Grammar, Number




In English grammar, number refers to the grammatical contrast between singular (the concept of one) and plural (more than one) forms of nounspronounsdeterminers, and verbs.
Types of Number

1.       Singular number A singular noun is a word that indicates that there is only one person, animal place, thing, or idea.

Example:- Book, Brother, Cow, Tree etc.

2.       Plural number A plural noun is a word that indicates that there is more than one person, animal place, thing, or idea.

Example:- Books, Brothers, Cows, Trees etc.

Examples of Grammatical Number

Although most English nouns form the plural by adding -s or -es to their singular forms, there are numerous exceptions. Below are examples of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs in the two number categories:

Word Type Number Category
Singular Example Plural Example
Noun cat, mouse cats, mice
Pronoun I, me, you, he, him, she, her, it we, us, you, they, them
Adjective this, that, a, an, my, your, his, her, its these, those, our, your, their
Verb am, is, was, has, I play, he plays Are, were, have, they play


Rules on changing Singular number to Plural Number

Rule 1: By suffixing s to the singular-noun.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Cow  cows boat boats
Boy Boys toy toys
Girl Girls idea ideas
Cat Cats lion lions
House Houses house houses
Hand Hands cat cats
Eye Eyes river rivers
Tiger Tigers bug bugs
Desk Desks truck trucks
Run runs  Chair chairs 

Rule 2: By suffixing es to the singular-noun if a Singular noun ends with o, x, z, ss, sh, ch. 

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Bus Buses fox foxes
Class Classes beach beaches
Brush Brushes quizzes quiz
Bush Bushes wish wishes
Box Boxes pitch pitches
Brunch Brunches Bench benches 
Inch Inches Church churches 
Watch Watches Buffalo buffaloes 
Match matches Negro negroes
Hero heroes  Mango mangoes 
Echo echoes Potato potatoes 


Singular Noun এর  শেষের ‘ch’ এর উচ্চারণ ‘’ এর মত না হয়ে ‘’ এর মত হলে ‘es’ যোগ না হয়ে শুধু ‘s’ যোগ হয়ে Plural হবে। যেমন –

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Stomach Stomachs Monarch Monarchs
Patriarch Patriarchs  

Rule 3: Singular Noun এর শেষ বর্ণটি ‘o’ হলে এবং তার পূর্বের বর্ণটি consonant হলে noun এর শেষে ‘es’ যোগ করে plural করতে হয়। যেমন

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Mango Mangoes Cargo Cargoes
Potato Potatoes Volcano Volcanoes
Hero Heroes Buffalo Buffaloes
Negro Negroes    

 ব্যতিক্রম  কিছু noun এর শেষে ‘o’ এবং ‘o’ এর পূর্বে consonant থাকা সত্ত্বেও সেগুলোর শেষে ‘s’ যোগ করে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural  
Photo Photos Momento momentos 
Solo Solos Dynamo dynamos 
Piano Pianos kilo kilos
Canto Cantos  

Rule 4:  Singular Noun এর শেষে ‘o’ এবং ‘o’ এর পূর্বে vowel থাকলে শুধু ‘s’ যোগ করে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Radio Radios Bamboo Bamboos
Cuckoo Cuckoos Studio Studios
Stereo Stereos    

Rule 5:  By changing the last letter y into ies.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
City Cities penny pennies
Baby Babies spy spies
Army Armies daisy daisies
Body Bodies family families
Hobby Hobbies party parties
Lady Ladies Story-stories   

ব্যতিক্রম  কিন্তু y এর পূর্বে vowel হলে সেক্ষেত্রে singular noun এর শেষে শুধু s যোগ করে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Key Keys Boy Boys
Donkey Donkeys Toy Toys
Monkey Monkeys Day Days
Joy joys     

Rule 6: By changing f , ef or fe into ves.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Calf Calves Knife knives 
Leaf Leaves Wolf wolves 
Wife Wives Shelf shelves 
Thief Thieves Life Lives


শেষে ief, oof, ff, rf, if, eef, ife, fe, রয়েছে ধরনের বিশেষ শব্দের শেষে শুধু s যোগ করে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Roof Roofs Belief Beliefs
Hoof Hoofs Chief chiefs 
Safe Safes Gulf gulfs 
Dwarf Dwarfs Proof proofs 
Cliff Cliffs Reef Reefs

Rule 7: By changing the inside vowel of the singular.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Man Men Foot Feet
Woman Women Tooth Teeth
Mouse Mice Goose geese

Rule 8: By suffixing en to the singular.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Ox Oxen Child Children
Brother Brethren  

Rule 9: By suffixing s to the main word or changing vowel in a compound noun.

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Brother-in-law Brothers-in-law Commander-in-chief commanders-in-chief 
Son-in-law Sons-in-law Man-servant men-servant 
Washer-man Washer-men Step-son Step-sons
Passer-by Passers-by Maid-servant Maid-servants

Rule 10:Hyphen(-) বিহীন compound noun গুলোকে s যোগে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Handful Handfuls Armchair Armchairs
Bookcase Bookcases Spoonful Spoonfuls

Rule 11:  কতগুলো compound noun গুলোকে s যোগে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Man-servant Men-servants Woman-servant Women-servants
Lord-justice Lords-justices Knight-templar Knights-templars

Rule 12:  কতগুলো compound noun এর শেষের noun টির সাথে s যোগ করে plural করতে হয়

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Bookcase Bookcases Showcase Showcases
Inspector-general Inspector-generals Armchair Armchairs

Rule 13: Few nouns have the same forms both in singular and plural forms. 

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Sheep Sheep Dozen Dozen
Pair Pair Gross Gross
Swine Swine cod cod
Deer Deer fish fish
species species aircraft aircraft

Rule 14: Few collective nouns, though they are in singular forms, are used in plural forms.
Examples: poultry, people, cattle, gentry, public, vermin, majority, mankind.
Rule 15: Few common nouns, though they are in singular forms, are used in plural forms.
the rich, the poor, the virtuous, the pious.
– The rich are not always happy.
– The virtuous are blessed.
Rule 16: Special cases few nouns which end in s are used in singular form.
physics, mathematics, politics, economics, wages, athletics, news, innings optics, linguistics darts billiards statistics. etc

– Mathematics is hard subject to me.
– This news is is important. .
Rule 17: Few nouns are always used in plural forms.
Furniture, alphabet, brick, business, hair, information, scenery, machinery, beard, issue, poetry, progress, money, abuse, expenditure, baggage. Mumps, measles,  billiards, draughts,. trousers, drawers , spectacles, scissors
– Her hair is very black.
– Money is not a matter.
Rule 18:
বর্ণ, সংখ্যা বা প্রতীককে plural করতে এপস্ত্রফি ( ’ ) ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
– There are five M.A’s in our village.
– Add four 3’s and five 2’s.
Rule 19: Few nouns have different meanings in the singular and in the plural:

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Advice (counsel) Advices  (information)  Good (morally correct) goods (merchandise) 
Wood (portion of tree) woods (a grove of trees)  Force (strength) forces (troops) 
Physic (medicine) physics (a branch of science)  Sand (বালি) Sands (desert
Air (atmosphere) airs (artificial manners)  Physic (medicine) physics (a branch of science) 
Custom (habit) customs (habits & taxes collected on imports  Quarter (one fourth & a direction) quarters (fourth parts, living places & directions) 
Effect (result) effects (results & property)     

Rule 20. Few nouns have two different forms in plural. But the two forms have different meanings. 

Singular Plural Plural
Brother Brothers (sons of same parents) Brethren (members of a society) 
Cloth Cloths (pieces of cloth) Clothes (items of cloth) 
Fish Fish (more than one of same variety) Fishes (of different varieties) 
Genius Geniuses (persons of great talent) Genii (spirits)
Index Indexes (tables of contents) Indices (signs used in algebra) 

Rule 21: Material noun গুলোর সাধারণত plural হয় না। যেমন– water, sugar, iron, cooper, oil, silver, wood.
Rule 22: Abstract noun
এর plural form হয় নাযেমন– kindness, hope, charity, love, honesty.   

Rule 23:.Letters, numbers and other symbols form their plural by adding an apostrophe ands.
Examples: Write your i’s and l’s clearly.
Add two 8’s and six 4’s. 

Note the use of foreign plurals

Singular Plural Singular Plural
Agendum Agenda Erratum errata 
Axis Axes Index indices
Analysis Analyses Basis bases 
Basis Bases Criterion criteria 
Curriculum Curricula Memorandum memoranda 
Crisis Crises Terminus termini / terminuses
Focus Focuses /foci Hypothesis hypotheses 
Formula  Formulas /formulae Cherub cherubim/ cherubs
Medium Media Parenthesis parentheses 
Radius Radii cactus cacti
Oasis Oases fungus fungi
Genus Genera nucleus nuclei
Forum Forums syllabus syllabi/syllabuses
analysis analyses diagnosis diagnoses
thesis theses datum data
phenomenon phenomena Appendix Appendixes/appendices
Alumnus Lumni Stratum Strata
Medium Media Bacterium Bacteria
Stimulus Stimuli