

 

  1. (a) Strategy is more important than any other thing in the examination.(Superlative) (b) Any answer in the examination should not be elaborated.(Active).(c) After getting the question paper, he should read through it carefully. (Complex).(d) At first glance the questions may not seen easy.(Affirmative).it becomes gradually easier.(e) A student should attempt to answer all the questions so that he may get good marks.(Simple).

Answer:(a) Strategy is the most important thing in the examination.(b) Anyone should not elaborate any answer in the examination.(c) After he gets the questions paper, he should read through it carefully.(d) At first glance the questions may seem difficult.(e) A student should attempt to answer all the questions to get good marks.

  1. Man is mortal.(a) All men must die.(Negative) (b) It matters little if a man lives many years or not (Interrogative).(c) Our life is not measured by months or years.(Active).(d) The people who live only for their own interest are not real human beings.(Compound) (e) Their life is not better than that of a beast.(Positive).So, we should try our best to do something for society.

Answer(a) No man can escape/avoid death.(b) Does it matter much if a man lives many years or not? (c) We do not measure our life by months or years.(d) Some people live only for their own interest and they are not real human beings.(e) Their life is as bad as that of a beast.

  1. We live in Bangladesh (a) She is not the poorest country in the world (Positive) Too many people live if in here.(b) It is not possible for her to give employment to all these people. (Complex).(c) People can train themselves in one or other of the vacations.(Passive)(d) Bangladesh can engage her human resources only after exploring all her other resources.(Complex).Until then she can fruitful utilize her manpower in overseas employment.(e) Thus she earns a lot of foreign exchange.(Complex).

Answer (a) Few other countries in the world are as poor as she.(b) It is not possible for her that she can give employment to all these people.(e) People can be trained by themselves in one or other of the vacations.(d) Bangladesh can engage her human resources only when she will explore all her other resources.(e) It is the way that she earns a lot of foreign exchange.

  1. (a)Everybody believes education is the backbone of a nation.(Simple)(b) No nation can prosper neglecting education.(Complex).(c) It is more powerful than anything else.(Superlative) (d) Only education gives us the light of knowledge.(negative) (e) So, everybody should realize it and act accordingly.(Passive).

Answer(a) Everybody believes education to be the backbone of a nation.(b) No nation can prosper if they neglect education.(c) It is the most powerful of all things.(d) Nothing but education gives us the light of knowledge.(e) So, it should be realized by everybody and act accordingly. 

  1. (a)One can prosper in life by working hard.(Negative) (b) We have to work hard to gain or to earn money (Complex) (c) Those who are Idle always lag behind.(simple) (d)Idle people are not but burden of the society.(Simple) (e) They give nothing to the country.(Interrogative)

Answer(a) None can prosper in life without working hard.(b) We have to work hard so that we can gain fame or earn money.(c) The Idle always lag behind.(d) Idle people are only the burden of the society .(e) Do they give anything to the society.

  1. (a)English is a foreign language.(Negative) (b) Without learning English, we cannot hope to get any job.(Complex).(c) The man who knows English well can go abroad (Simple).(d) We must learn English.(negative)(e) Everybody knows the truth.(Passive)

(a) English is not a native language.(b) If we do not learn English, we cannot hope to get any job.(c) A man knowing English well can go abroad.(d) We cannot learn English.(e) The truth is known to everybody.

  1. (a) Everyone lives in society (Negative) So (b) We should not disturb social order.(Affirmative)(c) If we maintain it, we shall be able to lead a peaceful life.(Simple).(d) Who doesn’t like peace?(Assertive)(e) It is so much required.(Active)

Answer(a) There is no one but lives in society.(b) We should maintain social order.(c) By maintaining it we shall be able to lead a peaceful life.(d) Everybody likes peace.(e) We require it so much.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) Most of the students cannot write the answer scripts properly.(Affirmative).(b) Being unable to make out the questions, they memorize the answers with unnecessary and irrelevant details.(Complex).(c) In spite of the teacher’s suggestion to make a brief answer, they are proved to make a lengthy answer(Compound).As a result, they get poor marks.(d) The students should answer to the questions briefly and to the point  to obtain good marks.(Passive).(e) Copying anything blindly is strictly prohibited.(active)

Answer:(a) Most of the students are unable to write answer scripts properly.(b) As they are make out the questions, they memorize the answers with unnecessary and irrelevant details.(c) Teachers suggest them to make a brief answer but they make a lengthy answer.(d) Answer to the question should be answered briefly and to the point to obtain good marks by the students.(e) We strictly prohibit copying any anything blindly.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) No one can shine in life without honesty.(Affirmative)(b) We have to be honest to reach the highest peak of life.(Complex).(c) Quality education which is a must can can make one detached from the path of honesty.(Compound).(d) Education having religious values is the best processs of establishing a peaceful society.(Positive).(e) If we work hard in this regard,we can see soon pollution free nation.(Simple)

Answer: (a) Everyone can shine in life by honesty.(b) We have to be honest so that we can reach the highest peak of life.(c) Quality education is a must and it can make one detached from the path of dishonesty.(d) No other process of establishing a peaceful society is as good as education having religious values.(e) By working hard in this regard, we can see soon a pollution free nation.

 

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a)At present price hike is the greatest problem in Bangladesh. (Positive).(b) This problem is causing a great hard to all classes of people.(complex).(c) Though the price of daily necessaries is increasing day by day,the income of people is not increasing at all.(Compound).(d) so the people have to decrease their consumption so that they can servive.(Simple)(e) We must increase our production to get rid of this abonormal situation.(Negative).

Answer (a) At present no other problem in Bangladesh is as great as price hike.(b) This problem is causing harm which is great to all classes of people.(c) The price of daily necessaries is increasing day by day but the income of the people is not increasing at all.(d) So the people have to decrease their consumption in order to survive.(e) We cannot but increase our production to get rid at this abnormal situation

 

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) Cox’s Bazer Sea beach is the longest sea beach in the world.(Complex).(b) It is one of the most beautiful Sea-beach in the world.(Positive) (c) People who come from home and abroad enjoy its beauty very much.(simple).(d) I wish I could visit the beach soon.(Exclamatory).(e) It is called pleasures seekers paradise.(Active).  

Answer:(a) It is Cox’s Bazer Sea beach which is the longest sea beach in the world.(b) Very few sea beach in the world are so beautiful as it.(c) People coming from home and abroad, enjoy its beauty very much.(d) If I could visit the beach soon! (e) People call it pleasures seekers paradise.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) Every one believes that education is the backbone of a nation.(Simple).(b) No nation can prosper neglecting education.(Complex).(c) It is more powerful than anything else.(Superlative).(d) Only education gives us the light of knowledge.(Negative).(e) So, everybody should realize it and act accordingly.(Passive)

Answer:(a) Everybody believes education to be the backbone of a nation.(b) No nation can prosper if they neglect education.(c) It is the most powerful thing.(d) Nothing but education gives us light of knowledge.(e) So it should be realized and acted accordingly.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) English is more used than any other language.(Positive) (b) Organizations frequently need employees who have a good command of English.(Simple). (c) There are many companies and they provide English language training for their staff.(Complex) (d) Many believe that English helps people to get good jobs and better salaries.(Passive).(e) English is spoken all over the world.(Active). 

Answer:(a) No other language is so used as English.(b) Organizations need employees having a good command over English.(c) There are many companies which provide English Language training staff.(d) It is believed by many that people are helped to get good jobs and better salaries by English.(e) So we must put greater importance on English.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) English is an international language.(Interrogative) (b) Who does not care to learn it?(Affirmative).(c)Very few languages in the world are so easy to learn as it.(Superlative)(d) People who live in English speaking countries learn it as it is their first language.(Simple).(e) People in other countries learn it as second language.(Passive). 204

Answer:(a) Isn’t English an international language? (b) Everybody cares to learn it.(c) It is one of the easiest languages in the world.(d) People living in English speaking countries learn it as their first language.(e) It is learnt as second Language by people in other countries.

  1. Transform the underlined sentences of the passage below according the direction given beside each.

Our Motherland Bangladesh is blessed with different eye-catching beauty-spots. Cox’s Bazer sea-beach is one of them.(a) Cox’s Bazer sea beach, the longest sea in the world is very beautiful to look at.(Complex).(b) It is one of the most beautiful sea beaches in the world.(Positive).(c) It is called the Paradise of the Pleasure Seekers for its uncommon beauty . (Active).(d) Everyday uncounted travelers both from home and abroad  go there to feed their hungry souls enjoying its soothing beauty.(Compound).(e) Definitely this visits revives one’s dull sprit.(Passive)

Answer: (a) Cox’s Bazer Sea beach which is the longest sea beach in the world is very beautiful to look at.(b) Very few sea-beaches in the world are as beautiful as it.(c) For its uncommon beauty people call it the Paradise of the pleaser seeker.(d) Everyday uncounted travelers both from and abroad go there and feed their hungry souls enjoying its soothing beauty.(e) One’s dull sprit is revived definitely by this visit.

  1. Transform the underlined sentences of the passage below according the direction given beside each.

Bangladesh is a small country.(a) It was 1971 when Bangladesh got independence (Simple) (b) It is the most significant event in the history of Bangladesh.(Positive).Bangladesh was under the British colonial rule until 1947.(c) The lives of the people of Bangladesh have been shaped by tragedy.(Active).Though growth rate had showed down, it has almost doubled since Independence.(d) Despite many negative aspects, Bangladesh has become a country of possibility .(Complex)(e) The 21 st February,1952 immediately comes to our mind.(Complex).

Answer:(a) Bangladesh got independence in 1971.(b) No other event in the history of the people of Bangladesh.(c) Tragedy has shaped the lives of the people of Bangladesh.(d) Though there are many negative aspects, Bangladesh has become a country of possibility.(e) It is the 21 st February,1952 which immediately comes to our mind.

  1. Transform the underlined sentences of the passage below according the direction given beside each.

(a) The students studying seriously can expect to make an excellent result. (Complex).(b) But most of our  students are inattentive to their study (Negative)(c) They kill their valuable  time in gossiping and playing with mobile sets or watching Television.(Passive).(d)They do not take their exams seriously (Interrogative).As a result, they are to suffer a lot.(e) So, study seriously and enjoy a better future. (Simple).

Answer(a) The students who study seriously can expect to make an excellent result.(b) But most of our students are not attentive to their study.(c) Their valuable time is killed (by them) in gossiping and playing with mobile sets or watching Television.(d) Do they take their exams seriously?(e) So, study seriously to enjoy a better future.

  1. Transform the underlined sentences of the passage below according the direction given beside each.

Bangladesh is a land of rivers .(a) The Padma is one of the biggest rivers in Bangladesh.(Comparative) (b) When it is summer, it becomes emaciated.(Simple) (c) During the rainy season it assumes a terrible shape.(Complex).(d) Who doesn’t know this? (Affirmative) (e) Tourists from home and abroad visits its shore to enjoy themselves.(Complex).

Answer:(a) The Padma is bigger than most other rivers in Bangladesh.(b) In summer,it becomes emaciated.(c) When it is the rainy season, it assumes a terrible shape.(d) Who doesn’t know this?(e) Its shore is visited by tourists from home and abroad.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets.

Tariqul is a good boy. He goes to school every day.(a) As soon as school breaks up, he return to his home (Negative)(b) He is one of the tallest boy in the class.(positive). (c) As he works hard, he stands first in every class.(Compound).(d)He takes care of his health regularly.(Passive). Everybody likes him because of his good nature. (e) He bears a very charming personality. (Exclamatory). 

(a) As soon as school breaks up, he does not return late to his home.(b) No other boy is as tall as he is in the class.(c) He works hard and stands first in every class.(d) His health has been taken care by him regularly.(e) How charming personality he bears!

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) No man can live alone (Interrogative) (b) When we are children, the family protects us.(Simple)(c) When we grow up,we need help of people   around us.(Compound).(d) People around us train us to to do our duty.(Complex)(e) Our only duty is to act thoughtfully so that does not harm others.(Simple).

Answer(a) Who can live alone?/Can any man live alone?(b) The family protects us in our childhood.(c) We grow up and we need of all people around us.(d) People around us train us so that we can do our duty.(e) Our duty is nothing but to act thoughtfully so that it does not harm others.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

Sumon Mahmud comes of a Muslim family.(a) He is the most brilliant student in our class.(Positive).(b) He always works hard to improve his result.(complex).(c) His father is a simple clerk in a government office.(complex).(d) His father earns a meagre amount.(Passive).His is not economically well off.(e) but his honesty is known to all.(Complex).

Answer(a) No other student in our class is as brilliant as Sumon Mahmud.(b) He always works hard so that he may improve his result.(c) It is his father who is a simple clerk is govt office.(d) A meager amount is earned by his father.(e) It is known to all that he is honest.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

We are Bangladeshi (a) We are proud of our freedom fighters.(Interrogative)(b) Their contribution will never be forgotten.(Affirmative).They were inspired by the common people.(c) Their sacrifice is greater than any other thing.(Positive) (d) But today many of them lead a miserable life.(Complex). (e) If we take proper steps, their contribution may improve.(Simple)

Answer(a) Aren’t we proud of our freedom fighters? (b) Their contribution will always be remembered.(c) No other thing is as great as their sacrifice.(d) But today many of them lead a life which is very miserable.(e) By our taking steps, their contribution may improve.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) Poverty is the greatest problem in our country.(Positive)But we hardly realize that this miserable condition is our creation.(b) Many do not try to better their condition by hard labour.(Compound).(c) They only curse their fate.(Passive)But this is not reality.(d) It is man who is the maker of his own fortune.(Simple) So, they should work hard to improve their lot.(e) By working hard,they can remove their condition.(Negative).

Answer(a) No other problem in our country is as great as poverty.(b) Many do not labour hard and try to better their condition.(c) Their fate is cursed only by them.(d) Man is the maker of his own fortune.(e) Without working hard,they cannot remove their condition.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

In this life there are no gains without pains.(Complex) (b) Life would be dull if there were no difficulties.(Simple)(c) Without real struggle games lose their zest.(Complex).(d) No victory is a real triumph unless the foe is worthy of your steel.(Interrogative).(e) Life is a continuous competitive examination.(Comparative)

Answer:(a) In this life there are no gains without pains which are without pains.(b) Without difficulties life would be dull.(c) If there is no real struggle ,games lose their zest.(d) Is  any victory a real triumph unless the foe is worthy of your steel?(e) Life is more continuous competitive than any other examinations. 

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

Sincerity is a great medicine to work. (a) One can go a long way if one does anything with sincerity.(Simple)(b) The rich people are sincere to work.(Complex).So they are capable of making anything success. (c) An insincere man can never go a long way in the world.(Complex).(d)The poor people are not sometimes sincere.(Complex)So they lag behind.(e) If they can know the benefit of sincerity, they will make a good use of it.(Simple)

Answer: By doing anything sincerity one can go a long way.(b) The people who are rich are sincere to work.(c) A man who is insincere can never go a long way in the world.(d) The people who are poor are not sometimes sincere.(e) By knowing the benefit of sincerity,they will make a good use of it.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a)There are a good number of reasons why the students in Bangladesh fail in English.(Simple)(b) Because of foreign language the students fail in English in great number.(Complex) Very few students are earnest in learning English. (c) Students seek the chance to cross barriers of examinations.(Compound) (d) English is the most fearful subject for them.(Positive) (e) We must develop the student of English.(Negative).

Answer:(a) There are a good number of reasons for the students failure in English in Bangladesh.(b) As English is foreign language, the students fail in English in great number.(c) Students seek the chance and they want to cross barriers of examination.(d) No other subject for them is as fearful as English.(e) We can’t but develop the student of English.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets

(a) We have to be educated  in order to serve the nation.(Complex).The nation needs worthy citizens.(b) They will remove illiteracy and corruption from the country.(Passive)(c)Very few countries in the world are as corrupted as her people.(Comparative).(d) We love her most and wish the best of her.(Comparative).(e) She is the only darling child of nature.(Negative).

Answer:(a) We have to be educated so that we can serve the nation.(b) Illiteracy and corruption will be removed from the country by them.(c) She is more corrupted than most other countries in the world.(d) We love her more and wish better of her.(e) She is nothing but the darling child of nature.

  1. Read the following passage and transform the underlined sentences as directed in brackets. (a) Our national flag symbolizes freedom from foreign domination.(Compound) (b) It is hoisted everywhere on the national days. (Active) (c) We show respect to our national flag.(Interrogative) (d) We have a great honour to it (exclamatory) (e) Many people sacrificed their lives for this flag.(Complex).

Answer:Our National flag symbolizes freedom and that is from foreign domination.(b) People hoist it everywhere on the national days.(c) Don’t we show respect to our national flag?(d) What a great honour to it we have!(e) There were many people who sacrificed their lives for it.

  1. (a) Computer is one of the greatest invention of modern science.(Positive).It renders great service to mankind .(b) A Computer is a blessing on earth.(negative).(c) Though it is a blessing, it has dark sides.(Simple) (d) Computer now a days being used in almost every sphere by the people.(Active)(e) We cannot but depend on it.(Affirmative.)

Answer: Very few inventions of modern science are as great as computer. (b) A computer is not a curse on earth.(c) In spite of being a blessing, it has dark sides. (d) The people are using computers in almost every sphere now-a-days. (e) We must depend on it.  

  1. (a) Information technology is a wonderful invention (Exclamatory) (b) There are many things that can be included in technology.(Simple).(c) Computer has preshed the modern age a step ahead .(Complex).It can do many things.(d) Internet is the latest invention in the communication system.(Interrogative).(e) We should know the use of computer and internet in our daily life.(Omit should by using it.)

Answer(a) What an invention information technology is! (b) Many things can be included in technology. (c) It is computer which has preshed the modern age a step ahead. (d) What is the latest invention in the communication system? (e) It is necessary to know the use of computer and internet in our daily life.

  1. Student life is the time of preparation for future life.(a) Study is the first and foremost duty of a student.(Complex).(b)As they are assets to the nation, they should equip themselves accordingly.(Compound).Proper emphasis should be given to their studies (c) They must be punctual, industrious, preserving and truthful.(Negative).He should also cultivate good manners.(d) If a student is devoted to studies, he will surely shine in life.(Simple).A student should take part in co-curricular activities which help him to express his invite talents.(e) A good student should be conscious of politics but should not be the cat’s paw of the shrewd politicians.(Complex).

Answer (a) It is the study which is the first and foremost duty of a student. (b) They are assets to the nation and so they should equip themselves accordingly. (c) They cannot become punctual, industrious, preserving and truthful. (d) Being devoted to studies, a student will surely shine in life. (e) Though a good student should be conscious of politics, he should not be the cat’s paw of the shrewd politicians.

  1. (a)English is a foreign language.(Negative) (b) Without learning English, we cannot hope to get any job.(Complex).(c) The man who knows English well can go abroad (Simple).(d) We must learn English.(negative)(e) Everybody knows the truth.(Passive)

(a) English is not a native language. (b) If we do not learn English, we cannot hope to get any job. (c) A man knowing English well can go abroad. (d) We cannot but learn English. (e) The truth is known to everybody.

  1. We live in Bangladesh (a) She is not the poorest country in the world (Positive) Too many people live if in here. (b) It is not possible for her to give employment to all these people. (Complex).(c) People can train themselves in one or other of the vacations.(Passive)(d) Bangladesh can engage her human resources only after exploring all her other resources.(Complex).Until then she can fruitful utilize her manpower in overseas employment.(e) Thus she earns a lot of foreign exchange.(Complex).

Answer (a) Few other countries in the world are as poor as she. (b) It is not possible for her that she can give employment to all these people. (e) People can be trained by themselves in one or other of the vacations.(d) Bangladesh can engage her human resources only when she will explore all her other resources. (e) It is the way that she earns a lot of foreign exchange.

  1. (a)Everybody believes education is the backbone of a nation.(Simple)(b) No nation can prosper neglecting education.(Complex).(c) It is more powerful than anything else.(Superlative) (d) Only education gives us the light of knowledge.(negative) (e) So, everybody should realize it and act accordingly.(Passive).

Answer (a) Everybody believes education to be the backbone of a nation. (b) No nation can prosper if they neglect education. (c) It is the most powerful of all things. (d) Nothing but education gives us the light of knowledge. (e) So, it should be realized by everybody and act accordingly. 

  1. (a)One can prosper in life by working hard.(Negative) (b) We have to work hard to gain or to earn money (Complex) (c) Those who are Idle always lag behind.(simple) (d)Idle people are not but burden of the society.(Simple) (e) They give nothing to the country.(Interrogative)

Answer (a) None can prosper in life without working hard. (b) We have to work hard so that we can gain fame or earn money.(c) The Idle always lag behind. (d) Idle people are only the burden of the society. (e) Do they give anything to the society?

  1. (a) Strategy is more important than any other thing in the examination.(Superlative) (b) Any answer in the examination should not be elaborated.(Active).(c) After getting the question paper, he should read through it carefully. (Complex).(d) At first glance the questions may not seem easy.(Affirmative).it becomes gradually easier.(e) A student should attempt to answer all the questions so that he may get good marks.(Simple).

Answer: (a) Strategy is the most important thing in the examination. (b) Anyone should not elaborate any answer in the examination. (c) After he gets the question paper, he should read through it carefully. (d) At first glance the questions may seem difficult. (e) A student should attempt to answer all the questions to get good marks.

  1. Man is mortal. (a) All men must die. (Negative) (b) It matters little if a man lives many years or not (Interrogative). (c) Our life is not measured by months or years.(Active).(d) The people who live only for their own interest are not real human beings. (Compound) (e) Their life is not better than that of a beast.(Positive).So, we should try our best to do something for society.

Answer (a) No man can escape/avoid death. (b) Does it matter much if a man lives many years or not? (c) We do not measure our life by months or years. (d) Some people live only for their own interest and they are not real human beings. (e) Their life is as bad as that of a beast.

  1. Knowledge is power. There is no doubt about it. (a) We can control nature with the help of knowledge.(Complex).(b) If we have no knowledge we are helpless. (Simple)(c) As our knowledge is increasing we know more about nature. (Compound).Our life has become much better than it was before. (d)We can think of a very bright future. (Complex). (e) But we should use our knowledge properly.(Passive).

Answer: It is knowledge with the help of which we can control nature.  or It is with the help of knowledge that we can control nature.(b) We are helpless without knowledge. Or Having no knowledge, we are helpless.(c) Our knowledge is increasing and we know more about nature. (d) We can think of a future which is bright.(e) But our knowledge be used properly.

  1. (a) We work hard to attain success in life.(Complex).(b) Peace and prosperity is not possible without being industrious.(Affirmative).(c) A man who leads an idle life, brings misery for his life.(Simple).(d) He can never help of the society.(Passive).Such kind of man is the burden of the society.(e) Everybody dislike him.(Negative).

Answer:(a) We work hard so that we can attain success in our life. (b) Anything but peace and prosperity is possible without being industrious. (c) By leading an Idle life, a man brings misery for his life. (d) People of the society can never be helped by him. (e) Nobody likes him.

  1. The name of our country is Bangladesh. (a) It is a very beautiful, small and fertile country. (Exclamatory ) Dhaka is the capital of our country. The other name of Dhaka is Jahangir Nagar.(b)He founded the city of Dhaka. (Passive).(c) It is the biggest in Bangladesh.(Positive).Many times I went to Dhaka.(d) When I arrived my friend took me to his house.(Simple).(e) We are proud of our country.(Negative).

Answer (a) How beautiful, small and fertile country it is! (b) The city of Dhaka was founded by him.(c) No other cities in Bangladesh are as big as this.(d) On my arrival my friend took me to his house.(e) We are not ashamed of our country.

 

  1. (a) Unemployment is a state when a man has no work to earn money.(Simple)(b) It is a social evil which hampers the progress of social life.(compound).(c)The prosperity of a society depends upon the reasonable income of its able-bodied person.(complex).So every-able bodied person should have some suitable work.(d)This increases the per capital income.(Passive).This also increases the standard of living of the people and ensures overall progress of the state. On the other hand, unemployment hinders social progress, disturbs peace and leads to social crimes.(e) Unemployment is a social evil which must be cured at any cost .(Negative).

Answer (a) Unemployment is a state of having no work to earn money.(b) It is a social evil and it hampers the progress of social life.(c) The prosperity of a society depends upon the reasonable income of its persons who are able bodied.(d) The per capita income of a country is increased by this.(e) Unemployment is a social evil which must be endured at any cost.

  1. (a) Books are men’s best companions in life.(negative ).You may many good friends.(b) But you may not get them when you need them.(Simple).One or two may prove false and do much harm.(c) But books are always prepared to be by your side.(Negative)(d) Some books will make you laugh.(Passive).Some others give you much pleasure, new knowledge and ideas.(e) They are your real friends in your life.(Negative –interrogative).

Ans (a) Books aren’t men’s worst companions in life.(b) But you may not get them when necessary.(c) But books are never unprepared to be our side.(d) You will be made to laugh by some books.(e) Aren’t they your real friends in your life.?

  1. (a) We should make the habit of reading books so that we may earn knowledge.(Simple) (b) The books written by famous writers is a great source of increasing our knowledge (Complex).(c) Nobody gets perfection in life if he does not read the books of the great writers (Passive).(d) To make the society civilized there is no alternative to reading books.(Interrogative) (e) A book is our greatest friend.(Positive)

Answer:(a) We should make the habit of reading books to earn knowledge.(b) The books which are written by famous writers are a great source of increasing our knowledge.(c) Perfection in life is gotten by nobody if the books of the great writers are not read by him.(d) Is there any alternative to reading books to make the society civilized? (e) No other friend is so great as a book.

  1. (a) Cox’ Bazer is the longest sea beach in the world.(Passive).(b) Everyone knows this (Interrogative)(c) Tourists from home and abroad visit this beach.(Passive)(d)They come here to enjoy themselves (Complex).(e) Our government is going to take some steps to make it more attractive.(Passive).

Answer (a) No other sea beach in the world is as long as Cox’s Bazer. (b) Who doesn’t know this? (c) This sea beach is visited by the tourists from home and abroad. (d) They come here so that they can enjoy themselves.(e) Some steps are going to be taken by our government to make it more attractive.

  1. Bangladesh is a small country.(a) It was 1971 when Bangladesh got independence (Simple) (b) It is the most significant event in the history of Bangladesh.(Positive).Bangladesh was under the British colonial rule until 1947.(c) The lives of the people of Bangladesh have been shaped by tragedy.(Active).Though growth rate had showed down, it has almost doubled since Independence.(d) Despite many negative aspects, Bangladesh has become a country of possibility .(Complex)(e) The 21 st February,1952 immediately comes to our mind.(Complex).

Answer:(a) Bangladesh got independence in 1971.(b) No other event in the history of the people of Bangladesh.(c) Tragedy has shaped the lives of the people of Bangladesh.(d) Though there are many negative aspects, Bangladesh has become a country of possibility.(e) It is the 21 st February,1952 which immediately comes to our mind.

  1. (a) The students studying seriously can expect to make an excellent result. (Complex).(b) But most of our students are inattentive to their study (Negative)(c) They kill their valuable time in gossiping and playing with mobile sets or watching Television.(Passive).(d)They do not take their exams seriously (Interrogative).As a result, they are to suffer a lot.(e) So, study seriously and enjoy a better future. (Simple).

Answer(a) The students who study seriously can expect to make an excellent result.(b) But most of our students are not attentive to their study.(c) Their valuable time is killed (by them) in gossiping and playing with mobile sets or watching Television.(d) Do they take their exams seriously?(e) So, study seriously to enjoy a better future.

  1. (a) Most of the students cannot write the answer scripts properly.(Affirmative).(b) Being unable to make out the questions, they memorize the answers with unnecessary and irrelevant details.(Complex).(c) In spite of the teacher’s suggestion to make a brief answer, they are proved to make a lengthy answer(Compound).As a result, they get poor marks.(d) The students should answer to the questions briefly and to the point to obtain good marks.(Passive).(e) Copying anything blindly is strictly prohibited.(active)

Answer:(a) Most of the students are unable to write answer scripts properly.(b) As they are make out the questions, they memorize the answers with unnecessary and irrelevant details.(c) Teachers suggest them to make a brief answer but they make a lengthy answer.(d) Answer to the question should be answered briefly and to the point to obtain good marks by the students.(e) We strictly prohibit copying any anything blindly.

  1. (a) We are proud of our freedom fighters.(Interrogative) (b) Their contribution will never be forgotten.(affirmative).(c) They were inspired by the common people.(active).They sacrificed their valuable lives.(d) Their sacrifice is greater than any other thing.(positive).(e) But today many of them lead a very miserable life.(Complex).

Answer: Answer(a) Aren’t we proud of our freedom fighters?(b) Their contribution will be remembered for ever.(c) The common people inspired them.(d) Their sacrifice is the greatest of all other things.(e) But today many of them lead a life which is very miserable.

  1. Our Motherland Bangladesh is blessed with different eye-catching beauty-spots. Cox’s Bazer sea-beach is one of them.(a) Cox’s Bazer sea beach, the longest sea in the world is very beautiful to look at.(Complex).(b) It is one of the most beautiful sea beaches in the world.(Positive).(c) It is called the Paradise of the Pleasure Seekers for its uncommon beauty . (Active).(d) Everyday uncounted travelers both from home and abroad go there to feed their hungry souls enjoying its soothing beauty.(Compound).(e) Definitely this visits revives one’s dull sprit.(Passive)

Answer: (a) Cox’s Bazer Sea beach which is the longest sea beach in the world is very beautiful to look at.(b) Very few sea-beaches in the world are as beautiful as it.(c) For its uncommon beauty people call it the Paradise of the pleaser seeker.(d) Everyday uncounted travelers both from and abroad go there and feed their hungry souls enjoying its soothing beauty.(e) One’s dull sprit is revived definitely by this visit.

  1. (a) When Rabindranath was seventeen years old, he was sent to London for studies. (simple) (b) But London made a poor impression on him. (passive voice) (c) He was lucky enough to find a friend/English family there. (complex) (d) Though he was getting on well there, his parents called him back to India in 1880. (compound) (e) London is one of the beautiful cities in world, we know. (comparative)
  2. Robert Bruce was the king of England. His army was defeated again and again by king Edward 1 of England. (a) Being defeated for six times, he lost all hopes (Make it compound). (b) He fled away to save his life (Make it complex). One day he was lying in a cave in a forest. (c) He noticed that a spider was trying to reach the top of the steep wall of the cave (Make it simple). (d) It fell down again and again (Make it negative). But it did not give up its attempts. At its seventh attempt, it succeeded in reaching the top. (e) The spider encouraged Bruce very much (Passive).
  3. The name of our motherland is Bangladesh. It is a land of rivers. (a) The Jamuna is one of the biggest rivers in Bangladesh (Make it comparative). (b) When it is summer, it becomes emaciated (make it simple). (c) During the rainy season, it assumes a terrible shape (Make it complex). (d) Everybody knows it (Make it interrogative). (e) Tourist from home and abroad visit its shore (Make it passive).
  4. (a) Pohela Baishakh is undoubtedly the most celebrated festival in Bangladesh. (Complex) (b) It is the first day of the Bengali year when the city roads get so jam packed. (Simple) (c) Almost everyone enjoys the day in his own way. (Passive) (d) Although I do not like gathering, I enjoy the activities of this day. (Compound) (e) It is one of the most interesting days of the year. (Positive)
  5. (a) Sundarbans that is unique creation of nature is called the 52th World’s Heritage Site. (Simple) (b) It is called the mangrove forest. (Active) It is situated in the Southern part of Bangladesh. (c) It is one of the biggest mangrove forests in the world. (Positive) (d) Sundarbans protects southern part of our country in time of our natural disaster. (Complex) (e) Many people go to the Sundarbans to observe natural beauties. (Compound)
  6. Bangladesh is called nature’s darling child. (a) No other country of the world is so blessed with the beauty of nature as Bangladesh. (Comparative) There is always the play of light and shade in the land. (b) The banks of the rivers present an unbroken view of a variety of sights which enchant the eyes. (Compound) The blue water of the Bay of Bengal soothes our turbulent mind whereas the Sundarbans presents a very spectacular view. (c) Rangamati, Khagrachhari and Bandarbans are the three hilly districts where nature has opened her wings of beauty. (Simple) (d) The beautiful lakes and fountains of crystal clear water charm us all. (Passive) (e) The presence of tribal people there makes this place more splendid. (Complex)
  7. (a) The truth is he is absent (simple). (b) Our present house suits us (complex). (c) We sow so that we may reap (compound). (d) Very few subjects are so easy as this (comparative). (e) He tried all plans (Negative).
  8. (a) Day to day life in Dhaka is expensive. (Negative). (b) People living below the poverty line lead a miserable life. (Complex), (c) Price hike is one of the biggest problems for them. (Positive) (d) The government has taken necessary measures to keep the price hike under control. (Passive) (e) The people who are greedy are responsible for price spiral. (Simple).
  9. Taimur was one of the greatest conquerors of the world. (a) Once Taimur attacked the province of a powerful prince. (Make it passive) (b) He entered the kingdom of the prince and captured a large village. (Make a question) (c) As soon as the prince heard the news, he came with a large army. (Make it a negative sentence without changing the meaning) (d) The village was surrounded from all sides (Make it active) Taimur was defeated. (e) Taimur disguised himself as a poor traveller to survive. (Make it a complex sentence)
  10. (a) Cell phone is one of the greatest inventions. (Passive)
    (b) Scientists believe that cell phone causes brain tumors. (Compound)
    (c) Millions of people are getting benefits from cell phone but most are unaware of the danger of it. (Simple)
    (d) The consumers of cell phones are increasing day by day. (Interrogative)
    (e) But the children below 12 are affected much by mobile phones. (Active)
  11. (a) Eve-teasing is one of the most serious problems. (Positive) (b) It is an inhuman and barbarous act. (Complex) (c) The problem cannot be solved overnight. (Active) (d) We should create public awareness so that we can solve this problem. (Simple) (e) All eveteasers should be punished. (Negative)
  12. (a) Though Bangladesh in not a big country, too many people live here. (simple) (b) Most of the people are poor. (negative) (c) They cannot send their children to school for poverty. (complex) (d) The monsoon causes heavy rainfall. (interrogative) (e) The country looks very beautiful. (exclamatory)
  13. Rabindranath, the 14th child of Debendranath wrote his first verse at the age of eight. (a) When he was 17 years old, he was sent for studies. (Simple) (b) He described London as a dismal city. (Passive) (c) Though he was happy in Brighton, a friend of the family persuaded his brother to send him to London. (Compound) (d) He was lucky to get a friendly English family. (Complex) (e) Rabindranath is one of the greatest poets in the world. (Positive) In 1880, Rabindranath was called back to India.
  14. (a) It was twenty years ago and then I was living in Paris. (b) Hadn’t I a tiny apartment in the Latin Quarters? (c) I was earning barely enough so that I could support myself. (d) Reading a book of mine she had written to me about it. (e) I answered (to her letter) and thanked her.
  15. (a) Books are our best friends. (Comparative) (b) If we want to succeed in life, we have to read books. (Simple) (c) Good books guide us to the right path. (Passive) (d) We should read books to acquire knowledge. (Complex) (e) Only reading books can increase our intellect. (Negative)
  16. The name of our motherland is Bangladesh. It is a land of rivers. (a) The Jamuna is one of the biggest rivers in Bangladesh (Make it comparative). (b) When it is summer it becomes emaciated (Make it simple). (c) During the rainy season, it assumes a terrible shape (Make it complex). (d) Everybody knows it (Make it interrogative). (e) Tourists from home and abroad visit its shore (Make it passive).
  17. (a) January is the coldest month in Bangladesh. (Comparative) (b) The poor people suffer much. (Complex) (c) They make fire and warm themselves. (Simple) (d) During winter vegetables are cheap. (Complex) (e) Date juice during winter is very sweet. (Exclamatory)
  18. (a) Child labour is one of the biggest curses of the 21st century (positive). It is complete violation of human rights. (b) Unfortunately, it has been accepted in our society (complex). (c) Only poverty is responsible for this (negative). (d) In a family of five or six children, the parents have to send some of their kids to work so that they can fill their empty stomachs (simple). (e) Though these poor children have to do bone breaking work all day, in return they are rewarded with all kinds of abuse (compound).

Synonym and Antonym

Synonym and Antonym

  1. Read the passage and then write the antonym or synonym of the words as directed below. 

Spring is certainly the best season of the year. Most of the people are fond of this season. It is the favourite season of poets too. It is called the queen of seasons. Spring comes after the winter season. It begins from the middle of February and last till the middle of April. As the spring season sets in, the earth looks lovely and charming. The trees put forth new leaves. Nature looks charming. Many kinds of beautiful flowers bloom during this season.

(a) certainly (antonym); (b) season (synonym); (c) favourite (synonym); (d) come (antonym); (e) begin (synonym); (f) lasts (synonym); (g) lovely (antonym); (h) new (antonym); (i) look (synonym); (j) beautiful (antonym).

2.  Shahan is an affluent man now. Through hard work and devotion, he has managed to turn the wheels of fortune. He was an unemployed youth of an impoverished family. Through new knowledge, hard work and perseverance, he has brought prosperity to his family. Shahan first received training in vegetable cultivation. Then he got a lease of land in his village and applied his new and improved knowledge to cultivating vegetables. He earned taka 25,000 as profit that year. In the same way he bought some land and used it entirely to cultivate cauliflowers. He has also been raising hybrid cows for milk as well as to produce manure. Shahan’s lot has changed radically. He is now very happy to be a self-sufficient man.

(a) affluent (antonym); (b) manage (antonym); (c) turn (synonym); (d) fortune (synonym); (e)

impoverish (antonym); (f) cultivate (synonym); (g) sufficient (synonym); (h) raise (synonym); (i)

radically (antonym); (j) improve (antonym).

3.  Mrs. Alim loves to gossip. She lives in an apartment block. There are five more families in the building. She has an experienced cook, so she does not have to do any cooking. Almost everyday around eleven o’clock she goes to visit one of her neighbors in the other apartments mostly to gossip. Most of the housewives she visits do not have much house-help and they use this time to cook, clean or do other households. But Mrs. Alim does not seem to be bothered. She does not mind discussing the personal matters of one family with other.

(a) love (antonym); (b) live (synonym); (c) experienced (synonym); (d) visit (synonym); (e) gossip

(synonym); (f) use (antonym); (g) clean (antonym); (h) households (synonym); (i) bothered

(synonym); (j) personal (antonym).

4.  A library serves as the best source of knowledge both for the students and the teachers. It is a large collection of books. Among these there are books on courses that are taught in different classes. There are books on extracurricular subjects also. In the library newspapers and periodicals are also found. The library caters to the tastes of different people. Books are arranged in shelves in a definite order. There are library assistants who are also helpful for the readers. One head librarian looks after the library. So the readers do not have any problem in taking out the right book. There is also a reading room where silence prevails. One can also take books from the library for reading at home by submitting one’s library card to the librarian.

(a) source (synonym) (b) collection (synonym) (c) extracurricular ) (antonym) (d) arrange(synonym)  (e) definite (synonym (f) assistant (antonym) (g) problem (synonym) (synonym) (h) right (antonym) (i) silence (j) submit  (antonym)

5.  It is very natural that man loves his life most of all things and he wants to live or survive a bit longer at any cost. However, every year thousands of people commit suicide in Bangladesh. It is seen that most of the people committing suicide are those married women who depend on their husbands for their living. But why do they commit suicide when people love their lives most? Most probably, they decide to kill themselves because they feel entirely helpless and meaningless to live. The bitterness and sufferings of life become totally unbearable. However, the incident of suicide among the self-reliant women is very rare.

(a) natural (synonym); (b) love (antonym); (c) survive (synonym); (d) commit (synonym); (e)

woman (synonym); (f) depend (synonym); (g) living (synonym); (h) entirely (synonym); (i)

meaningless (antonym); (j) rare (antonym). 

6. The National Memorial is a symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the War of Liberation. It is located at Savar, Dhaka. Its foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the Victory Day in 1972. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. It will include a mosque, a library and a museum. The museum will preserve the relics of the Liberation War. There is a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. These seven towers represent the seven heroes who made supreme sacrifice in the Liberation War. The height of the towers stands for the high sacrifice of every martyr. There are several graves of the martyrs close to the tower. Standing before the graves we bow down our heads in respect of their sacrifice.  

(a) liberation (synonym); (b) foundation (synonym); (c) entire (antonym); (d) cover (antonym); (e) include (antonym); (f) rise (antonym); (g) represent (synonym); (h) supreme (synonym); (i) before (antonym); (j) respect (antonym)

7.  Einstein was very simple in his ways of life. He was indifferent to his fame. Once the queen of Belgium invited him to Brussels. When he got down from the train, he could not think that there were actually many gorgeously dressed officials to receive him at the station. The officials also expected somebody who would appear to be rich and aristocratic to them. They never imagined that this shabby man would be Einstein.

(a) simple (synonym); (b) indifferent (synonym); (c) fame (antonym); (d) actually (synonym); (e)

gorgeously (synonym); (f) receive (synonym); (g) expected (antonym); (h) rich (synonym); (i)

aristocratic (synonym); (j) shabby (synonym).

8.  The effects of greenhouse effect are too many to be described. Its effects is very devastating and destructive. It effect is a dangerous threat to human existence and to animal and plant lives. Climatologists predict that by midway through this century temperature may have risen by as much as 4C. This could seriously reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or serverely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. Bangladesh is very much vulnerable to frequent natural disasters. Annual visitations of cyclones and floods are routine but nonetheless sudden and fatal in their wild rage. The yearly damages they leave behind are enormous. However, our people are accustomed to cyclones and floods. But another creeping disaster is gather in fury is the greenhouse effect for which the people are not prepared at all and the state appears to be taking no notice. It is the danger of rising sea level from the greenhouse effect.

(a) described (synonym); (b) destructive (antonym); (c) dangerous (antonym); (d) reduce (antonym); (e) vulnerable (antonym); (f) disasters (antonym); (g) damages (synonym); (h) enormous (synonym); (i) accustomed (synonym); (j) appear (antonym).

9.  Zahir Raihan was one of the most talented film makers in Bangladesh. He was born on 19 August 1935 in the village Majupur, in Feni district. He was an active worker of the Language Movement. He was one of the ten students to go out in a procession on 21 February 1952 despite a ban on such activities. As a result, he and many other were arrested and taken to prison. Zahir was also present at the historical meeting of Amtala on February 21, 1953. He also took pat in the mass movement in 1969. In 1971, he joined the Liberation War. All through his life, Zahir dreamt for a democratic society that will ensure freedom of speech and will. He had many dreams about our film industry too. He made a legendary film Jibon Theke Neya based on the Language Movement of 1952. It was a revolt against the then autocratic government.

(a) active (antonym); (b) many (antonym); (c) present (antonym); (d) mass (synonym); (e) join (antonym); (f) liberation (synonym); (g) democratic (antonym); (h) speech (antonym); (i) against (antonym); (j) autocratic (antonym).

10.  Globalisaion is now dependent on technology. The electronic transformation of information has quickened banking and financial activities. Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital or electronic transmission. Today we can buy and sell goods through the electronic screen. Last of all, computer has brought about a revolutionary change.

Now write synonyms or antonyms as directed and make sentences with them: 

(a) dependent (antonym); (b) quicker (synonym); (c) amenable (synonym); (d) buy (antonym); (e) revolutionary (synonym).

11.  Ismail Hossain is an affluent man now. Through hard work and devotion, he has managed to turn the wheels of fortune. He was an unemployed youth of an impoverished family from Ekdala village in Natore Sadar thana. Through new knowledge, hard work and perseverance, he has brought prosperity to his family. Ismail Hossain studies up to class eight. Poverty then forces him to look for work. He receives the training programme of the Natore Horticulture Center. He seems to be an enthusiastic youth. Ismail cultivated many flowers. He earns a lot of money by selling flowers in the local market. Thus Ismail Hossain was able to change life and became happy.

(a) affluent (synonym); (b) fortune (antonym); (c) unemployed (antonym); (d) knowledge (synonym); (e) look for (synonym); (f) receive (synonym); (g) enthusiastic (synonym); (h) earn (synonym); (i) able (synonym); (j) happy (antonym).

12. An earthquake is a catastrophe. Every year it kills innumerable people in many countries. In Bangladesh a major earthquake may occur at any moment. So our experts are alarmed by the repetition of the minor earthquakes. The our country lies in the active earthquake zone is known to us.

(a) catastrophe (synonym); (b) kill (antonym); (c) innumerable (synonym); (d) major (antonym); (e) occur (synonym); (f) expert (synonym); (g) alarm (antonym); (h) repetition (synonym); (i) active (antonym); (j) known (antonym).

13.  Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. Located (a) (syn) on the Buriganga river in the heart of the Bengal Delta. Dhaka has an estimated (b) (syn) population of (more) (c) (ant) than 15 million people. It is the (largest) (d) (syn) city in Bangladesh and one of the (biggest) (e) (ant) cities of the world. Dhaka is one of the (major) (f) (ant) cities of South Asia. It is (known) (g) (syn) as the city of Mosques. The city is also (described) (h) (syn) as the rickshaw capital of the world. Dhaka is also one of the world’s most densely populated cities. The (old) (i) (ant) city of Dhaka was the Mughal capital of Bengal in the 17th century. It was named in (honour) (j) (ant) of emperor Shajahan.

14.  Facebook is a very popular social networking site of all time. The popularity of facebook has increased drastically. Within 6 years of its launch, facebook reached one billion users milestone. Nowadays it has become a very important part of life. Actually, it is a social networking website that was originally designed for college students, but is now open to anyone with 13 years of age or older. Facebook users can create and customize their own profiles with photos, videos and other information about themselves. Facebook is an effective way of finding old friends and connecting to new ones.

(a) popular (antonym), (b) drastically (antonym), (c) launch (synonym), (d) very (synonym), (e) social (synonym), (f) originally (synonym), (g) open (antonym), (h) create (antonym), (i) customize (synonym), (j) effective (antonym).

15.  Napoleon, the king of France, was a great hero. He won many battles and conquered many countries of Europe. One day he was walking along the seashore. Suddenly he noticed a wonderful thing. An English boy was making a small boat. They boy was immediately brought before him. The king asked him why he was making such a tiny boat. The boy said confidently, “I shall cross the sea. My country is on the other side of the sea. I shall go to my country by this boat. I didn’t see my mother for a good long time.” The king was charmed by the words of the small boy. He made all arrangements to send him to his country.

(a) hero (synonym); (b) battle (synonym); (c) many (antonym); (d) along (antonym); (e) shore (synonym); (f) wonderful (antonym); (g) tiny (antonym); (h) confidently (antonym); (i) arrangements (synonym); (j) country (synonym)

16.  Beauty is easy to appreciate but difficult to define. As we look around, we discover beauty in pleasurable objects and sights in nature, in the laughter of children, in the kindness of strangers. But asked to define, we run into difficulties. Does beauty have an independent objective identity? Is it universal, or is it dependent on our sense perceptions? Does it lie in the eye of the beholder? —— we ask ourselves. A further difficulty arises when beauty manifests itself not only by its presence, but by its absence as well, as when we are repulsed by ugliness and desire beauty. But then ugliness has as much a place in our lives as beauty, or may be more as when there is widespread hunger and injustice in a society. Philosophers have told us that beauty is an important part of life, but isn’t ugliness a part of life too?

(a) beauty (antonym); (b) appreciate (antonym); (c) discover (synonym); (d) pleasure (synonym); (e) stranger (antonym); (f) universal (antonym); (g) perception (synonym); (h) beholder (synonym); (i) manifest (antonym); (j) repulse (synonym).

17.  “It will be better than for me to try to send him things. I could so easily duplicate-skates, for instance.” She blinked her honest spinster’s eyes. “There’s not much use for skates here,” she said. Her stupidity annoyed me. “What I mean,” I said. “Is that I don’t want to duplicate the things his mother sends him. I might have chosen skates if I didn’t know she had already given them to him.” She stared at me. “I don’t understand,” she said. He has no mother. He has no skates.”

(a) try (synonym); (b) duplicate (synonym); (c) instance (synonym); (d) blinked (synonym); (e) stupidity (antonym); (f) annoyed (antonym); (g) mean (synonym); (h) send (synonym); (i)understand (synonym); (j) no (antonym).

18.  A country mouse lived in a field of barley. He made a nest and hung it, upon two stalks of  barley. The nest was very small and very light. The country mouse ate barley and the roots of other plants. A mouse from the town came to see the country mouse. The town mouse was very quick and clever. His home was in a big house in the town. The country mouse gave the town mouse dinner in the barley field. He brought out the very best barley and roots for the meal. But the town mouse did not enjoy his dinner. “My poor friend,” he said, “in town we have much nicer food than this. You must come to see where I live. I shall give you all sorts of good things to eat.” The town mouse returned to his home taking the country mouse with him. They went to a big house.

(a) lived (synonym); (b) made (antonym); (c) small (synonym); (d) light (antonym); (e) see (synonym); (f) clever (antonym); (g) gave (synonym); (h) enjoy (antonym); (i) returned (synonym); (j) taking (antonym).

19.  Morality is the best virtue of mankind at any individual, social and global level. Heavenly qualities like love, affection, respect etc. are developed from morality. Human activities with a sense of morality are always free from social ills and vices. But, nowadays, severe moral degradation is destroying the peaceful and meaningful existence of human beings. For the lack of morality, we can never have a truthful, honest and durable democratic, socio-economic, administrative and judicial institution. Creating awareness is the easiest way to develop the moral sense among people. Motivation and encouragement always bring positive results.Therefore, arranging seminars, symposia at different levels of society will help moral uplifting. So, we must try to create awareness at family and social levels to develop our moral sense.

(a) morality (antonym); (b) heavenly (antonym); (c) developed (synonym); (d) vice (antonym); (e) peaceful (antonym); (f) existence (synonym); (g) durable (antonym); (h) encouragement (synonym); (i) uplifting (synonym); (j) awareness (synonym).

20. Over the past several decades, technology has become a fixture in many homes around the world, and its influence has permeated into all facets of our lives, including educational settings. This phenomenon has been hailed by many as the wave of the future in which language instruction will be driven by new advances in computers, the Internet, and mobile technologies. However, how we go about integrating technology into our classrooms can have a huge impact on whether a technologically-driven classroom succeeds or fails, even with lowtech solutions. So, where lies the praise or blame for the success or failure of technology? Will a Utopian view of pedagogically-sound teaching prevail in our classrooms, or will teachers soon abandon high-tech gadgets and return more to traditional materials? Because the use of the Internet has become so widespread, this article will focus attention on that medium, starting with some historical perspective on computers and then suggest a few practical ideas to improving successful integration of the Internet and language teaching.

(a) permeated (synonym); (b) integrate (antonym); (c) praise (antonym); (d) abandon (synonym); (e) perspective (synonym).

21.  In August 25, 2014 the issue of The Daily Star, there were articles about two places which are far apart. But both were chilling reminders that global warming is not just a theory. It is already here and having devastating effect. In the back page, the article “Polar ice shrinking rapidly” states that the two largest ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, are melting and getting reduced in size at an astounding 120 cubic miles each year, clearly contributing to rising oceans. The other reports that tidal surges at the full moon in June and July of this year were much higher than usual and flooded 13 villages situated near rivers that are directly connected to the Bay of Bengal saline water.

(a) far (antonym); (b) reminder (synonym); (c) devastating (synonym); (d) effect (synonym); (e) back (antonym); (f) rapidly (antonym); (g) reduce (antonym); (h) astounding (synonym); (i) rising (antonym); (j) usual (antonym).

22.  Liberty does not (a) descend upon a people. People must (b) raise themselves to it. It is a fruit that must be earned before it can be (c) enjoyed. That freedom means only freedom from (d) foreign (e) domination is an outworn idea. It is not (f) merely the government that should be free but people themselves should be (g) free. And freedom has any (h) real (i) value for the common man unless it also means freedom from (j) want, disease or ignorance. 

(a) descend (antonym); (b) raise (antonym); (c) enjoyed (antonym); (d) foreign (synonym); (e) domination (synonym); (f) merely (synonym); (g) free(antonym); (h) real (synonym); (i) value (synonym); (j) want (synonym).

23.  Time and tide wait for none. No one can call it back. A man gets back his lost money and health but cannot get back his lost time. Time once lost is lost forever. So, we should make the best use of time. We should do our duties properly. If we put off our work for tomorrow, we may not get an opportunity to do it at all. There are some people who idle away time for nothing. They cannot prosper in life. They have to suffer for it. So, we should take an oath that we must do our duty properly and in time.

(a) tide (antonym); (b) wait (synonym); (c) call (synonym); (d) back (synonym); (e) lose (synonym); (f) use (synonym); (g) duty (synonym); (h) opportunity (synonym); (i) suffer (antonym); (j) oath (synonym).

24. walking in the morning regularly is an excellent habit. It is most advisable physical
exercise for both young and old. In the morning nature appears at her best. Everything
remains quiet and impressive. Environment with all other things becomes calm and
serene. Morning walkers cannot but be impressed with it. It keeps their mind fresh and
jolly. It also sets their temper for the rest of the day.
(a) morning (antonym); (b) pleasant (synonym); (c) excellent (antonym); (d) physical
(antonym); (e) appear (antonym); (f) quiet (synonym); (g) serene (synonym); (h) impressed (antonym); (i) fresh (synonym); (j) temper (synonym).

25. In our society economic value of women’s work and their contribution is mostly
unrecognized. Usually, it is taken as voluntary work. So, the financial cost of running a
home which is almost always done by women is not monetized. This is most dramatically revealed in rural areas. Research has proved that if women’s work is monetized, then the GDP makes a significant jump and so does the worth of women’s work and their contribution to the economy.
(a) contribution (synonym) (b) unrecognized (antonym) (c) usually (synonym) (d) voluntary (synonym) (e) cost (synonym) (f) revealed (antonym) (g) rural (antonym) (h) monetized (antonym) (i) significant (synonym) (j) worth (antonym)

26. Gender discrimination in Bangladesh begins at birth. Most parents want to have children so that they can, when they are older, supplement their family income or help with the domestic work. In the existing socio-economic set-up, male children are best suited to that purpose. So girls are born to an unwelcome world. However, they are assigned rather confined to, domestic chores. Some of these girls may be at school. But all their work domestic or academic-stops as soon as they are married off, which is the prime concern of the parents about their daughters. This body and mind of the girls children and women in a family. They are given to understand that they should keep the best food available for the male members in the family, that they should eat less than the male members, that they should not raise their voice when they speak, that they should not go out of their house without permission from, and without being escorted by the male member. All these shape the girls, thinking about life and the world, and go to establish their relationships with the male members in the family.
(a) discrimination (antonym); (b) supplement (antonym); (c) domestic (synonym); (d)
purpose (synonym); (e) permission (antonym); (f) confined (antonym); (g) existing
(antonym); (h) assign (synonym); (i) treatment (synonym); (j) escort (synonym).

27. Democracy is the system of government which allows freedom of speech, religious and political opinion. It means fair and equal treatment for the citizens without social class division. In fact, in a democratic country people elect their representatives who work for the people. Free and fair election is the pre condition for democracy. In a democratic country, people enjoy the rights of food, cloth, education, shelter, medical treatment and other facilities.
(a) allow (synonym); (b) freedom (synonym); (c) opinion (synonym); (d) fair (antonym); (e) equal (antonym); (f) division (antonym); (g) elect (antonym); (h) enjoy (antonym); (i)
treatment (synonym); (j) facility (synonym).

28. The word ‘hygiene’ means the practice of keeping ourselves clean. It also means to keep our home and work places clean. It is important for our good health. Hygiene is thought to be text to godliness. It is because we cannot achieve anything physically, mentally or spiritually if we are unclean in our body, mind and soul. Nobody likes an unclean person either. So we must follow the rules of hygiene.
(a) practice (synonym); (b) clean (antonym); (c) home (synonym); (d) important (antonym); (e) godliness (antonym); (f) achieve (synonym); (g) soul (synonym); (h) like (antonym); (i) follow (antonym); (j) hygiene (synonym).

29. The technology that links people to the internet will go to advance. We will move beyond conventional computer operating methods using key-boards and touch screen panel would be no longer needed. They are likely to be replaced by technologies that allow us to interact with the cyberspace in a more natural manner. Wire able devices are one small step on the path to a hyper connected world. In fact, the concept of wire able computers has existed for more than 30 years.
(a) link (synonym); (b) need (synonym); (c) conventional (synonym); (d) methods (synonym); (e) longer (antonym); (f) allow (antonym); (g) interact (synonym); (h) natural (antonym); (i) connected (antonym); (j) concept (synonym).

30. An ideal teacher knows the art of teaching. He is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistake, he is never harsh to him and never angry with him. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He never sets a wrong example before his students. He has high moral values.
(a) ideal (synonym); (b) master (synonym); (c) make (antonym); (d) method (synonym);
(e) convincing (antonym); (f) praise (antonym); (g) mistake (synonym); (h) angry (antonym); (i) simple (antonym); (j) moral (synonym).

31. Rony is a 10 year old boy. He is the only son to his parents. His father is a busy business man and he could hardly spend time with his son. Rony’s father would reach after he sleeps and move out before he wakes up or will sleep until he leaves for school. Hardly, his father would accompany him of join with family. Just like any other boy, Rony wanted to go outdoors with his father and have fun. One day, Rony was surprised to see his father at home in the evening. “Dad, it is a big surprise to see you at home.” Rony said. “Yes, son my meeting was cancelled and my next fight is delayed by 2 hours. So, I’m at home”, his father replied.
(a) busy (antonym) (b) hardly (antonym) (c) reach (synonym) (d) leave (antonym) (e)
accompany (antonym) (f) outdoors (synonym) (g) fun (antonym) (h) surprise (synonym) (i) delayed (synonym) (j) replied (synonym).

32. My feet failed to find a suitable crevice and I fell. My hands burned red as I slid down the rough rope, and the coarse strip of leather wrapped around my waist, bit in hand. At the top of the cliff face, at the gateway to the Debra Damo Monastery, an Ethiopian Priest sat with his legs jammed up against either side of the rock-hewn entrance ; wrapped around his muscular arms was the other end of the leather strap that had kept me from crashing down below. Further up still, in the piercing blue sky above the jagged mountain, vultures circled around the 6th century stone church.
(a) fall (antonym); (b) suitable (antonym); (c) crevice (synonym); (d) rough (antonym); (e) wrap (antonym); (f) gateway (synonym); (g) entrance (antonym); (h) strap (synonym); (i) piercing (synonym); (j) jagged (synonym).

33. Nowadays fundamentalism and terrorism go hand in hand. In Christian thought,
fundamentalism is the belief that everything in the Bible is true and should form the basis of religious thought and practice. But at present the term is used in a greater sense meaning the strict following of the basic teaching of any religion. And terrorism means the use of violence to achieve some political aims. So apparently the two ideas seem different. But in modern times some fundamentalists use force or violence to achieve their aims. The religious fundamentalists believe that only their religeon is true and all should follow it strictly. They are not ready to tolerate any deviation or relaxation. So they compel the people by force to follow their dictates.
(a) Belief (antonym) (b) basis (synonym) (c) religious (antonym) (d) thought (synonym) (e) greater (antonym) (f) strict (antonym) (g) apparently (synonym) (h) tolerate (synonym) (i) deviation (antonym) (j) dictates (synonym)

34. Teaching is a noble profession. It is an ideal career for women. Teaching gives women a golden chance to take care of household works. Teaching is more difficult than any other job. A teacher not only has to take classes but also prepare students’ test and assess exam scripts after class hours. And he has to guide his learners also to choose career.
(a) teaching (antonym); (b) noble (antonym); (c) profession (synonym) ; (d) chance
(synonym); (e) prepare (synonym); (f) difficult (antonym); (g) assess (synonym); (h) guide
(antonym); (i) household (synonym); (j) choose (antonym).

35. Elephants are quite amazing animals and we can find many interesting facts about
elephants. One such amazing fact is given below. Elephants are extremely emotional
animas. They develop very close relationship and bond with its group. When an elephant dies in a group, all the elephants would mourn for the death of the loved ones. Also, it would be very difficult to console a mother elephant who loses a baby due to strong emotions. Losing a child elephant or missing the caretaker make them emotionally weak and may often lead to death.
(a) amazing (antonym); (b) fact (synonym); (c) develop (Synonym); (d) group (synonym); (e) mourn (synonym); (f) loved (synonym); (g) console (synonym); (h) losing (antonym); (i) caretaker (synonym); (j) often (antonym).

36. Social value underline a set principles of generally accepted norms and behaviour of a society. Our forefathers practised a good number of social values like simplicity, honesty, sincerity, responsibility, and piety. We have replaced those good aspects with complexity, dishonesty, corruption, conspiracy, faithlessness and envy. Our materialists attitude has made us self-centered and corrupted. We must get rid of these vices and create awareness among all about the negative impacts of our wrong doings. In order to make a better society, we should create awareness among people about the out-come of their misdeeds. We must have distinctive social values once practised by our forefather. We should give importance to the past moral values to bring peace and harmony in the society and make the world better for living.
(a) accepted (antonym); (b) sincerity (antonym); (c) responsibility (synonym); (d) complexity (antonym); (e) envy (antonym); (f) vice (antonym); (g) impact (synonym); (h) outcome (synonym); (i) importance (synonym); (j) awareness (synonym).

37. Once upon a time there lived a generous, kind-hearted king. He was fond of birds and animals. He had a huge bird sanctuary in his reign. He disliked harming the animals and birds and even did not kill them for the sake of eating meat. Owing to his generosity and kindness towards birds, he was gifted to beautiful falcons by his fellow businessman. Those two falcons belonged to a different place and lived in a different climatic condition. The king thanked the businessman and ordered the head of the bird trainer to provide all the facilities to those beautiful falcons and make them feel comfortable in their country. The head trainer look the birds and provided all essentials to help the birds adapt to the atmosphere. Gradually, the birds got adapt to the country’s atmosphere.
(a) kind-hearted (antonym); (b) fond (antonym); (c) sanctuary (synonym); (d) kindness
(antonym); (e) different (antonym); (f) head (synonym); (g) comfortable (antonym); (h) trainer (synonym); (i) adapt (synonym); (j) atmosphere (synonym).

38. Sincerity is the root of success of all work. One can go a long way if he does a job with sincerity. The great men are sincere because they know that sincerity is the key to
success. Those who do not follow the rules of sincerity can never go a long way. Sincerity is the secret of victory. If any work is not done with sincerity, one will never receive desirable output from it. So we should be sincere in every walk of life.
(a) success (antonym); (b) job (synonym); (c) great (antonym); (d) because (synonym);
(e) know (synonym); (f) follow (antonym); (g) rules (synonym); (h) never (antonym); (i) victory (synonym); (j) desirable (antonym).

39. Morning walk is not only pleasant but also beneficial to health. In fact, walking regularly in the morning is very good habit. It is the most advisable physical exercise for the aging and the old. In the morning, nature appears at her best. At that time everything remains quiet and seems impressive. The environment with birds and beasts becomes calm and serene. The people who go out for a walk in the morning cannot but be impressed by it. It helps to keep their mind jolly and jovial. It also sits their temper for the rest of the day.
(a) pleasant (antonym); (b) beneficial (antonym); (c) regularly (antonym); (d) advisable
(synonym); (e) appear (synonym); (f) quiet (antonym); (g) serene (synonym); (h) impressed (synonym); (i) jovial (antonym); (j) temper (synonym).

40. Democracy is the system of government which allows freedom of speech, religious and political opinion. It means fair and equal treatment for the citizens without social class division. In fact, in a democratic country people elect their representatives who work for the people. Free and fair election is the pre-condition for democracy. In a democratic country people enjoy and rights of food, cloth, shelter, education, medical treatment and other facilities.
(a) allow (synonym) (b) freedom (synonym) (c) opinion (synonym) (d) fair (antonym) (e) equal (antonym) (f) division (antonym) (g) elect (antonym) (h) enjoy (antonym) (i) treatment (synonym) (j) facility (synonym)

41. Another field in which Pasteur worked as a scientist was the study of disease germs. The germs of certain diseases are bacteria, but other diseases are caused by viruses, which are too small to be seen with the hind of microscope that was in use in Pasteur’s time. Pasteur studied a number of animal diseases. One of these was anthrax, a disease that can also affect men. At that time, anthrax killed many sheep and cattle in France, Pasteur discovered how to grow anthrax bacteria that were much less powerful than those found in diseased animals. He showed by experiment that if animals were inoculated with the weakened bacteria and then infected with powerful bacteria, they would not die.
(a) field (synonym) (b) certain (antonym) (c) small (synonym) (d) studied (synonym) (e) killed (antonym) (f) discovered (antonym) (g) found (synonym) (h) experiment (synonym) (i) powerful (antonym) (j) die (synonym).