Prefixes and suffixes

Prefixes and Suffixes

Prefixes and Suffixes

The root (Derivatives) Prefix (উপসর্গ)
Suffix (প্রত্যয় /বিভক্তি)

 The root word/base word: It is the part of the word that contains the basic meaning or definition of the word.

The root word/base word: Noun, Adjective, Adverb, Verb

Subsidiary word: Preposition, Conjunction, Pronoun, Interjection

 Prefix: The prefix is a word element placed in front of the root, which changes the word’s meaning or makes a new word.

List of (prefixes): be, de, dis, em, en, il, im, in, ir, un, mis, pre, re, bi, anti, fore, inter, non, over, semi, sub, inter, under, super, com, con, contra, ex, a, in, tri

 Suffix: A suffix is a word element placed after the root, which changes the word’s meaning as well as its function.

a.      List of Nouns (suffixes) ce, cy, ty, th, ness, hood, dom, tion, sion, xion, age, ment, ess, er, al, ship, or, r, ism, ing, ure, ry, ist, ee, ade, an, ate, et, phy, gy, tude, ny, my
b.      List of Adjectives (suffixes) ent, ant, ar, or, al, ous, ful, tive, el, le, en, less, full, sive, able, ed, tory, ing, ic, ary, ish, like, ry, an, ate, ose, id, sque
c.       List of Verbs (suffixes) en, fy, ise/ize, ed, t, ne, ate
d.      Adverb adjective+ly, wise, ways, ward


Suffixes Nouns
ce prominence, intelligence, negligence, absence, confidence, importance, difference, independence, disgrace
cy adequacy, frequency, literacy, vacancy, sufficiency, solvency, secrecy, proficiency, privacy, intimacy
ty purity, safety, equity, ability, surety, popularity, nobility, morality, minority, equality, brutality, creativity
th depth, warmth, path, length, width, death, growth, youth, strength, breadth, truth, dearth(অপ্রাচুর্য)
ness usefulness, carelessness, truthfulness,  tiredness, softness, shortness, quickness, justness,  foolishness, easiness,
hood brotherhood, neighborhood, livelihood, boyhood, fatherhood, motherhood, childhood, falsehood, priesthood
dom Martyrdom(শহীদত্ব), random (এলোমেলো)(also used as adjective), wisdom(বিজ্ঞতা), freedom(স্বাধীনতা), kingdom(রাজত্ব)
tion Pacification(শান্তিস্থাপন), amplification, purification, realization, civilization, modernisation, election, education,
sion passion, allusion, concession, conclusion, commission, submission, consumption, omission, allusion, division
age damage, bondage, stoppage, carriage, leakage, marriage, wastage, postage, usage(ব্যবহার), package, linkage
ess success, process, excess, princess,  goddess, authoress, actress, stewardess, mistress, seamstress(মেয়ে দর্জি)
er writer, user, reader, maker, builder(নির্মাতা), buyer, controller, fighter, gainer, examiner, driver, worker, killer
ment improvement, predicament, improvement, payment, judgement, engagement, management, betterment
al approval, removal, trial, arrival, denial(অস্বীকার), betrayal, dismissal(অপসারণ), proposal, refusal, rehearsal(পুনরাবৃত্তি)
ship scholarship, friendship, ownership, studentship, lawship, doctorship, internship, championship, citizenship


Suffixes Adjectives
ent efficient, opulent, pungent, equivalent, prevalent, proficient, absent, current, innocent, decent, urgent
ant juvilant, assistant, constant, instant, ignorant, valiant, significant, pregnant, brilliant, arrogant, assistant
ar popular, circular, particular, spectacular, cellular(কোষীয়), triangular(ত্রিকোণী), scholar, dissimilar, lunar
or prior(পূর্ববর্তী), superior (উচ্চতর)(also use as noun), major(মুখ্য), senior(জ্যেষ্ঠ), minor(গৌণ), junior, inferior(নিকৃষ্ট),
al neoclassical, universal, medieval, theatrical, beneficial, additional,  conditional, formal, habitual, moral,
ous enormous(প্রকাণ্ড), precious, curious, ridiculous, cautious, studious, spacious, glorious, harmonious(সমন্বয়পূর্ণ),
ful powerful, truthful, awful (also used as adverb), successful, fruitful(ফলপ্রসূ), cheerful(আনন্দিত), joyful, lawful
tive attentive, lucrative, positive, attractive, negative, authoritive, creative, collective, co operative, effective
el cruel, angel, barrel, camel, decibel, tunnel, vessel, vowel, wheel, novel, parcel, colonel,  parallel, personnel
le fertile, docile(বাধ্য), subtle, able, agreeable, appreciable, valuable, variable, simple, noble, agile(চট্পটে), futile(ব্যর্থ)
en rotten, sunken, broken, widen, proven, sharpen, deepen, lighten, brighten, redden, enliven, heighten
less blameless, careless, valueless, priceless, hopeless, worthless(অপদার্থ), harmless, bottomless(তলহীন), airless, endless
full beautiful, careful, colourful, gainful, hateful, youthful(তরূণ), useful,  respectful, tasteful(সুস্বাদু),  mindful
sive expressive, conclusive, permissive(অনুমতিপূর্ণ), excessive, successive, submissive(বিনয়ী), offensive, defensive
able preferable, comfortable, comparable, amicable, capable, portable(বহনীয়), durable, accountable, acceptable
ous Dangerous, famous, various, mysterious, precious,industrious
some Handsome, troublesome, quarrelsome


Procedures of Identifying Correct Form of Words

  1. Article + noun (preposition)
  2. Article + adjective + noun
  3. Article + adverb + adjective + noun
  4. no + noun
  5. Possessive + noun
  6. Preposition + noun
  7. Verb + adjective/noun
  8. There + verb + noun
  9. As/so + adjective + as
  10. Verb + adverb + verb
  11. Noun as subject of verb
  12. An assertive sentence can start with Gerund (verb +ing) and Infinitive (to+verb1)
  13. A sentence expresses complete meaning without the beginning, ending or any other words that will be an adverb.

Exercise on Correct Form of Words

1. Article + noun (preposition)
2. Article + adjective + noun (preposition)
3. Article + adverb + adjective + noun (preposition)
The entire root is not put in the (contain). Jerry liver in the (orphan). E-mail has brought about a (revolt). The (direct) left for its expansion is upwards. It is a (bar) to development. It is an (achieve). The (structural) has 1605 doors. The (celebrate) of Pohela baishak is traditional. It is marked by the (importantly) of the family. There has a (distant) of relatives. The world sees an (associate) of women with earning. It has the (appear) of a large tree. It refers to the (able) to use a language. The (different) between the two is huge. Oregami takes the (formal) of various object. They also showed a (fond) for bonsai. The (beautiful) of shape is important for Bonsai. He drew the (attentive) of his master. They gave her the (responsible) of organizing the club. It is added to imitate the (move) of real life objects. The (artistic) of bonsai is popular. It grows to a (high) of one foot. It is the (believe) of them. He took the (responsible) for breaking it. They have a (repute) for keeping emotions private. The (important) of television is many. Health is the (sound) of both body and mind. The (deep) of it is unreachable.

Nisu is a (merit) boy.  The (presently) age is marked by the importance of the family. It is marked as an (economy) institution. Bonsai is a (newly) form of pot-planting. It is an (interest) pastime. Jerry had a (strength) character. The (psychology) problems of children are increasing. It is a (nature) process. It is a (subconsciously) process. It is the (office) language in more than 60 countries.  The most (importance) thing about any language is communication. (recreat) activities can be divided into two types. Recreational (active) can be divided into two types. English helps the (internationally) community to communicate across national borders. Wires are used to force to grow in a (particularly) direction. Jerry was a (care) worker. He did for me the (necessity) thing. Sakhina Begum is a (benefit) of this project. Computer is a modern (invent). There are two ways of developing (communicate) competence. The (nation) dress of BD is the longyi. The old custom of (married) is changing. It is a form of geometrical (constructive). It earned international (acclaimed). (Particularly) class of people is provided with loan. The ILO training brings (add) income to her family. It refers to use a language in (vary) circumstances. (Communication) competence refers to the ability to use a language. English helps to communicate across (nation) borders. Oregami is a form of (decoration) plaything. Marriage of different (cultural) was in vague. (Academy) education is not enough for success. Cleanliness has great (important) in our life.

Mamun is a (physical) sound boy. Raghib was riding his cycle (fair) well. Good school is a very (expense) one. A very (signify) change is noticed in you. London made a very poor (impress) on him. Television has a great (education) value. The poor always lead a very (unhappiness) life. She is the most (dense) populated country.  He drags a very miserable (exist). Dhaka is a very (beauty) city. They looked for a very concise (suggest).  It is a large scale (exhibit) of books. It is a unique (literature) creation of the students. It is a very (commonly) bird. Taking drug is an (society) act. My mother is a very (religion) woman. She shows a very (emotion) love. He is a very qualitative (law). There lived a very old (farmland) in a village. Iron is the most (value) metal. Teaching is a very noble (profess). Being a (high) complex structure, its annual maintenance cost is huge.


4. No + noun                                    
I have no (compete) with him. Many of these have no (exist). It is difficult to drive if you have no (experienced) of driving here. The English has no (possess) of it. No (national) can progress except industry. There is no (contradictory) on gender issues in Islam. They have no (decide) to go there. She has no (know) of sanitation. Women’s roles have no (recognized) either. Women with no (educative) have come out of their cocoons. Ayesha Begum had no (landless) of her own. He was confined to a wheelchair with no (powerful) to control. She gives no (important) on honesty. These various celebrations have no (originate) in history.


5.Possessive + noun
All came forward to its (assist) in time of danger. The plant is taken out for its’ (origin) pot. Japanese are responsible for its (develop). I tried to return his (thoughtful). A century ago the world’s (populated) was only about 1.7 billion. Young people’s (tasteless) are gradually influenced by them. A major influence on American children’s (lively) is the television shows they watch. Indeed TV watching influences children’s (learn) style too. A society’s (cultural) is made up of all of its ideas. His (reputed) as a scientist soared higher and higher. It can be attributed to most people’s (inaccessible) to education. They will use their resources for their son’s (educate). Their (present) can be identified through telescopes. It makes us think of the realities of our (socially). Its (declare) as a World heritage Site. Collective responsibility for its (preserve) is needed. E-mail has its (able) to reduce the consumption of paper. These people have served their (national). It was performed at Nigeria’s (Independent) celebrations. These give the carnival its (vital) and (unique). They are very conscious of their (responsible). They did not want our (dependent). He should remove his (differ). Her (dense) of population per square mile is very high. His (contribute) has made him immortal. He must know his (responsible). Their (dedicate) is an act of inspiration for us. Bangladesh is our (born) land.


6.Preposition + noun
It is a matter of (express). It is the new practice of (monogamous). With the process of (industry) relationship is breaking down. The Chinese put a lot of (emphasise) on the unity of the family. The I make a trip just for (please). It is specially prized for (decorate). They quoted his words of (wise).Introverts and extroverts are particular types of (personally). They are not outgoing in (natural). It is the cause of (destruct) of wildlife. Development is impossible without (educative). They have a reputation for (punctual). The struggle for (democratic) has been momentous. He first received training in (cultivate). It has become the focus of (attentive). They spent time in (idle). He suffers from (frustrate). His (attain) is slow. The result is up to the level of (expect). The frequent taking of drugs leads a man to (die). Lack of (serious) is the sign of (lazy). They become the subject of (deprive). Common form of (marry) among the various cultural groups in Kenya was polygamy.


7.verb + adjective/noun
8.There + verb + noun
She is (anxiety) of his future. It’s not (safety) for girls to move. Jerry was never (gratefulness). The most important thing about any language is (communicative). I often feel (lonely) and bored. Conditions in my house are (favour). Let me first introduce my (beautifully) country to you. We gained (independent) from Britain. It is (fame) for its many pagodas. It also gained (popular) as a form of geometrical construction. Only Japanese are (responsibility) for its development. Introverts and extroverts are (particularly) types of personality. His courtesy was (instinct). He was (word). Jerry was never (gratefulness) when the author gave him a gift. Nazneen cannot give (concentrate) her study. Men were (responsibility) outdoor activities. The conditions of her house are not (suit) for her. Banking system shows (unwillingly) lend money to the poor. Banking system requires (efficient) playing an important role. Bangladesh is (pride) of Kazi Nazrul Islam. They gave (assist) to the Pakistani soldiers. It rather brings (frustrate). To become (success) in life, you must be dutiful. He is (study).

There is (relate) between them. There was (various) culture among the Kenyans. There is no (gravitation) and the body needs a lot of adjusting to do. Heavy objects can be moved with one finger as they have no (weighty). There is (clean) everywhere. There is no (understand) among his sons. There has (reputed) for keeping emotions private.


1.      An assertive sentence can start with gerund (verb +ing) and infinitive (to +verb1).      
(Swim) is good for health. (Acquire) a language is more successful. (Learn) a language is like riding a cycle. (Dig) a deeper hole, Jerry steadied a loose stone. (Destroy) of forests has a very bad effect on. (Hunt) of animals should be restricted. (Feed) the ever growing population is a big challenge. (Sustain) the current level of production is a big task. (Conduct) experiments in space, scientists have launched Space Stations. (Get) acquainted with different cultures helps to broaden outlook. (Take) advantage of globalisation, it seems to be on a triumphant march. (Educated) girls contribute to creating wealth. (Fail) to educate girls results in a tremendous waste. (Use) his computer he carries out research work. (See) this, the teachers requested the guard on duty to open the gate. (Spend) money in an improper way can lead us to the path of destruction. (Keep) the woman uneducated development is impossible. (Smoke) is harmful to her health. (Take) drug is definitely an antisocial act. (Stand) in front of the graves, we bow down our head. (Fill) the pitcher, he went out. (Get) degrees is not all. (Study) a person’s repeated actions is to find out about that person. + adjective + as
He seems as (wisdom) as Neuton. No other sea beach in the world is as (length) as Cox’s Bazar. No other spinner in Bangladesh is as (perfectionist) as Rafiq. No other country is as (population) as Bangladesh. The (important) of television is too many to describe. Very few games are as (popularity) as cricket. Very few journeys in my life are so (memory) as it was. Very few cities of the world are as (expense) as Toronto. You are as (shorten) as he. Bela is not as (intelligence) as Abul. Sorrow is not as (strength) as hunger. The course of education is as (event) as the history of man.


11.Noun as subject
(Kind) is a condition of truthfulness. (Educate) can develop one’s ability. (Free) is the constitutional right of man. (Truthful) is a great virtue. (Short) of money makes our life deplorable. (Lazy) is a bad habit. (Obedient)  to traffic rules can help to expedite the (prevent) of road accidents. (Illiterate) is one of them. (Deforest) is one of the greatest threats to our environment. (Honest) is a great virtue. (Hospital) has long been a part of our culture in Bangladesh. (Eliminate) of gender disparity is essential for upholding human rights. (Construct) of the railroad encountered enormous problems. (Electricity) of the lines made it possible.


12.verb + adverb + verb
It was (intentional) killed by him. Yangoon was (former) known as Rangoon. But they can (hard) give up their extended family. They are (equal) done by both husbands and wives. It is (speciality) prized for decorating and for ceremonies. A Bonsai tree is (care) shaped to remain small. You can (certainty) learn through mistakes. They can (high) be educative too. Young people’s tastes are (gradual) influenced by them. He will (frequence) hold the other persons arm with his hand. The rise of terrorism and crime are (adverse) affecting society. (Late), a revolution has taken the world by storm. World English has now (complete) moved away from. Globalisation is (main) connected with business. Global cultures are (steady) getting integrated with local cultures. Different cultures are (constant) interacting. Ismail’s lot has changed (radical). It is (popular) known as the Toy Train. The use of computer has (recent) increased to a very great extent. Television programmes should be (careful) produced. Honey is (nature) produced by honey bees.


13.      A sentence expresses complete meaning without the beginning, ending or any other words that will be an adverb.                                                                            
(Normal) I get up at 8 am. A small family does not (necessary) make one happy. We are (main) Buddhists. (Previous), authority in the family rested on the husband. It refers to the ability to use a language (appropriate). Acquisition is ‘picking up’ a language (spontaneous). English (usual) helps to get good jobs. You learn to communicate (effectiveness) by using it. They are interested in spending free time (effective). Age has come on me (sudden). Introverts are (usual) shy. (Former), Germans used to work ten hours a day. A passenger pushed him (rude). No one hits (accuracy) every time. He chose to work (careful). The ILO has started the project (recent). Every person learns his or her mother tongue (natural). Fahima agreed (happy). (Quick) he noticed the missing leg. The master clapped his hands (loud). The cook replied (quiet). (Near) seventy percent of it suffer from malnutrition. (Recent), our language day has been declared internationally. We should receive him (cordial). The Pakistani soldiers killed our people (merciless). This problem must be removed (immediate).