Transformation of Sentences
4.1 Transformation: Transformation is a system of inter changing the form/pattern of a sentence without changing its original meaning. In other words, it is a method of expressing the same meaning/concept in a different way.
4.1.2 Ways of changing negative from affirmative
|1. auxiliary verb + n’t and opposite word
Simple present: Sub + do not/does not+verb1……….
Simple past: Sub + did not +verb1……….
N.B.: Use at all avoiding very and very much
always/ever=never, any=no, sometimes=often
|a. He was a kind man. He is a regular student. They are honest and pious. So, we should be honest in our life. He is loved by everybody. He was unmarried. Day to day life in Dhaka is expensive. It lives together. A healthy man is an asset to his family. A great man like him is very rare. A good student should be conscious of politics. A tea stall is crowded place. A life with an assignment is an actual life. An unhealthy man is only a liability to his family. Money is essential in our life. Cox’s Bazar sea beach is a beautiful place. E-mail is used for important purposes. E-mail is a latest messing system. Day to day life in Dhaka is expensive. This was an extra-ordinary ship. A patriot is respected by all. Man is mortal. The Titanic was regarded unsinkable. It lives together. I shall remember you. She acted foolishly. Dhaka is an old city. But mountaineers are courageous people. English is easy. I am your enemy/foe. They solved their problem wisely
b. He is very kind to me. Man is very curious to know and see. Apu is very strong in English. She was a very hardworking woman. I am very responsible. So the illiteracy rate in Bangladesh is very poor. It is very difficult for Bangladesh. Her parents liked her very much. Cricket is a very exciting game. Diamond is a very precious metal. A train journey is very enjoyable. You love him very much. You’re a very interesting person. I will be for a very long time. It’s a very small window. He experienced a very realistic vision.This thing happens to be very important to me. I am very glad of it. The journey was very pleasant.
4.1.3 Ways of changing affirmative from negative
|1. Remove negation such as no, not/n’t, never, nothing, nobody, no one
Simple Present: Subject + verb1 and Simple past: Subject + verb2
2. Use opposite word
N.B.: Use very and very much avoiding at all
Never = always/ever, no = any, often = sometimes
|He is not dull. She is not ugly. Her tongue is not smooth. The treatment is not complete. She is not guilty. She was not unhappy. Nobody was absent. English is not difficult. The poor fisherman agreed to his term .It was not the wrong thing to do. Farmers are not living in the town. Feroza did not come of a rich family. Hazi Muhammad Muhsin was not an unkind man. Frugality is not a bad habit. The children will not discontinue this work. The dancers are not female. Hamidur has not many bad friends. Fresh air is not unnecessary for existence. He is not a man of low profile. He is not an irregular student of class Ten. He is not insincere to his duties. He is not weak and inactive. He is not dishonest and insincere. He is not inattentive to his studies. He does not keep bad company. He did live a luxurious life and take much food. He did not dislike sea. He did not pass his early life in happiness. It is not improbable that he will arrive. He is not incompetent for the post. He was not a cruel man. He was not truthful. He was not a fool. He was not born in poor family. He was not born in an uneducated family. He was not in a poor dress. But this is not possible now. He was not cruel. Her parents did not dislike her at all. Her father is not a rich farmer. It is not a comparable creation. It is not a human act. It is not a beautiful bird. It does not live alone. It is not feeble. It is not good for health. It is not behind our kitchen. It doesn’t look beautiful. It is not hard to operate at all. He was not an unkind man at all.|
4.1.4 Some common opposite words
|Main word||Opposite word||Main word||Opposite word||Main word||Opposite word|
4.1.5 Rules on Affirmative to Negative and vice versa
|1. Only/Alone||Person/Allah||None but|
|Number/age||Not more than/Not less than|
|2. Must/have to||cannot but+verb1|
|3. Had to||could not but+verb1|
|could not help+verb1+ing|
|4. Every (body/one/noun)||There is no (body/one/noun) but|
|5. By+gerund||Without+gerund (negative)|
|6. Both……and/as well as/and||Not only …….but also|
|7. As soon as||No sooner had……verb3……than|
|8. as/so……. As||not less……than|
|9. too……to+v1||so……that + sub+ can/could (not) + verb1|
|10. Superlative degree||Positive degree|
|11. Universal truth||Negative interrogative|
|12. for good/for ever||never …..again|
|13. many||not a few|
|14. a few||not many|
|15. a little||not much|
|16. much||not a little|
4.1.6 Exercises on Affirmative to Negative and vice versa
|Only replaced by None but (Person/Allah) or Nothing but|
|Alone replaced by None but (Person/Allah) or Nothing but|
|a. Anger is only a vice. Rishad was alone alive in the accident. He has only two handsets. Only Rana will fall into my pit. Only pov erty is responsible for this. Bangladesh is the only darling child of nature. Only the cook told him. A computer is an only blessing earth. Happiness is only a psychological thing. Life is only the sum total of moment. Only an emotionally balanced person keeps it under control. Only education gives us the light of knowledge. Only the boys who work hard can shine in life. Only Allah can help us. He alone can solve this. Only a patriot can be so noble. He lives alone in the house. Poverty is the only cause. Only the qualified candidates should apply for the post. Only he can play good cricket. Only the science students can apply for the post. Only they can do the work. Only he can speak English here. He ate only the plainest food. Only the pure man in heart could be perfectly just.
b. None but man is responsible for this pollution. None but he can stay. None but the fool will say so. None but the brave deserve the fair. None but the freedom fighters will be allowed. None but the meritorious students can get chance to study here. None but she is absent. None but Shahajan, the Mughal Emperor built it. He had nothing but an old mansion. Nothing but poverty is responsible for this. Nothing but the soup was tasty. Nothing but the sun is visible. None but the science students can apply for the post. None but a coward would say so. None but the brave deserves the fair.
|Only (number/age) replaced by not more than/not less than|
|a. I bought only a few chocolates for my daughter. I have only one pen. The duck had only one leg. I will buy only a pair of shoes. You came here only at four. She has only one doll. He has ten marbles. We have only one football. Rana will sell only ten toys. Only one person can use it at a time. I have only six nails. Jet planes were only a few years old. I slept only two hours. I spent only three dollars. I ate only three cakes. He only ate one shrimp. The widow has only two goats of her own. He is only four.
b. You did not break less than two eggs. He does not take more than a meal in a day. He did not bring more than a purse. He is not more than 14 years old. They are not more than ten years old. She has not more than one daughter. They have not more than two cars. He did not travel with more than a dog for company. The band did not sing more than five songs at the concert.
|Must/have to replaced by cannot but+ verb1|
|Must/have to replaced by cannot help + verb1 + ing|
|a. We must realize the fact. I must come forward against corruption. He must go from one house to another. We must protect them. We must read many books other than text books. We must educate our girls to forward the nation. She must take care of me. We must read many books other than text books. You must yield to your fate. We must obey our parents. You must care them. You must yield to your fate.
b. We cannot but plant trees. You cannot but look after other people. He cannot but help my brother. You cannot but wear a cap. We cannot but respect an honest man. You cannot but respect your teacher. We cannot but obey our parents. He cannot but perform his duty. You cannot but do the work.
|Had to replaced by could not but + verb1|
|Had to replaced by could not help + verb1 + ing|
|a. I had to love my country. We had to depend on it. We had to leave it undone. Nila had to drop the letter. He had to write music. They had to hate the selfish. Rina had to tell a story. I had to see a bird. He had to like the bird. Ali had to open the window. Sabina had to sing a song. The man had to buy a shirt.
b. He could not but decide to teach the English a lesson. He could not but struggle against the English. He could but feel pity for the lion. We could not but educate our girls. We cannot but love everyone. We could not but plant trees. We had to protect them. We could not but read books to gain knowledge.
|Every(body/one/noun) replaced by There is no (body/one/noun)….. but + verb|
|a. Everybody distrust a liar. Everybody is conscious of health. Everybody wants friend. Everybody disliked him. Every living thing needs pure air. Every nation can prosper giving importance of education. Every patriot works sincerely and honestly in normal course of life. Every student is helped by our teachers. Every student needs computer. Every woman likes it. Everybody admires of him. Everybody attends a Baishakhi Mela. Everybody dislikes him. Everybody in our village loves him. Everybody in our village loves him. Everybody loves him. Everybody should be conscious of his health. Everyone lives in society. Everyone can prosper in life with industry. Everyone will admit this. Everybody hates a liar. Everybody hates a liar. Everybody obeys the will of God. Everyone likes a flower. Every man wants to be crowned of success. Every rose has a thorn. Every building has iron. Every cloud has silver lining. Every tree is known by its fruits.
b. There is no one but in the school likes her. There is no one but learns many things by watching television. There is nobody but likes his magic spell. There is nobody but supported the freedom fighters. There is nobody but works hard to gain his object. There is nobody but needs pure air. There is no mother but loves a child. There is nobody but wants to be happy. There is no one but hates a terrorist.
|By + gerund replaced by Without + gerund (negative)|
|a. By giving love to others, you can receive it. By working hard, they can remove their condition. By reading books, we can enrich our minds. By working hard, one can shine. By studying attentively, you can get A+. By writing regularly you can avoid your mistakes. By taking exercises, you will be able to keep fit. By watching TV, We can gather knowledge. By playing well, you can get reward. By working hard, they can remove their condition.
b. Without studying hard, she will not get A+. Without taking vegetables, you cannot keep your body sound. Without discussing the problem, you cannot solve it. Without doing it, you cannot go to sleep. Without learning English, we cannot hope to get any job.
|Superlative degree replaced by Positive degree|
|a. He was the fastest runner. He is the best player. It was the happiest animal in the world. My friend Paul is the best boy in the class. Kazi Nazrul is one of the best writers. Cox Bazar is one of the longest sea beaches on the world. He is the noblest person. Iron is one of the most useful metals. Swimming is the best exercise. Sundarban is the largest Mangrove forest. Dhaka is the largest city in Bangladesh. Poverty is one of the greatest problems in our country. Corruption is one of the most dangerous weapons to destroy a society. At present cricket is one of the most popular games in our country.
b. No other poet was as great as Kazi Nazrul Islam. No other city in Bangladesh is so big as Dhaka. No other city in Bangladesh is so large as Dhaka. Very few boys in the class are as bad as he. No other man in the village is so wise as he. No other spinner in Bangladesh is as perfect as Rafiq. No other country is as populous as she. Very few countries in the world are as populous as it. Very few rivers in Bangladesh are as big as the Padma. Very few problems are as big as price hike for them. Very few sea beaches are as beautiful as it. Very few insects are as busy as the bee.
|As soon as replaced by No sooner had……verb3……than|
|a. As soon as he saw me, he ran away. As soon as I reached the station, the train left. As soon as he teacher came, there was silence. As soon as she heard the news, she burst into tears. As soon as he saw, it she showed me. As soon as she arrived home, the telephone rang. As soon as we reached the station, the train left. As soon as the students came to college, the bell rang. As soon as we started for college, the rain started. As soon as he saw me, he ran away swiftly. As soon as the police marked the thief, he ran away. As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away.
b. No sooner had the rain stopped than they left the shelter. No sooner had we reached the station than the train left. No sooner had the man seen than he ran away. No sooner had the thief seen the police than the thief fled away from the spot. No sooner had we reached the college than the rain started.
|too……to + verb1 replaced by so……that + sub + can/could (not) + verb1|
|a. The tea is too hot to be drunk. This fact is too evident to require proof. Any branch of knowledge is too difficult to be conquered by perseverance. He is too honest to accept a bribe. This is too small a thing to pit down. He is too old to get the job. He is too weak to move. The writer was too poor to maintain his family.The boy was too clever to cope with him. John is too poor to help her. We are too late to reach there in time. The old man was too weak to walk. I am too confused to do it. It is too heavy for her to carry. He is too dull to pass in the exam. He was too short to touch it. He is too young to take the responsibilities.
b. The old man was so tired that he could not walk. The old man was so thirsty that he could not talk. The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it. The baby was so little that he could not walk. The box is so old that it cannot be used. The problem is so difficult for me that I cannot solve.
|as/so ……. as replaced by not less……than|
|a. He was as ferocious as a tiger. Opu is as tall as Nuru. Bela is as intelligent as Abul. Sorrow is as strong as hunger. Oranges are not as cheap as apples. It is as big as the Buriganga. He is as good as his brother. London is as big as Oxford. A mobile phone is more useful than a computer. They are as stout as we. He is as attentive as Dana. Dana is as smart as Parul. She is as beautiful as her older sister. Jamil is as handsome as Saikat. It is as ugly as a crow. You are as clear as he. You are as sincere as Munna.
b. The cow is not less useful than a donkey. He was not less short than she. Riches are not less important than honesty. E-mail is not less cheap than telex. The cuckoo is not less clever than crow. The cow is not less useful than the goat. Peter is not less clever than Rana. Health is less important than wealth. Blood is not less thick than water. He is not less tall than Mr. Hulas. He is not less intelligent than this boy. His new book is not less interesting than his earlier books. I am not less interested than Rani in cricket.
|Both …… and/as well as/and replaced by Not only ……. but also|
|a. He is both a good student and a singer. Both Rubaba and Smrity were obedient. Miraz as well as Ebon are very good cricketer. The plot moved both swiftly and artfully throughout the movie. Neela was both a singer and a dancer. Ebert both likes and recommends the movie. Both Monir and Maruf prefer cricket to classical music. The match is being shown both at GTV and Channal 9. The directors wanted both to win and to receive recognition for their work. Both Rahim and karim went there. The freedom fighters are both honorable and remembered. The producers ended up both extending and expanding their filming hours. I as well as Rana went to school. We as well as Dana did this. Both the movie and the play were good. I liked both the movie and the play. The actors were both engaging and skillful in their performances.
b. He is not only a cheat but also arrogant. I am weak not only at English but also at Mathematics. Shakespeare was not only a dramatist but also an actor. She is not only rich but also famous. He visited not only France but also Switzerland. He was not only upset but also angry. The place was not only good, but also safe. She speaks not only English, but also French. Mid position with verb is also possible. She not only speaks English, but also French. She was not only sad, but also angry. They not only need food, but also shelter. Not only do they need food, but they also need shelter. Not only they need food they also need shelter. He not only insulted her in front of her friends but also threatened to beat her up. Not only was she sad she was also angry. She is not only a good wife, but also a good mother.
4.1.7 Exceptional rules
|a. He is the only boy of 15.||No other boy than/but he is of 15.|
|b. I read only English.||I read no other subject than English.|
|c. Water is liquid.||Water is neither solid nor gaseous.|
|d. Milk is white.||Milk has no other colour without white.|
|e. Iron is solid.||Iron is neither liquid nor gaseous.|
|f. Where there is fire, there is smoke.||There is no smoke without fire.|
|g. He tried all plans.||He left no stone unturned.|
|h. He has given up smoking for good.||He will never smoke again.|
|i. He is less ugly than you said.||He is not as ugly as you said.|
|j. You are less good than he said.||You are not as good as he said.|
|k. He has left the village forever.||He will never come to his village again.|
|l. All must submit to death.||No one can escape death.|
|m. Where there is fire, there is smoke.||There is no smoke without fire.|
|n. I am unable to attend their needs.||I cannot attend their needs.|
|o. I missed the train.||I could not catch the train.|
|p. Everyone admits that he is a good musician.||No one can deny that he is a good musician.|
|q. Everybody will admit that I am right.||Nobody will deny that I am right.|
|r. It is often difficult in company to speak frankly.||It is not always easy in company to speak frankly.|
|s. I refused to wait any longer.||I would not wait any longer.|
|t. More attacks followed.||This was not his last attack.|
|u. I was doubtful if he would come.||I was not sure that he would come.|
|v. He always minds his lessons.||He never neglects his lessons.|
|w. It always pours when it rains.||It never rains but pours.|
|x. You are the only person fit for the post.||No other person but you are fit for the post.|
|y. I come here for the last time.||Never again I shall come here.|
|z. In all respects this morning was like any other.||This morning did not differ from any other in any respect.|
|aa. He will go only under compulsion.||He will go unless he is compelled.|
|bb. Chance and accidents are only aliases of ignorance.||Chance and accidents are nothing but aliases of ignorance.|
|cc. Jim was always on time.||Jim never late.|
|dd. I saw only but husks and dust in the bag.||I saw nothing in the bag but husks and dust.|
|ee. It was the only school for males.||There was no other school for males.|
|ff. A little boy is always innocent..||A little boy is never guilty.|
|gg. There are many people here.||There are not a few people here.|
|hh. We sold a little honey.||We did not sell much honey.|
|ii. I come here for the last time.||I shall never come here|
|jj. Then I saw him last.||I have never seen him since then.|
|kk. I warn you for the last time.||I shall never warn you.|
|ll. I have given up smoking forever.||I shall never smoke again.|
|mm. He came here for the last time.||He never came here again|