Tense

Tense

Definition: The word ‘Tense’ has been derived in English from the Latin word ‘Tempus’ which means time. Tense implies a form taken by a verb to show the time of an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

Classification of Tense: There are three main tenses.

  1. Present tense   : things that are true when the words are spoken or written; or are generally true; or for some languages will be true in the future
  2. Past tense : things that were true before the words were spoken or written
  3. Future tense : things that will or might be true after the words are spoken or written
Present Tense Past Tense Future Tense
Simple Present Simple Past Simple Future
Present Continuous Past Continuous Future Continuous
Present Perfect Past Perfect Future Perfect
Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Future Perfect Continuous

 Look at the following chat of verb that has many forms

Infinitive (to + verb1) Present (verb1) Past (verb2) Past Participle (verb3) verb1+ ing
to be be (am/is/are) was/were been being
to have have (have/has) had had having
to do do (do/does) did done doing

Structures of Tense

Tense Structures Bengali symbol
Simple Present Sub verb1 obj নাই
Simple Past verb2 /
Simple Future will+verb1

 

Present Continuous Sub am/is/are verb1+ing obj
Past Continuous was/were /
Future Continuous will be

 

Present Perfect  

Sub

 

have/has  

verb3

 

obj
Past Perfect had  
Future Perfect will have  

 

Present Perfect Continuous Sub have/has been verb1+ing obj (Time)
Past Perfect Continuous had তল / (Time)
Future Perfect Continuous will have (Time)

 

Identify tenses

I go there. I have parked at the wrong place. You will cross the canal. Sakib has repaired the watch. You know the answer. Mahin plays the violin. They walked in the wood. A cock has two legs. I will be saying prayer. We will meet them. The earth goes round the sun. Water is liquid. I am watching a film. It is coming. The boys are sleeping.  I will have done this work. I had lunch yesterday. You have printed the letters. We have done the job. Himi went to work. We will be flying to Dhaka. You did the shopping. Kanak travelled to Spain last year. Tonmoy visited it last year. I was working in the garden. We were watching a film. Himi has repaired it. You will come to play. Our friends have visited us. You have been on holiday this year. I will have walked 15 kms. You have been writing. They have been staying in this hotel. I will reach home by 7p.m. Imran has been sleeping all this morning. You have been missing classes. Nawazish had written three letters. They had lived in Satkhira. You will have locked the door. You left the place. Pianto had been working there. They had been working hard. I will be playing tennis. I will be playing tennis. They will have arrived. Cars stop here. Sajal teaches English. The teacher said nothing. Shuvo works hard. Rowza will pass in the exam. There goes the taxi. He will stay with us for 3 days. Moon does not go to the market. Shyam is talking to Monir. We are late. He will be waiting for. I am playing football. She will do it. They are sleeping here. She is having her breakfast now. Karia worked in that office. He passed away in 1999. We went for the movie. I studied at the DU. I have been doing it. I will have been working for three years. I wanted to ride. I have been eating apples. You have not been studying. They will be winning the elections We have been playing with Mary. He was washing the dishes. She was cooking dinner. She will not come tomorrow. I was working hard. We were playing. It started to rain. She was reading a novel. She will have taken three exams. I am planning to meet you in the office. The sun sets in the west. I called her. I was walking down the street. The police van was patrolling the city. I had never seen it. He will have saved enough. You will have left for London. Mim will have gone there. We were there together. I will keep in touch with you. I shall have been playing cricket. She will be walking alone. I will be watching the movie. I will be at home. She is watching T.V. She had read the book. I will have been studying English.

 

 

 

Simple Present Tense

Detailed with number and person

Structure: Sub + verb1 + ext.

Example: I eat rice.

First person

Sentence Singular Number Plural Number
Affirmative I eat rice. (Avwg fvZ LvB) We eat rice. (Avgiv fvZ LvB)
Negative I don’t eat rice. (Avwg fvZ LvB bv) We don’t eat rice. (Avgiv fvZ LvB bv)
Interrogative Do I eat rice? (Avwg wK fvZ LvB?) Do we eat rice? (Avgiv wK fvZ LvB?)
Neg. Int. Don’t I eat rice? (Avwg wK fvZ LvB bv?) Don’t we eat rice? (Avgiv wK fvZ LvB bv?)

 

Second person

Sentence Singular Number Plural Number
Affirmative You eat rice. (Zzwg fvZ LvI) You eat rice. (Zvgiv fvZ LvI)
Negative You don’t eat rice. (Zzwg fvZ LvI bv) You don’t eat rice. (Zvgiv fvZ LvI bv)
Interrogative Do you eat rice? (Zzwg wK fvZ LvI?) Do you eat rice? (Zvgiv wK fvZ LvI?)
Neg. Int. Don’t you eat rice? (Zzwg wK fvZ LvI bv?) Don’t you eat rice? (Zvgiv wK fvZ LvI bv?)

 

Third person

Sentence Singular Number Plural Number
Affirmative He eats rice. (m fvZ Lvq) They eat rice. (Zviv fvZ Lvq)
Negative He doesn’t eat rice. (m fvZ Lvq bv) They don’t eat rice. (Zviv fvZ Lvq bv)
Interrogative Does he eat rice? (m wK fvZ Lvq?) Do they eat rice? (Zviv wK fvZ Lvq?)
Neg. Int. Doesn’t he eat rice? (m wK fvZ Lvq bv?) Don’t they eat rice? (Zviv wK fvZ Lvq bv?)

 

Now practise the other tenses using the following sentences with Bengali meaning like that.

  1. Sabbir helps the poor.
  2. We recite the Quran.
  3. Karia plays football.
  4. Shifa cooks food.
  5. They watch movie.
  6. Karia writes a latter.
  7. Sabbir catches fish.
  8. I enjoy it.
  9. We sleep at night.
  10. Sharmin reads a book.
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