Rules of Flow chart

Rules of Flow chart

Rules of Flow Chart

  1. At first give a title.
  2. Use 6 (six) rectangular/square boxes including the given box.
  3. Boxes can be horizontal or vertical.
  4. Use arrow sign between two boxes.
  5. Use numeric letters serially in each box.
  6. Start points with capital letters.
  7. Start points according to the given box in the question. For example:
Rules Examples
a.       Verb + ing + noun/noun phrase Enlightening the individual, Broadening our outlook,  Ennobling our mind,  Refining our sensibility,  Learning about a society’s culture
b.       By + verb + ing + noun/noun phrase By increasing popularity of band and pop music, By traveling by the British, By using language and music, By using the tools and objects
c.       For + verb + ing + noun/noun Phrase For having a glorious past, For discharging tannery wastes, For discharging medical wastes, For discharging hospital wastes, For discharging household wastes, For encroaching of the river
d.       To + verb + noun/noun phrase To tame wild animals, To ride on a Tiger, To defeat a crocodile, To protect  from wild animals, To hold a snake in his hand, To help people cultivate land
e.       Noun + of + noun Phrase Loss of popularity of entertainment, Source of entertainment, Medium of distance education, Instrument of information, Creation of cultural assault
f.        Noun/noun Phrase Honesty, Integrity, Courage, Responsibility, Graciousness, Gratefulness
g.       Verb + Others Born in 1929, Given a diary in 1942, Spent from 1942 to 1944 in hiding, Wrote diary, Died in 1945, Published the diary in 1947
h.      Adverbial/preposition + noun/noun phrase By proper planning, For higher education
  1. Maintain order.
  2. Writing points precisely avoiding article, adverb etc.
  3. Avoid punctuation at last of each point.

 

Example

Read the following text and make a flow-chart showing the specialties of Gazi Pir (One is done for you) : 2×5=5
According to some myths and legends, Gazi Pir was a Muslim saint who is said to have spread Islam in the parts of Bengal close to the Sundarbans. He was credited with many miracles. For example, he could supposedly calm dangerous animals and make them docile. He is usually depicted in paats or scroll paintings riding a fierce-looking Bengal tiger, a snake in his hand, but in no apparent danger. According to some stories, he also fought crocodiles who threatened the people of a region full of canals and creeks, indeed, a kind of watery jungle bordering the Bay of Bengal. Because of his alert and vigilant presence, all predatory animals were said to have been kept within bounds. It was also believed that he enabled villagers to live close to forests and jungles and cultivate their lands. Consequently, people of these regions would pray to him for protection. The story of Gazi Pir has been preserved in folk literature as well as art and has been performed in indigenous theatre. In fact, some Gazi paat scrolls are part of the collection of the British Museum.

The specialties of Gazi Pir
1. Being credited with miracles
2. Could supposedly calm dangerous animal
3. Make the dangerous animal docile
4. Usually depicted in paats or scroll paintings
5. Seen as riding a fierce – looking Bengal tiger and a snake in his hand
6. Fought crocodiles

 

 

The causes of success of Nelson Mandela

  1. Firm determination
  2. Fight for people’s emancipation
  3. Dream of a democrative and free society
  4. Prestige and charisma
  5. Support of the world
  6. Prominent role as an advocate of human dignity

 

What Mandela did in his whole life/ The struggle of Mandela for multiracial democracy and his achievement

  1. Charged with capital offences
  2. Dedicated himself to struggle
  3. Committed to the fulfillment of the demand of the African people
  4. Fought against domination
  5. Fought against apartheid
  6. Cherished the ideal of democracy

 

The activities and achievement of nelson Mandela

  1. Guided South Africa from the shackles of apartheid to a multi-racial democracy
  2. Embodied the struggle for justice around the world
  3. Fought against white minority
  4. Determined to bring down apartheid
  5. Become the first black president of South Africa
  6. Awarded the Noble prize

 

The background of liberation war/The mentionable incidence from 1952-1970

  1. Blood sheed in 1952
  2. The victors in the elections of 1954
  3. Ayub khan’s martial law declaration in 1952
  4. Launching of the 6 point movement in 1966
  5. Shoot our boys death on 7th June
  6. Ayub Khan’s falling from power after the movement of 1969

 

The demands of the people of Bengal  

  1. Want to be free
  2. Want to live with their rights
  3. Want to draft a constitution for themselves
  4. Want to build their country a new
  5. Want to get economic, political and cultural freedom
  6. Want to get rid of agony

 

 The function and characteristic of human brain

  1. Working invisibly
  2. Working as CPU 
  3. Intelligent by nature
  4. Sophisticated machine
  5. Operating on ever changing condition
  6. conscience

 

The activities and reactions of the president and the speaker of the passage after his meeting the president

  1. Making request to the president
  2. Requesting to hold the session of the national assembly on 15 January
  3. Ignoring the request of the speaker but listening to Mr. Bhutto instead
  4. Meeting taking place in the first week of march
  5. Taking seats in the Assemble
  6. Carrying out discussions in the assembly

 

How to eliminate traffic congestion

  1. Enforcing traffic rules
  2. Widening roads
  3. Parking rules
  4. Planned road network
  5. Raising awareness among the people
  6. Introducing the traffic rules among the drivers
  7. Planned intersection

 

Showing the daily activities of Amerigo

  1. Amerigo searching for work
  2. Working with great difficulty
  3. Passing the day with painfully
  4. Keeping him always hungry
  5. Doing always dangerous work

 

Diasporas of the world and their causes

  1. Diasporasoccurring either under coercion or on people s desire to leave
  2. Manydiasporasoccurring inthe world
  3. One of the great diasporas being that of the Jewish people
  4. Jewishpeopleforcibly leaving their countr
  5. Another noteworthydiaspora being that of Aryans
  6. Ravages of nature being another reason of diasporas

 

B

Some important Diasporas and their causes

  1. Diaspora of Jewish people
  2. Many incidents of diasporas occurring in the world
  3. The causes of Aryan diaspora being nuclear
  4. Massive diaspora happening in Africa
  5. Another noteworthy diaspora being that of Aryan
  6. Globalization being one of the chief reasons of diaspora

 

C

Major diasporas in the past

  1. Jews forced to leave their land in ancient time
  2. A noteworthy movement of Aryans from central Europe to the Indian subcontinent thousands of years
  3. The Palestinian diaspora causing great plight in twentieth century
  4. African diaspora because of war
  5. African diaspora owing to the ravages of nature
  6. Bangladeshi diaspora in 1971 owing to war

 

D

Causes and aspects of conflict

  1. Disagreement among parties or individuals fueling conflict
  2. Opposition among parties or individuals fueling conflict
  3. An attempt to reach an objective different from that of the other party giving rise to conflict
  4. The elements of conflict having varied sets of principles and values
  5. Conflict pertaining to opposing ideas and actions of different entities
  6. Conflict leading to antagonistic state

 

E

Characteristics of conflict

  1. A disagreement
  2. Opposition among parties or individuals fueling conflict
  3. An attempt to reach an objective different from that of the other party giving right to Conflict
  4. The element of conflict having varied sets of principles and values
  5. Conflict pertaining to opposing ideas and actions of different entities
  6. Conflict leading to antagonistic states

 

F

Advantages and disadvantages of conflict

  1. Described as disagreement
  2. Opposition among parties or individuals fueling conflict
  3. An attempt to reach an objective different from that of the other party giving rise conflict
  4. The elements of conflicts having varied sets of principles and values.
  5. Conflict pertaining to opposing ideas and actions of different entities
  6. Conflict being an opportunity for learning and understanding our differences

 

G

Special aspect of a craftwork

  1. A practical from of art
  2. The product of a society and culture
  3. Representing the all embracing nature of folk imagination
  4. Reflecting the community aesthetics, values and beliefs
  5. Reflecting the culture ambition of the community
  6. Greatly enticing and attractive

 

H

Factors that influence craftwork

  1. Individual creativity
  2. Community aesthetics
  3. Utility functions
  4. Human values
  5. Distraction by the makers desire
  6. The factor determining the form and content of a craftwork

 

I

Bad effects of education linked with culture

  1. Succumbs to some compulsion of necessity or lure of material advantage
  2. Brings humiliation to the intellectuals
  3. Made to trade the mill of passing examinations, not far learning anything
  4. Creates an educated community, not a cultured community
  5. Gradual decrease of the proportion of possible employments
  6. Shows the perversity of human nature

 

J

Comments of the author on Indian and Bangladeshi universities

  1. Universities not to be considered to be mechanical organization to collect and distributing knowledge
  2. People to offer their intellectual hospitality through universities
  3. Not a single good university established in the modern time in the whole India
  4. The best products of Indian mind not known
  5. Indians students going overseas for proper education
  6. Regarding educational institutions as India s alms bowl of knowledge

 

K

Information about Western Universities

  1. Mechanical organization for collecting and distributing knowledge
  2. The people of the university not offering their intellectual hospitality
  3. Not acquainting the learners with the best products of the Indian mind
  4. Indians alms bowl of knowledge
  5. Lowering our intellectual self respect by encouraging us to make a foolish display of decorations composed of borrowed feathers
  6. Not producing a cultured community but a community of qualified candidates

 

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the perception of beauty.           

Beauty is easy to appreciate but difficult to define. As we look around, we discover beauty in pleasurable objects and sights—in nature, in the laughter of children, in the kindness of strangers. But asked to define, we run into difficulties. Does beauty have an independent objective identity? Is it universal or is it dependent on our sense perceptions? Does it lie in the eye of the beholder? we ask ourselves. A further difficulty arises when beauty manifests itself not only by its presence, but by its absence as well. as when we are repulsed by ugliness and desire beauty. But then ugliness has as much a place in our lives as beauty or may be more—as when there is widespread hunger and injustice in a society. Philosophers have told us that beauty is an important part of life, but isn’t ugliness a part of life too? And if art has beauty as an important ingredient, can it confine itself only to a projection of beauty? Can art ignore what is not beautiful?

  1. Beauty being easy to appreciate
  2. Beauty being difficult to define
  3. Beauty being discovered inpleasurable objects in nature
  4. Beauty prevailing in the laughter of children and in the kindness of strangers
  5. Beauty having an independent objective identity
  6. Beauty being an important part of life with the ugliness as a part of life

 

Try yourself

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the conditions of adolescent girls in Bangladesh.

When adolescent girls are pulled out of school, either for marriage or work, they often lose their mobility, their friends and social status. The lack of mobility among adolescent girls also curtails their economic and non-formal educational opportunities. Moreover, they lack information about health issues. According to a study, only about three in five adolescents have even heard of HIV. It is also reported that more than 50 percent of adolescent girls are undernourished and suffer from anaemia. Adolescent fertility is also high in Bangladesh. The contribution of the adolescent fertility rate to the total fertility rate increased from 20.3% in 1993 to 24.4% in 2007. Moreover, neonatal mortality is another concern for younger mothers.

  1. Pulling out of school, either for marriage or work

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the causes of the destruction of the Sundarbans and its effect.

The Sundarbans is known for vanishing islands but the scientists said the current retreat of the mangrove forests on the southern coastline is not normal. “The causes for increasing coastline retreat, other than direct anthropogenic ones, include increased frequency of storm surges and other extreme natural events, rises in sea level and increased salinity which increases the vulnerability of mangroves,” said Pettorelli.

“Our results indicate a rapidly retreating coastline that cannot be accounted for by the regular dynamics of the Sundarbans. Degradation is happening fast, weakening this natural shield for India and Bangladesh.”

“As human development thrives, and global temperature continues to rise, natural protection from tidal waves and cyclones is being degraded at alarming rates. This will inevitably lead to species loss in this richly biodiverse part of the world, if nothing is done to stop it.”

“The Sundarbans is a critical tiger habitat; one of only a handful of remaining forests big enough to hold several hundred tigers. To lose the Sundarbans would be to move a step closer to the extinction of these majestic animals,” said ZSL tiger expert Sarah Christie.

  1. Increased frequency of storm surges

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the importance of the Hakaluki Haor.

Hakaluki Haor is one of the major wetlands of Bangladesh. The Haor system provides a wide range of economic and non-economic benefits to the local people as well as to the people of Bangladesh. These include fish production, rice production, cattle and buffalo rearing, duck rearing, collection of reeds and grasses, and collection of aquatic and other plants. The Haor system also protects the lower floodplants from flash floods occuring in the moths of April-May, maintains the supply of fish in other lower water bodies and provides habitat for migratory and local waterfowls.

  1. Providing economic benefits

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the goals of peace movement

A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, including ban of guns, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, demonstrations, peace camps; supporting anti-war political candidates and banning guns, creating open government, direct democracy; supporting people who expose war- crimes or conspiracies to create wars, and making laws. Different organizations involved in peace movements may have some diverse goals, but one common goal is sustainability of peace.

 

Peace movement is basically an all-encompassing “anti-war movement”. It is primarily characterized by a belief that human beings should not wage war on each other or engage in violent conflicts over language, race, natural resources, religion or ideology. It is believed that military power is not the equivalent of justice. The peace movement tends to oppose the proliferation of dangerous technologies and weapons of mass destruction in particular, nuclear weapons and biological warfare. Moreover, many object to the export of weapons including hand-held machine guns and grenades by leading economic nations to lesser developed nations.

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the goals of peace movement

  1. Introduction of peace movement

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing about Gazi Pir and his activities

According to some myths and legends, Gazi Pir was a Muslim saint who is said to have spread Islam in the parts of Bengal close to the Sundarbans. He was credited with many miracles. For example, he could supposedly calm dangerous animals and make them docile. He is usually depicted in paats or scroll paintings riding a fierce-looking Bengal tiger, a snake in his hand, but in no apparent danger. According to some stories, he also fought crocodiles who threatened the people of a region full of canals and creeks, indeed, a kind of watery jungle bordering the Bay of Bengal. Because of his alert and vigilant presence, all predatory animals were said to have been kept within bounds. It was also believed that he enabled villagers to live close to forests and jungles and cultivate their lands. The story of Gazi Pir has been preserved in folk literature as well as art and has been performed in indigenous theatre.

  1. A Muslim Paint

 

Read the passage below and make short notes in each of the boxes in the flow-chart showing the etiquette and manners a child should follow.

As a child you must have been told to greet your elders and visitors to your home according to your culture and tradition. You must also have been taught to be polite in company and keep quiet while others, especially your elders, spoke. Possibly, you at times grudged such schooling. Possibly, at times you even protested such disciplining. Now, certainly you know that you can’t always behave the way you want specially in the presence of others. There are rules of behaviour you have to follow in a company. We are social beings and have to consider the effect of our behaviour on others, even if we are at home and dealing with our family members.

We have two terms to describe our social behaviour–‘etiquette’ and ‘manners’. ‘Etiquette’ is a French word and it means the rules of correct behaviour in society. The word ‘manners’ means the behaviour that is considered to be polite in a particular society or culture. Manners can be good or bad. For example, it is a bad manner to speak with food in one’s mouth. No one likes a bad-mannered person. Remember that etiquette and manners vary from culture to culture and from society to society.

We learn etiquette and manners from our parents, families and various institutions, such as schools, colleges or professional bodies. There are rules of behaviour for all kinds of social occasions and it is important to learn them and practise them in everyday life. The manners that are correct in a wedding reception will not do in a debating club. Therefore, we have to be careful about etiquette and manners. We know how important it is to say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ in everyday life. A few more polite expressions such as ‘pardon me’, ‘excuse me’, ‘may I’, are bound to make your day smooth and pleasant.

  1. Greeting elders and visitors at home

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing how a child becomes acquainted with its culture/manners/etiquette. (one is done for you)

  1. Learning from family

 

Read the following text and make short note in each of the boxes showing the features of conflict.

Conflict can be described as a disagreement among groups or individuals characterized by antagonism and hostility. This is usually fueled by the opposition of one party to another in an attempt to reach an objective different from that of the other party. The elements involved in the conflict have varied sets of principles and values, thus allowing a conflict to arise.

Conflict can be defined in many ways but one of the simplest is that it pertains to the opposing ideas and actions of different entities, resulting in an antagonistic state. Conflict is an inevitable part of life. All of us possess our own opinions, ideas and sets of beliefs. We have our own ways of looking at things and we act according to what we think is proper. Hence, we often find ourselves in conflict in different scenarios; it may involve other individuals, groups of people, or a struggle within our own selves. Consequently, conflict influences our actions and decisions in one way or another.

Conflict comes naturally; the clashing of thoughts and ideas is a part of the human experience. It is true that it can be destructive if left uncontrolled. However, it shouldn’t be seen as something that can only cause negative things to transpire. It is a way to come up with more meaningful realizations that can certainly be helpful to the individuals involved.

Conflict can be seen as an opportunity for learning and understanding our differences. We can all live harmoniously despite conflicts as long as we know how to responsibly manage these struggles.

  1. A disagreement among groups or individuals

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing some objects that have influence on craft works.

A craft work is an applied form of art, a social and cultural product reflecting the inclusive nature of folk imagination. A craft work, which usually doesn’t bear the signature of its maker, retains a personal touch. When we look at a thirty year old nakshi kantha, we wonder at its motifs and designs that point to the artistic ingenuity and the presence of the maker in it. The fact that we don’t know her name or any other details about her doesn’t take anything away from our appreciation of the artist. Indeed, the intimate nature of the kantha and the tactile feeling it generates animate the work and make it very inviting. A craft work is shaped by the interaction of individual creativity and community aesthetics, utility functions and human values. It is distinguished by its maker’s desire to locate himself or herself in the wider and and ever-changing cultural aspirations of the community, and subsequently of the market. But even when the market is an important factor, community aesthetics remains the factor determining the form and content of the craft work. The exquisite terracotta dolls from Dinajpur dating back to early 1940s that form a part of the Bangladesh National Museum’s collection were mostly bought from village fairs by some patron. They were no doubt meant to be consumer items, but the dolls reflect community aesthetics in such a manner that the market has not been able to impose its own preferences on them.

  1. Ever changing culture

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the principles of peace movement.

A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, including ban of guns, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, demonstrations, peace camps; supporting anti-war political candidates and banning guns, creating open government, direct democracy; supporting people who expose war- crimes or conspiracies to create wars, and making laws. Different organizations involved in peace movements may have some diverse goals, but one common goal is sustainability of peace.

Peace movement is basically an all-encompassing “anti-war movement”. It is primarily characterized by a belief that human beings should not wage war on each other or engage in violent conflicts over language, race, natural resources, religion or ideology. It is believed that military power is not the equivalent of justice. The peace movement tends to oppose the proliferation of dangerous technologies and weapons of mass destruction in particular, nuclear weapons and biological warfare. Moreover, many object to the export of weapons including hand-held machine guns and grenades by leading economic nations to lesser developed nations.

  1. Anti-war attitude

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the means of running a peace movement. (No. 1 has been done for you.)

1. Advocacy of pacifism

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the activities of peace movement. (One is done for you).

A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, including ban of guns, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace. Means to achieve these ends include advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, demonstrations, peace camps; supporting anti-war political candidates and banning guns, creating open government, direct democracy; supporting people who expose war-crimes or conspiracies to create wars, and making laws. Different organizations involved in peace movements may have some diverse goals, but one common goal is sustainability of peace.

1. Ending of war

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the importance of Hakaluki Haor. (One is done for you).    

The haor system provides a wide range of economic and non-economic benefits to the local people as well as to the people of Bangladesh. These include fish production, rice production, cattle and buffalo rearing, duck rearing, collection of reeds and grasses and collection of aquatic and other plants. The haor system also protects the lower flood plains from flash floods occurring in the months of April-May, maintains the supply of fish in other lower water bodies and provides habitat for migratory and local waterfowls

  1. Fish production

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the findings of the survey on food adulteration (One is done for you.)

Unsafe levels of pesticides are present in around half of the vegetables and more than a quarter of fruits sold in the capital’s markets, a recent survey has found. A 15-member team of the National Food Safety Laboratory, with support from the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), came up with the findings after collecting and testing food samples from the capital’s Gulshan, Karwanbazar and Mohakhali markets. The survey report, a copy of which was acquired by the Dhaka Tribune, read that nearly 40% of 82 samples of milk, milk products, fish, fruits and vegetables contained banned pesticides such as DDT, Aldrin, Chlordane and Heptachlor. The amount of pesticides in these samples were found to be 3 to 20 times greater than the limits set by the European Union. Around 50% vegetables and 35% fruits were found to be contaminated with unsafe level of pesticides. Analysing more than 30 samples of turmeric powder (branded, packaged and open), the team also found that nearly 30% of the samples contained traces of lead chromate, which can be fatal if swallowed or inhaled. These samples also contained lead at 20 to 50 times above the safety limit of 2.5 parts per million set by the Bangladesh Standard Testing Institute (BSTI). Arsenic and Chromium above safety limits were detected in a total of 5 out of 13 rice samples.  Using a sensitive High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method developed by the Food Safety Lab, 66 samples were analysed for the presence of formaldehyde. Adulteration was thereby detected in samples of coriander, mango and fresh shrimps.

 

  1. Collecting and testing food samples

 

Read the passage and based on your reading of the passage, make short notes in each of the boxes in the flow chart showing the opportunities provided by public universities. (No. 1 has been done for you).

Public universities are the first choices of most students. The public universities offer a wide range of subjects in Science, Commerce, Liberal Arts, Humanities, Engineering and Technology, Law, Education and Medicine. Public universities attract the best minds to teaching although monetary compensation for teachers is anything but attractive. Library, laboratory, Internet and research facilities are much better there than anywhere else in the country. Seminars, symposiums, lectures, workshops, debates, and exhibitions are often held in these institutions and there is ample scope for national and international exposure for promising young knowledge seekers. Moreover, public universities offer residential and boarding facilities at low cost/subsidized rates. 

1. Offer a wide range of subjects

 

Based on your reading of the passage, make short notes in each of the boxes in the flow chart showing the rise of Hercules as a great hero. (No. 1 has been done for you). 

Based on your reading of the passage, make short notes in each of the boxes in the flow chart showing bravery of Hercules.

Hercules was the son of Jupiter and Alcmena. Eurystheus, the King of Mycenae and his cousin, made him undergo some difficult tasks, which are known in Greek myths as the ’12 labours of Hercules’. The first involved a fight with a lion. The valley of Nemea was being disturbed by a terrible lion and so Eurystheus ordered Hercules to slay the beast and bring him his skin. At first, Hercules tried to fight the lion with his club and arrows but this took him nowhere. Then Hercules attempted a different tactic: he decided he would use his hands. He thus managed to slay the animal on his own, relying entirely on his immense strength. Victorious, he returned to Mycenae carrying the dead lion on his shoulders, a sight that terrified the King. His next task was to slay a monster called Hydra that was ravaging the country of Argos. The Hydra had nine heads, of which the middle one was said to be immortal. Our hero struck off its heads with his club, but whenever he knocked off a head, two new ones erupted in its place. Eventually with the help of his devoted servant Iolaus, Hercules succeeded in burning all the heads of the Hydra except the ninth or immortal one, which he decided to bury under a huge rock. In other words, Hercules triumphed again, as he would every time he was given an impossible task by Eurystheus! And this is how, he began to acquire the reputation of a hero possessing immense strength throughout the world.
1. Born to Jupiter and Alcmena

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing how women in our country lose connection with the outside world and get confined in the household with no change of self-reliance. (No. 1 has been done for you.)

In Bangladesh the legal age of marriage for girls is 18. However, 33% of our girls get married before they are 15 years old and 60% of them give birth by the time they reach 19. When an adolescent girl gets married she usually drops out of school and thus loses her mobility. She gets confined to full-time work in her in-laws, household. She loses social status and the opportunities for economic independence. In her in-laws, house she gets marginalized. She becomes vunerable to all sorts of abuse, including dowry-related violence. In our country it is still common for the bride’s family to pay dowry, despite the practice being illegal. Dowry demands can continue even years after marriage. An adolescent bride, even if her in-laws are supportive, faces enormous health risk during pregnancy and child birth. Majority of our people are uninformed or insufficiently informed about reproductive health. The maternal mortality rate among adolescents is double the national rate.
1. Getting married early

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the causes of traffic jam in Dhaka.

Dhaka’s infrastructure doesn’t match the scale of its population. Just 7 percent of the city is covered by roads, compared with around 25 percent of Paris and Vienna. Dhaka also suffers from the absence of a planned road network. There are 650 major intersections, but only 60 traffic lights, many of which don’t work. That means the police force isn’t enforcing driving or parking rules; they’re in the intersections, directing traffic. The cost of Dhaka’s traffic congestion is estimated at $3.8 billion a year, and that’s just the delays and air pollution, not the less-tangible losses in quality of life. Paradoxically, the poor infrastructure is one of the reasons why the city is growing so fast. Without roads or trains to whisk them to the suburbs, Dhaka residents have no choice but to crowd into the middle, set up slums between highrises, and walk to work. Then there are the users of the roads. Besides pedestrians, the narrow lanes are shared by bicycles, rickshaws, scooters, motorcycles, CNGs, buses, and cars. All these modes take up a different amount of space and have different top speeds. Most people you talk to in Bangladesh blame the traffic jams on the rickshaws. There are too many of them, they say, and they drive so slowly that they trap the cars, buses, and CNGs behind them. The government is under pressure to designate some lanes as car-only, to build wider roads and overpasses, to take the slow traffic out from in front of the fast.

1. Poor infrastructure

 

Read the following text and make a flow chart showing the key developments during the time of adolescence.

The time of adolescence is a period of preparation for adulthood during which one experiences several key developments. Besides physical and sexual maturation, these experiences include movement toward social and economic independence, development of identity, the acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles and the capacity for abstract reasoning. While adolescence is a time of tremendous growth and
potential, it is also a time of considerable risks during which social contexts exert powerful influences.
1. Physical maturation

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