Pronoun and Pronoun references

Pronoun

Definition: Pronouns take the place of nouns.

 Classification of Pronoun with list

Pronoun Example
1.      Personal pronoun I, you, he, she, it, they, we, her, him, it, me, them, us, and you, hers, his, its, mine, ours, theirs, yours
2.      Demonstrative Pronoun this, that, these, those, so, such, one, ones
3.      Interrogative Pronouns who, what, which, whose, whoever, whomever, whatever, whom
4.      Relative Pronouns who, which, that, whom, what, whose, whoever, whenever, whatever
 

5.      Indefinite Pronouns

everybody, everyone, anybody, anyone, somebody, someone, nobody, no one, none, one, nothing, everything, anything, something, both, each, either, few, many, neither, several, some, all, another, any
6.      Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns herself, himself, itself, myself, ourselves, yourself, themselves
7.      Reciprocal Pronouns each other, one another
8.      Distributive pronoun each, either, neither, every, everyone

 

 Personal Pronoun

Person Number Nominative Possessive Objective Reflexive
First Singular I My, mine Me Myself
Plural We Our, ours Us Ourselves
Second Singular You Your, yours You Yourself
Plural You Your, yours You Yourselves
Third Singular He His Him Himself
Singular She Her, hers Her Herself
Singular It Its It Itself
Plural They Their, theirs Them Themselves

 1.  Identify the unclear pronoun references in the following paragraph. Where

necessary, rewrite the sentence so that all pronoun references are clear.         1×5 = 5

In a village there lived a poor old woman, who had gathered together a dish of beans and wanted to cook it. So, she made a fire, and to burn quicker, she lighted it with a handful of straw. When she was emptying the beans into the pan, one dropped without she observing it, and lay on the ground beside a straw. Soon afterwards a burning coal sprang from the fire, and they leapt down to the two. The coal said, “I fortunately sprang out of it, and if I had not escaped, my death would have been certain, I should have been burnt to ashes.”

Answers: In a village there lived a poor old woman, who had gathered together a dish of beans and wanted to cook them. So, she made a fire, and to burn quicker, she lighted the fire with a handful of straw. When she was emptying the beans into the pan, one dropped without her observing it, and lay on the ground beside a straw. Soon afterwards a burning coal sprang from the fire, and it leapt down to the two. The coal said, “I fortunately sprang out of the fire, and if I had not escaped, my death would have been certain, I should have been burnt to ashes.”

 

 Identify the unclear pronoun references in the following paragraphs. Where necessary, rewrite the sentences so that all pronoun references are clear.

  1. There are varieties of flowers in their country. Among those the rose is the loveliest of all. It is noted for her beauty and sweet fragrance. Many people see that in their gardens, The roses are of different colours such as red, white, pink etc. Among them the red rose is the most beautiful and attractive to her. When they bloom in the garden, the garden assumes a charming appearance.
  2. Translation is an art. It takes a great deal of creativity and patience to do the translation well. It also takes stamina, for translators are underpaid and underappreciated. They are often left off the covers of it they create. In fact, we owe a good deal to a good number of hard-working people and organisations who are responsible for making it available. We thank most notably them who take the financial risk to publish and promote them in an increasingly crowded market.
  3. In our country, people have different views about women. The majority cannot still consider men and women on equal terms. They are treated either with a feeling of compassion or they are deprived of their rights. Ignorance and very frequently illiteracy, among us are the main reasons behind this type of attitude. It is true that as a general rule, girls, whether from poor or rich families, are much loved and cared for by the father and brothers. We also need to remember that these are often denied by another women. We first have to make them aware of the great harm they are doing. In the matter of attitude, women need to face menfolk with the expectation of being treated rightly as a woman!
  4. A teacher who devotes him to the task of teaching his students is an ideal teacher. He is a very important person in any society or country. He dispels the darkness of ignorance from the minds of them and enkindles the light of education in them. He helps his students in learning their lessons. The teacher teaches him to follow the path of truth and avoid the path of vice. It may lead one to astray. He is in fact, a friend, philosopher and guide to the students. That is why he is considered one of the most important persons of the society and of the nation. He is also regarded as a guardian of civilization.
  5. There was once a poor woman which had two children. The youngest used to cut wood and she had to go everyday into the forest to fetch them. Once when she had gone a long way to seek it, a little child who was quite strange and strong came and helped her to pick up the wood and carry it home. Then after a few moments had passed, it disappeared. The child told her mother this, but at first she would not believe it.
  6. Begum Rokeya was married to Khan Bahadur Sakhawat Hossain in 1896. Her husband was the Deputy Magistrate of Bhagalpur. This is now in the Indian state of Bihar. He always encouraged her to go on with her activities. He also cooperated with her in doing those. Many upper class Muslims of Bengal at that time learnt Arabic and Persian languages as medium of education and communication. Though Rokeya had great love for her mother tongue, she learnt those to communicate with others. She also learnt Bangla from her eldest brother Ibrahim.
  7. One night, while walking down the streets Kamal noticed a postbox from where a sound was coming. Being curious about it when he reached there, he found that there was a child behind stopped. He was wondering what he should do. He thought that he should return it to his parents. But as he did not know where the parents were, he took it to the nearest police station.
  8. There was once on a time a mother who had three daughters, the eldest of which was rude and wicked, the second much better, but the youngest was a pious and good child. She was very strange because she loved the eldest daughter only, and she could not bear the youngest. So, she often sent her out into the great forest in order to get rid of her. She thought she would lose herself and never come back again. Once the child could not find her way out of the forest and she walked on constantly until evening came, and then she saw a tiny light burning in the distance, and ran up to them at once.
  9. Today is Tania’s birthday. Her parents have brought a very beautiful dress for them. She loved the dress. She is eagerly waiting to wear this. Her uncle, Mr. Abid, has brought a nicely decorated cake on the occasion of her birthday. It was a strawberry cake. It loves his niece very dearly. The invitees have started to come one after another. But Tania’s best friend, Ayesha, is still to come. She is anxiously waiting. She will not cut the cake without her.
  10. Boiled egg is very nutritious and tasty as well. Besides, it is not a difficult task at all. If one wants to boil eggs, he has to pour some water into a pot at first. Then it should be kept on a burner. After that the eggs should be put into a pot. Then it should be let to boil for about five minutes. Afterwards they should be taken out with a spoon. After cooling them, they should be separated from them to be prepared for eating.
  11. Smoking is a serious bad habit. The dangers of this beggar description. The dangers they, have to face severe health hazards. It is one of the most dreadful habits practiced by human being. By practicing such a bad habit it harms not only oneself but also others around. A smoker has to face a lot of incurable diseases. Lung cancer, bronchitis are two of that. So, everyone should be conscious of the dreadful consequences of smoking.
  12. Nelson Mandela was the greatest leader of South Africa. In fact it was one of the greatest leaders of the world. All its life he struggled against apartheid. This was government policy of racial segregation. The Europeans were separated from the non-Europeans. The blacks were treated cruelly. Those were aliens in its own country.
  13. Kabir Ahmed is a school teacher. His salary is okay. The day-to-day expenses are pretty high in Dhaka. Both housing and food are costly in the capital. He has rented an apartment. But it is really too small for his family. Of course he does not have a garden. So, his wife, Nasrin, who loves gardening can’t grow anything. She cannot go out to work either because there’s no one else in the house to look after the children. So the whole family depends on his income alone. He has great hopes for his children and would like to send them to a good school. But good schools are very expensive. He is not sure how much he would be able to help her.
  14. My family and I love going to the park at the weekends. We like having picnics in it. My sister and I love watching animals. Though my mother does not like these too much, she likes making sandwiches for us but my father hates cooking. My sister and I love playing around in the park and feeding those. My mother loves watching us while we play. She tells my sister that she has seen spiders near the bush. I’m not afraid of spiders. But I don’t like flies. I just can’t bear with these. We can relax in a park listening to the birds singing. We also like watching these moving around. We all like the park because we love being outdoor and feeling free. But sometimes my father gets angry with us and does not allow us to go the park.
  15. Liberty does not descend upon people. People must raise its to it. It is a fruit that must be earned before them can be enjoyed. This freedom meaning freedom only from foreign domination is an outworn idea. This is the main task that confronts us if we are to take our rightful place in the modern world. We cannot hold the clock back and therefore, it is we whom must go forward at a double pace bending all our resources and all our energies to great purpose.
  16. Working opportunities for women are very few in rural areas of Bangladesh. We usually spend our time doing our household chores. The ILO recently started a project titled “Technologies for Rural Employment with Special Reference to Women and Sustainable Development.” The aim of it is to impart training to rural women in various activities and make us self-reliant.
  17. Children must pass through several stages in its life to become adults. For most people, there are four or five stages of growth where he learns certain things: infancy, early childhood, later childhood and adolescence. Persons 18 and over are considered adults in our society. Of course there are some people that will try to act older than its years. All people have to go through it irrespective of their economic and social status.
  18. The moon is a very familiar figure to all of us. He awakens a feeling of love and tenderness in your hearts. Even an infant in arms stretches out her hands to grasp this beautiful thing. Nor is his appeal confined only to children. Ever since the string of the poetic faculty in man, he has furnished a theme for poets and artists.
  19. Computer is an electronic device. That stores information on magnetic tape, analyses it and produces as required from the data on tapes. But computer does not work by himself. It works as it is operated. Computer is the result of efforts by some votaries of science. Pascal invented the theory of ‘Digital Calculating System’ in 1642. That invention and initiatives led to the research and finally in 1937 Mr Haward Akin, an American scientist, invented a machine that could do difficult sums, seven years later in 1944, electric computer was used in Harvard  University. Since then efforts have been made for improvement of it. Modern computer is the outcome of constant efforts and research. It consists of five major components namely the input unit, he output unit, the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit. It performs three functions—receiving data, processing data and supplying data. It has a machine language of its own. Machine language varies from computer to computer. Computer is one of the wonders of modern science and it is of great use to us. Nowadays, it is one of their daily necessaries.
  20. Once upon a time an old lady lost his eyesight. Then she called in a doctor and said to them, “I will give you a rich reward if he can cure my eye sight.” The doctor started the treatment. But she was very greedy. He was attracted by the valuable things in the lady’s house. The doctor used to steal the things away everyday. The lady got back her eyesight by this time. When the doctor demanded it the old lady said that she did not get back her eyesight as she could not see any valuable thing in her house.
  21. Childhood seems to be the golden period of one’s life when he becomes adult and recollects the memory of being a child. It is very sweet to call up them. If you often look back on one’s boyhood days, they will surely turn you back to that. There is hardly any man he does not feel passionate while thinking about their childhood day. These are an excellent asset to any passionate person.
  22. Women in our society have always been considered subservient to us. The majority of houses are usually dominated by them. So they most often have no say there. In many households wives are beaten up by them.
  23. While Mrs. Ayesha Amin told the students about Mr. Grasshopper and Mr. Ant, Mr. Anis Ahmed continued to help them with their school garden. We’ve planted for the future,’ he told them. ‘Here in Bangladesh, we’ve three kinds of vegetables, summer, winter and all season. It was between winter and summer when I gave you the seeds and seedlings, so we’ve planted all season vegetables. Look, I’ll show them to you.
  24. At the Writing Centre, you can receive help on any writing assignment. It can make your writing stronger by discussing it with someone else. This will lead to a greater understanding of the proper mechanics and style expected in academic writing. This is an important part of the writing process, and they spend a good deal of time making sure you understand the expectations of written assignments. Using it will definitely make your writing skills stronger, and that will give you greater confidence for your next assignment.
  25. There was an old house in a village. A number of mice lived in that house. They were doing a lot of mischief there. The master of the house was very annoyed and made a plan. They bought a big cat. He started killing the mice. The mice fell in a great trouble. They became very worried. They wanted to get rid of the cat. The mice had a general council to consider what measures could take to outwit their common enemy, the cat. Some said this, and some said that; but at last a young mouse got up and said he had a proposal to make, which they thought would meet the case. ‘We will all agree,’ said he, ‘that our chief danger consists in the sly and treacherous manner in which the enemy approaches us.’
  26. Drug addiction has become common in recent times and is a behavior, found in people all over the world. Drug abuse is caused when a person indulges in excessive consumption of drugs or chemical substances. When the person continues to indulge in such behavior, even if they faces lot of physical, emotional and social problems, it turns into an addiction. They start taking drugs for variety of reasons, for instance, to escape from problems in life, to get rid of some physical or mental pain or to feel more energetic. Drugs are also prescribed by physicians to patients, after a surgery or to lessen chronic pain. In both these cases, there is a chance of a person getting addicted, if the drug gives instant results. It is said that, when people take drugs, they feel a sudden rush of energy and also find them in a different world where problems cannot reach themselves. Continuous or regular use of drugs make the body addicted to it, and gives rise to a situation where he is not able to live without it. The person gets addicted to it in such a way, that nothing else seems to be important.
  27. You are seven years old. You hear the sound of glass breaking outside window and suddenly the house resounds with mother’s shouts. You see her face in the hall from your bedroom. That she forms with her mouth is strange and unfamiliar to you. Riot. It would have sounded like a clownish way of saying ‘Right.’ But this does not seem to be a time for clownish behaviour. This is something serious and mysterious and disturbing and it occupies a place in the adult world, the world you do not yet understand but can intuitively grasp from time to time. Like now. Your mother enters bedroom. Her face is distorted with alarm. She runs to where you are, playing with your friend who is also your age, and grabs you.
  28. An ideal farmer is a very important person in our society. He lives in a village. Their house is made of straws. An ideal farmer lives a very simple life. He earns his livelihood by the sweat of their brow. He works from morning till evening. He gets up very early in the morning and takes a little breakfast. He goes to field with his wooden plough and a pair of bullocks. He cultivates and prepares his land with simple hand-made tools. He has both pleasures and pains in his life. He gets pleasures when he has a good harvest. But he gets pains when his crops are destroyed by droughts, floods or cyclone. Through a farmer works hard, does not get enough to eat. He lives from hand to mouth. He also suffers from many diseases. An ideal farmer is a seed to the country. He contributes a lot to the economy of the country. So all of us should respect them.
  29. It was already late when we set out for the next town, it according to the map was about fifteen miles away on the other side of the hills. There we felt sure which we would find a bed for the night. Darkness fell soon after they left the village, but luckily we met no someone as drove swiftly along the narrow winding road that led to the hills. As we climbed higher, that became colder and rain began to fall, making difficult at times to see the road. I asked John, my companion, to derive more slowly.
  30. Rahman is such a common name that I had better remind where we met. It was at your daughters wedding last year. Her husband Mr. Moniruzzaman is a very old friend of I- in fact, we were at school together- and I came up from Dhaka for the occasion. In fact I had every intention of remaining in Japan, but since then I have changed mind and I am very much inclined to come back to work in native town. I have been away now for so long that I have very few contacts in Bangladesh. That is why I am writing to now. I should really be most grateful if could put me in touch with anyone who could help or advise.
  31. Please don’t put you to a lot of trouble on my behalf. Of course I haven’t forgotten you. I remembered you were as soon as I saw the signature at the foot of the letter. By a strange coincidence, were talking about you the other day. My friend, Mr. Altaf is the editor of a newspaper. He was rather worried because he is just about to lose anyone of top journalists. So far he has not been able to find someone to replace him. He wants anyone which was born and brought up here.
  32. One day a cowboy was tending their cows in the field. Many wolves lived in the forest. The cowboy would often cry out ‘Wolf! Wolf!’ in fun. The farmers working in the field heard his cries and thought that he had been really attacked by them. So, they all rushed to the spot to save the cowboy. But their surprise, they found no wolf there. Seeing them the boy began to laugh at them. He played the same trick for several times and the men were befooled. So, they became very angry. One day a wolf really came and attacked the cows. Now the cowboy cried out in fear but one time nobody came to help him. The wolf first killed them and at last it killed the boy.
  33. The teacher told his students that he liked them who were disciplined and punctual. Then he added that each of the students should complete their homework regularly. At last, he said that if you did not work regularly, your result would not be good. If they needed, I would guide them.One day a man came into a wood with an axe in its hand and begged all the trees to give him a small branch which it wanted for a particular purpose. There were good natured trees and gave him one of its branches. What the man did but fixed them into the axe head and soon set to work cutting down tree after tree.
  34. Translation is an art. It takes a great deal of creativity and patience to do the translation well. It also takes stamina, for translators are underpaid and underappreciated. They are often left off the covers of it they create. In fact, we owe a good deal to a good number of hard-working people and organisations who are responsible for making it available. We thank most notably them who take the financial risk to publish and promote them in an increasingly crowded market.
  35. In our country, people have different views about women. The majority cannot still consider men and women on equal terms. They are treated either with a feeling of compassion or they are deprived of their rights. Ignorance and very frequently illiteracy, among us are the main reasons behind this type of attitude. It is true that as a general rule, girls, whether from poor or rich families, are much loved and cared for by the father and brothers. We also need to remember that these are often denied by another women. We first have to make them aware of the great harm they are doing. In the matter of attitude, women need to face menfolk with the expectation of being treated rightly as a woman!
  36. A teacher who devotes him to the task of teaching his students is an ideal teacher. He is a very important person in any society or country. He dispels the darkness of ignorance from the minds of them and enkindles the light of education in them. He helps his students in learning their lessons. The teacher teaches him to follow the path of truth and avoid the path of vice. It may lead one to astray. He is in fact, a friend, philosopher and guide to the students. That is why he is considered one of the most important persons of the society and of the nation. He is also regarded as a guardian of civilization.
  37. There was once a poor woman which had two children. The youngest used to cut wood and she had to go everyday into the forest to fetch them. Once when she had gone a long way to seek it, a little child who was quite strange and strong came and helped her to pick up the wood and carry it home. Then after a few moments had passed, it disappeared. The child told her mother this, but at first she would not believe it.
  38. Begum Rokeya was married to Khan Bahadur Sakhawat Hossain in 1896. Her husband was the Deputy Magistrate of Bhagalpur. This is now in the Indian state of Bihar. He always encouraged her to go on with her activities. He also cooperated with her in doing those. Many upper class Muslims of Bengal at that time learnt Arabic and Persian languages as medium of education and communication. Though Rokeya had great love for her mother tongue, she learnt those to communicate with others. She also learnt Bangla from her eldest brother Ibrahim.
  39. There was once on a time a mother who had three daughters, the eldest of which was rude and wicked, the second much better, but the youngest was a pious and good child. She was very strange because she loved the eldest daughter only, and she could not bear the youngest. So, she often sent her out into the great forest in order to get rid of her. She thought she would lose herself and never come back again. Once the child could not find her way out of the forest and she walked on constantly until evening came, and then she saw a tiny light burning in the distance, and ran up to them at once.
  40. Today is Tania’s birthday. Her parents have brought a very beautiful dress for them. She loved the dress. She is eagerly waiting to wear this. Her uncle, Mr. Abid, has brought a nicely decorated cake on the occasion of her birthday. It was a strawberry cake. It loves his niece very dearly. The invitees have started to come one after another. But Tania’s best friend, Ayesha, is still to come. She is anxiously waiting. She will not cut the cake without her.
  41. Boiled egg is very nutritious and tasty as well. Besides, it is not a difficult task at all. If one wants to boil eggs, he has to pour some water into a pot at first. Then it should be kept on a burner. After that the eggs should be put into a pot. Then it should be let to boil for about five minutes. Afterwards they should be taken out with a spoon. After cooling them, they should be separated from them to be prepared for eating.
  42. Smoking is a serious bad habit. The dangers of this beggar description. The dangers they, have to face severe health hazards. It is one of the most dreadful habits practiced by human being. By practicing such a bad habit it harms not only oneself but also others around. A smoker has to face a lot of incurable diseases. Lung cancer, bronchitis are two of that. So, everyone should be conscious of the dreadful consequences of smoking.
  43. Nelson Mandela was the greatest leader of South Africa. In fact it was one of the greatest leaders of the world. All its life he struggled against apartheid. This was government policy of racial segregation. The Europeans were separated from the non-Europeans. The blacks were treated cruelly. Those were aliens in its own country.
  44. Kabir Ahmed is a school teacher. His salary is okay. The day-to-day expenses are pretty high in Dhaka. Both housing and food are costly in the capital. He has rented an apartment. But it is really too small for his family. Of course he does not have a garden. So, his wife, Nasrin, who loves gardening can’t grow anything. She cannot go out to work either because there’s no one else in the house to look after the children. So the whole family depends on his income alone. He has great hopes for his children and would like to send them to a good school. But good schools are very expensive. He is not sure how much he would be able to help her.
  45. My family and I love going to the park at the weekends. We like having picnics in it. My sister and I love watching animals. Though my mother does not like these too much, she likes making sandwiches for us but my father hates cooking. My sister and I love playing around in the park and feeding those. My mother loves watching us while we play. She tells my sister that she has seen spiders near the bush. I’m not afraid of spiders. But I don’t like flies. I just can’t bear with these. We can relax in a park listening to the birds singing. We also like watching these moving around. We all like the park because we love being outdoor and feeling free. But sometimes my father gets angry with us and does not allow us to go the park.
  46. Liberty does not descend upon people. People must raise its to it. It is a fruit that must be earned before them can be enjoyed. This freedom meaning freedom only from foreign domination is an outworn idea. This is the main task that confronts us if we are to take our rightful place in the modern world. We cannot hold the clock back and therefore, it is we whom must go forward at a double pace bending all our resources and all our energies to great purpose.
  47. Working opportunities for women are very few in rural areas of Bangladesh. We usually spend our time doing our household chores. The ILO recently started a project titled “Technologies for Rural Employment with Special Reference to Women and Sustainable Development.” The aim of it is to impart training to rural women in various activities and make us self-reliant.
  48. Children must pass through several stages in its life to become adults. For most people, there are four or five stages of growth where he learns certain things: infancy, early childhood, later childhood and adolescence. Persons 18 and over are considered adults in our society. Of course there are some people that will try to act older than its years. All people have to go through it irrespective of their economic and social status.
  49. The moon is a very familiar figure to all of us. He awakens a feeling of love and tenderness in your hearts. Even an infant in arms stretches out her hands to grasp this beautiful thing. Nor is his appeal confined only to children. Ever since the string of the poetic faculty in man, he has furnished a theme for poets and artists.
  50. Computer is an electronic device. That stores information on magnetic tape, analyses it and produces as required from the data on tapes. But computer does not work by himself. It works as it is operated. Computer is the result of efforts by some votaries of science. Pascal invented the theory of ‘Digital Calculating System’ in 1642. That invention and initiatives led to the research and finally in 1937 Mr Haward Akin, an American scientist, invented a machine that could do difficult sums, seven years later in 1944, electric computer was used in Harvard University. Since then efforts have been made for improvement of it. Modern computer is the outcome of constant efforts and research. It consists of five major components namely the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit. It performs three functions—receiving data, processing data and supplying data. It has a machine language of its own. Machine language varies from computer to computer. Computer is one ofthe wonders of modern science and it is of great use to us. Nowadays, it is one of their daily necessaries.
  51. Once upon a time an old lady lost his eyesight. Then she called in a doctor and said to them, “I will give you a rich reward if he can cure my eye sight.” The doctor started the treatment. But she was very greedy. He was attracted by the valuable things in the lady’s house. The doctor used to steal the things away everyday. The lady got back her eyesight by this time. When the doctor demanded it the old lady said that she did not get back her eyesight as she could not see any valuable thing in her house.
  52. Childhood seems to be the golden period of one’s life when he becomes adult and recollects the memory of being a child. It is very sweet to call up them. If you often look back on one’s boyhood days, they will surely turn you back to that. There is hardly any man he does not feel passionate while thinking about their childhood day. These are an excellent asset to any passionate person.
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