Modifier

Definition: Modify is to change or to alter something. A modifier is a wordphrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to give extra information about another words or word called the head.

Modifiers that appear before the head are called premodifiers on the contrary modifiers that appear after the head are called postmodifiers

Modifier Pre modifier placed before the head is called a pre modifier
Post modifier placed after the head is called a post modifier

Look at the following structures

1.      Rules of part of speech

a.       Article+adjective+noun                                                       b. Article+adverb+adjective+noun

Noun-adjectives: Noun is a person, place or thing, and an adjective describes a noun. Sometimes we use a noun to describe another noun. The first word is usually a noun but here functions as an adjective modifying the second word.
For example, government road accident research centre, city government, article writer, bicycle thief, Sunday picnic, pumpkin pie , news reporter, table tennis.  athletic trainer,

A race horse is a horse that runs in races. A horse race is a race for horses. A boat race is a race for boats. A love story is a story about love. A war story is a story about war. A tennis ball is a ball for playing tennis. Tennis shoes are shoes for playing tennis. A computer exhibition is an exhibition of computers. A bicycle shop is a shop that sells bicycles.

 

2.      Appositive: An appositive is a noun or noun phrase placed next to a noun or noun phrase to identify or rename it. It is always used with commas.
Bonna, my sister, is 17 years old. My mom, a nurse, drives a red car. The boy who painted this picture is named Kamal. Mr. Hasan, the principal at my school, wears a tie every day. I like Monika, the best actress in our school. I really like my grand father’s horse, Chester. My childhood home, a yellow and blue house, is just down the road. My best friend, Rana, is moving in with me. Her first teacher, Minu, was a strict person. The CEO, a very smart man, decided to sell the company. During the contest, Dana, the best one, tripped and fell. My friends, the noisiest gang, knocked at my door. New York, one of the biggest cities on Earth, is located on the East coast. Makamum, my eight month-old daughter, is eating noodles. Jerry, your little cat, is not so little any more. My mom, a nurse at the hospital, has to work late sometimes. The red shirt, a gift from grandma, has a heart on the front. My friend, Liza is an excellent dancer. Did you leave your bag, a pink purse, on the bus? The jeans, my favorite pant, need to be washed.

 

3.      Nonfinite verb: It does not indicate person, number or tense.
Gerund: A gerund is a noun formed from a verb. It functions both as verbs and nouns. Gerunds can be subjectssubject complements, direct/indirect objects, and objects of prepositions.
Subject of the verb= Swimming has been my passion. Eating people is wrong. Hunting tigers is dangerous. Flying makes me nervous. Brushing your teeth is important. Smoking causes lung cancer. Acting is fun. Playing football is disgusting. Walking on the beach is painful.

Direct object of the verb= My first love is swimming. She enjoys swimming. I like spending time with friends. She gives swimming all of his energy and time.

Object of the preposition= Can you sneeze without opening your mouth? She is good at painting. She avoided him by walking on the opposite side of the road. We arrived in Madrid after driving all night. My father decided against postponing his trip to Hungary. There’s no point in waiting. In spite of missing the train, we arrived on time. He was devoted to swimming.

Subject complement of the verb =One of his duties is attending meetings. The hardest thing about learning English is understanding. One of life’s pleasures is having breakfast in bed.

 

Participle: A participle is an adjective made from a verb.
Present participle (ending -ing)

I ignored the barking dog. I saw a boy riding a bicycle. The crying baby had a wet diaper. The burning log fell off the fire. Smiling, she hugged the panting dog. The sobbing child held his injured knee. He was trapped inside the burning house. Many of his paintings show the setting sun. All existing business models are wrong. I am a working woman. I am learning English.

Past participle (ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n)

He walked away from the wrecked car. The red shirt worn by me belongs to my brother. The broken window needed to get repaired quickly. We were sad to see our fallen apple tree after the storm hit. To make the batter, stir the beaten eggs into the flour. Excited about dinner, Happy ran the whole way home. Frightened by the loud sound, the dog hid under the box. Injured during the match, I had to leave the field. The broken glass cut my foot.

Perfect participle (having+verb3)

The moon having set, we set out our journey. The sun having set, we reached home. 1. Having delivered the message, he left immediately. Having finished his work, Harry was ready for play. The child, having found its mother, was again happy. Having freed ourselves from our oppressors, let us not oppress others. Having paid his admission fee, Didar came to me. Having improved her English Pia went to London.

  1. Relative pronoun/Relative clause

Relative pronoun (who, which, that, what, whom, whose) placed before an adjective clause connects a clause or phrase to a noun or pronoun. 

Relative clauses= Relative clauses start with the relative pronouns. 

subject form object form possessive form
Who Whom Whose
Which Which of which
That That  

 

The cyclist who won the race trained hard. The pants that I bought yesterday are already stained. The four team leaders, whomever the committee selects, will be at tomorrow’s meeting. Biriani, which we eat twice a week, is one of my favorite meals. The book, when it was finally returned, was torn and stained. The store on the corner, where we usually buy all of our art supplies, burned to the ground. The festival, which lasted all day, ended with a banquet. I am looking for someone who can watch my dog while I go on vacation. The police needed details that could help identify the robber. I’d like to take you to a café which serves excellent coffee. I saw the shoes what you bought last week on sale for less this week. The winners, when known, will receive money and other prizes. This is the place where we met. This is the book that everyone is talking about. She wrote to the person whom she had met last month. We didn’t bring the receipt, which was a big mistake. I have a friend whose cat is annoying. People who are clever can always find a way. The clubhouse, in which the dance was held, housed about 200 people. You can choose one person, whomever you like, to share the cruise with you.

 

5.      Demonstrate (verb): to show; to indicate; to point to

Demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these, those, such)

A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things. It takes the place of the noun phrase.

This, these =near in distance or time                    That, those=far in distance or time

This is very tasty. I would like those. I am not sure that is how you do it. These are the most comfortable. Could you hand me that? This is crazy. Those belong to Sarah. Could you help me move these? That is not mine. Bring me those. That food smells delicious. This soup is very smelly. You smell that factory from here. These apples smell rotten. Do not paint those fences.

 

6.      W/h clause: It is a subordinate clause that is introduced by one of the w/h words (what, who, which, when, where, why, how). It can function as subjectsobjects, or complements.

The pronouns are who, whose, whom, which, what, that.                 The adverbs are where, when, why, how.

I know where you live. She couldn’t remember who he was. John wondered what was going to happen next. I asked what she wanted. He tried to explain how the accident had happened. She wouldn’t admit what she had done. We tried to tell them what they should do. She reminded me where I had left the car. Do you remember the day when we went to Dhaka. That was the town where I grew up. That might explain why he’s looking unhappy. Let’s consider how we can solve the problem.I couldn’t decide which train I ought to catch. I missed my bus. That’s why I was late. This is where I live. That’s what I thought. Did he say when he would come? Is there any reason why I should stay?
w/h+infinitive  (except ‘why’) 

Somebody should teach you how to behave. We didn’t know what to do. We will ask when to set off. I don’t understand what to do. She calculated how much to pay on the back of an envelope. I don’t know what to do. We must find out what to do next. I don’t know where to turn for help. Let us decide when to start. We will have to find out how to reach the place. We must remember where to turn off the main road. Do you know what to look for? I will show you how to manage it. Could you tell me where to find a good hotel? Nobody told me what to do. Can anyone suggest where to go for lunch?

 

7.      Intensifier:  A word that gives force or emphasis to a statement or to the meaning of verbs adjectives or other adverbs is called intensifiers.
I strongly disagree. It’s extremely hot in Africa. Do you really mean it? It’s fairly interesting. It’s quite calm here. He’s pretty intelligent. These students are rather noisy. I so wanted to buy the dress. She writes poems too often. It’s absolutely amazing. I am a little angry with her. You play card very well.

 

8.      Quantifier: A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity of something.
With Uncountable Nouns

 

much/a little/little/very little/a bit /a great deal of/a large amount of/a large quantity of
With Countable Nouns

 

many/a few/few/very few/a number of/several/a large number of/a great number of/a majority of
With Both

 

all/enough/more/most/less/least/no/none/not any/some/any/a lot of/lots of/plenty of
  1. Determiner: Determiners are words which come at the beginning of the noun phrase. They tell us whether the noun phrase is specific or general. There are about 50 different determiners in the English language.
a.      Articles a, an, the
b.      Demonstratives this, that, these, those, which etc.
c.       Possessives my, your, our, their, his, hers, whose, Rana’s, friends’, etc.
d.      Quantifiers few, a few, many, much, each, every, some, any etc.
e.       Numbers one, two, three, twenty, forty
f.        Ordinals first, second, 1st 2nd, 3rd, last, next, etc

 

10.  Possessive form
The possessive case is predominantly used for showing possession or ownership.

It applies to nounspronouns, and adjectives. For example:

Possessive Nouns With nouns, the possessive case is usually shown by preceding it with of or by adding’s (or just ‘) to the end.
Possessive Pronouns The possessive-case pronouns are mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, and theirs.
Possessive Adjectives The possessive-case adjectives are my, your, his, her, its, our, and their.

 

11.  Pre/post modify the verb= Adverb

 

12.  Prepositional Phrases: A prepositional phrase starts with a preposition and ends with a nounpronoungerund, or clause, the “object” of the preposition. It functions as an adjective or adverb.

Structure: preposition+noun/pronoun/gerund/clause

preposition+modifier(s) +noun/pronoun/gerund/clause

Commonly used Prepositional Phrases: According to the weather forecast, Across many deserts, After many tries, Amid the confusion, Around the world, Before we start the meeting, Between a rock and a hard place, By the light of the moon, like a beautiful swan , Near the ocean, Of my boss, Off the top, Out the door, Through the looking glass, Throughout the thick forest, To the amusement park
Prepositional Phrases that function as an Adjective: The book with the tattered cover has been read many times. All the passengers aboard the runaway train were frightened. The present inside the big box is mine. Our boss put out a memo regarding the new rule. The clues within the first few chapters will lead to the murderer. His is only one voice among many, but it will be heard.

Prepositional Phrases that function as Adverbs:  Racing toward the finish line, Sarah realized she just might win. My shopping list needs to be put into my purse. Without a GPS, we will lose our way. Until today, I had never heard that. The balloon drifted up the stairs. Put the fresh flowers upon a high shelf. Despite warnings, she tried to ski down Devil’s Run. Against all odds, our team won the tournament. The tiger crept slowly over the grass. We will order pizza during halftime.

Example

Read the following text and use modifiers as directed in the blank spaces.    

The importance of (a) —- (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) habits lies in the fact that if we practice good habits, it will take form of (b) —-  (Use possessive to pre-modify the noun) character and vice versa. Habits become part of our nature. We should inculcate good habits (c) —- (Post-modify the verb with prepositional phrase). The great philosopher Plato scold (d) —- (Use article to pre-modify the noun) lad for gambling with nuts, and the boy replied, “You are scolding me for a (e) —-  (Pre-modify the adjective with an adverb) small matter.” The great philosopher (f) —-  (Pre-modify the adverb with an adverb) said, my boy, habit is not a small matter. Plato was here speaking out of (g) —-  (Use determiner to pre-modify the noun) very depth of his great experience of (h) —-  (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) nature. A man with good habits plays an important role in the development of the society. He is (i) —- (Use article to pre-modify the noun) asset to the society at large. It is important to understand that if you (j) —-  (Use an adverb to pre-modify the verb) allow a bad habit to grow, it becomes a part of our nature.

Answer:  (a) good (b) our (c) in our life (d) a (e) very (f) gravely (g) the (h) human (i) an (j) once

 

 

Read the following text carefully and use suitable modifiers in the blank spaces.

  1. Computer is an advanced (a)  (use adjective as premodifier) device that takes raw data as input (b)  (use prepositional phrase as postmodifier) and processes these data under the control of set of instructions (c)  (use past participle as premodifier) program and gives the result named output and saves output (d)  (use prepositional phrase as postmodifier). It can process both numerical and non-numerical calculations. A computer has (e) (use cardinal adjective as premodifier) functions : it accepts data, processes data, produces, output and stores results. Input is the raw information (f) (use present participle) into a computer from the input devices. It is the collection of letters, numbers, images etc. Process is the operation of data as per (g) (use past participle phrase as postmodifier). It is totally internal process of the (h) (use noun as premodifier) system. Output is the processed data (i) (use past participle phrase as postmodifier) after data processing. Output is also called result. We can save (j) (use demonstrative adjective as premodifier) results in the storage devices for future use.

 

  1.         The first and (a) (Premodify the noun) duty in student life is (b)  (postmodify using infinitive). A student should remember that knowledge is power. He should read not only his (c) (premodify the noun using past participle) books but also the books of (d)  (premodify the noun using adjective) writers in (e) premodify the noun using adjective) branches of studies. He has also to read newspapers, journals and magazines and widen (f) (premodify the noun using possessive adjective) outlook. He has to fix his aim of life and equip himself for (g) (premodify the noun using demonstrative adjective) profession. He should keep (h) (postmodify using prepositional phrase) that the students of today are the (i)  (premodify the noun using adjective) leaders of the nation. Therefore, a student should not waste (j)  (premodify the noun using possessive adjective) time, energies and faculties in matters other than education and learning.

 

            Answers :

  1.         (a) electronic, (b) from the user, (c) called, (d) for future use, (e) four, (f) entered, (g) given instructions, (h) computer, (i) given by computer, (j) these
  2.         (a) foremost, (b) to study/to acquire knowledge, (c) prescribed, (d) famous, (e) different/various, (f) his/her, (g) that, (h) in mind, (i) future, (j) his/her
  3. Once a farmer had a goose. It used to lay a (a) — pre-modify the noun) egg every day. The farmer used to sell them (b) —  (post-modify the verb). He was happy (c) — (post-modify the adjective with an infinitive) every day. But his wife was a (d) — (pre-modify the noun) woman. She wanted (e) – (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) all egg together. Then she would be a rich woman (f) — (post-modify the verb). She cut the belly of the goose (g) — (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) her greed. (h) — (pre-modify the verb with present participle) of the goose, she found no egg there. She became (i) — (pre-modify the adjective with adverb) disappointed and lost the goose forever. She realized that it was her greed that brought her (j) — (pre-modify the noun) luck.

 

  1. I had gathered a peculiar experience (a) — (post modify the verb) while travelling to St. Martin’s Island. I visited the island along with my family. Zahid, (b) — (post modify the noun with an appositive) was my guide. On the way to the island, we watched (c) — (demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) sea gulls. The (d) — (pre-modify the noun) birds were flying (e) — (post-modify the verb) with the ship. They became (f) — (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) dear and friendly to us. We entertained them with biscuits; (g) — them (use a present participle to pre-modify the verb) we became (h) — (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) excited. We decided (i) — (use an infinitive phrase to post modify the verb) in the idyllic island for a couple of days. We can never forget (j) — (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the adjective phrase to post modify the verb) lovely sea birds.

 

  1. Language plays a (a) — (pre-modify the adjective with an adverb) important role in our life. We use language from the time we wake up (b) — (post-modify the verb with an adverbial phrase) till we go to bed at night. We use language not only in our waking hours but also in our (c) — (use noun as a post-modifier). We use language (d) — (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) what we feel and to say what we like or dislike. We also use language (e) — (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) information. Language is (f) — (pre-modify the adjective with an adverb) present in our activities. It is an (g) — (pre-modify the noun with an adjective) part of our life. As an (h) — (pre-modify the noun with an adjective) nation we also have a language. But we used to struggle (i) — (post-modify the verb with an adverb) to establish the right to our language. Many (j) — (pre-modify the noun with an adjective) sons sacrificed their live for the language.

 

  1. Education (a) — (use appositive to post-modify the noun) is essential for development. We can improve (b) — (possessive to pre-modify the noun) mind. An (c) — (adjective to pre-modify the noun) person has the ability (d) — (infinitive phrase). One can refine one’s sensibility (e) — (present participle phrase). Actually, the educated are able to bring about (f) — (pre-modify the noun) development. On the other hand, an (g) —(pre-modify the noun with adjective) person (h) — (adverb to pre-modify the verb) lag behind. So, the educated should come forward (i) — (prepositional phrase) to educate all in the society to unload (j) — (use determiner) owes to the country.

 

  1. Once upon a time a (a) — (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) fox was roaming in search of food (b) — (Post-modify the verb with adverbial). He looked, but could not find anything (c) — (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). He was feeling very weak and tired due to hunger. (d) — (Pre-modify the verb with adverb) he saw a garden at a distance. He went there without (e) — (Use determiner to pre-modify the noun) number of grape vines laden with bunch of grapes. (f) — (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun phrase) grapes looked quite ripe and juicy. The fox looked at the grapes with longing eyes and licked (g) — (Use possessive to pre-modify the noun) chops. The grapes were in a place too high for him. The fox tried (h) — (Post-modify the verb with adverbial). But he failed (i) — (Use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). Therefore, he walked away in despair.

 

Answers

  1. (a) golden (b) in the market  (c) to get an egg (d) greedy (e)  to get (f) quickly (g) to satisfy (h) cutting the belly (i) extremely/very (j) bad
  2. (a) a few days ago/unexpectedly (b) a local boy (c) those (d) beautiful (e) elegantly/along (f) very (g) entertaining/taming/feeding (h) very (i) to stay (j) those 
  3. (a) very (b) in the morning (c) walking (d) to express (e)  to get/to exchange (f) always/ever  (g)integral/important (h) independent (i) hard (j) brave
  4. (a) the backbone of any nation (b) our  (c) educated ; (d) to contribute something to the development programme (e) by receiving proper education (f) rapid (g) illiterate (h) always (i) without any delay (j) the
  5. (a) a few days ago/unexpectedly (b) a local boy (c) those (d) beautiful (e)  elegantly/along (f) very (g) entertaining/taming/feeding (h) very (i) to stay (j) those 
  6. Bangladesh is a (a) — (pre-modify the noun) country but has a (b) —— (pre-modify the noun) population. Most people here live below the (c) — (Use noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) line and can’t therefore afford to educate their children. Many poor children either drop out of school (d) — (post-modify the verb with a phrase) or (e) —— (pre-modify the verb) simply do not go to school at all. Despite this situation, we have far too many students (f) — (Use infinitive to post-modify the verb) compared to the number of institutions (g) —— (post-modify the noun). Bangladesh needs more schools, colleges and universities to provide for the (h) — (Pre-modify the noun with a present participle) number of students. But owing to financial and resource constrains, the government cannot fund the (h) — (Pre-modify the noun) number of educational institutions. At present, there is hardly any educational institution (j) —— (post-modify the nun with adjective clause).
    2. One hot (a) — (use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) day an ant was searching for some water. After walking for some time she came to a (b) —- (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) spring. To reach the spring she had to climb up a blade of grass. While climbing the blade of (c) — (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) grass, she slipped and fell into water. A dove from a mango tree saw this incident. (d) — (use a present participle phrase to pre-modify the verb), the dove quickly plucked off a leaf and dropped it into the water near the (e) — (use a present participle to pre-modify the noun) ant. The ant moved towards the leaf and climbed up there. Soon it carried her (f) — (use an adverb to post modify the verb) to the dry ground. Just at that time the ant saw a hunter standing (g) —- (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) close to her. When the hunter was aiming an arrow at the dove, the ant decided (h) — (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). She went (i) — (use an adverb to post-modify the verb) towards the hunter and gave him a severe bite. The hunter crying out in pain missed the target. Seeing this, the dove flew away (j) — (use an infinitive to post-modify the verb) her life.
  7. Othello, (a) — (use an appositive to post modify the noun) had risen to become a general. He had shown his bravery in many (b) — (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) battles against the Turks. Every one praised him (c) — (use adverb to post modify the verb) and the senate trusted and honoured him. Brabantio, a rich senator of Venice had a daughter named Desdemona (d) — (use a relative clause to post modify the noun). Brabantio (e) — (use an adverb to pre-modify the verb) invited Othello to his house where he and his daughter listened in wonder to Othello as he spoke about his adventures. He told them of deserts, of caves and of mountains high (f) — (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) to touch the sky. Desdemona had to weep (g) — (use present participle to post modify the verb phrase) and she never became tired of listening to it. She pitied Othello (h) — (use an adverb to post modify the verb) for the misfortune and hardships of his life. Her pity (i) — (use an adverb to post modify the verb) turned to love. She refused all the young men (j) — (use an infinitive to post-modify the verb) because she loved Othello, a noble Muslim Moor from North Africa.
    4. The newspaper (a) — (post-modify the noun with an appositive) is a printed record of current event. It gives us (b) — (use determiner to pre-modify the noun phrase) important news of home and abroad. In a word, the newspaper is like (c) — (use article to pre-modify the noun) mirror of the world. The newspaper was first introduced in China. The “Indian Gazette” was the (d) — (use determiner to pre-modify phrase) newspaper of the subcontinent. The Samachar Darpon was first (e) — (use a noun adjective to pre-modify the noun newspaper. A newspaper is (f) — (use an adverb to modify the adjective) useful to us. We cannot think of (g) — (use possessive to modify the noun) morning without it. (h)— (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) people have different taste. So, a newspaper supplies us with (i) — (use a determiner to modify the noun) sort of news. We all should read newspaper (j) — (post modify the verb with adverb).
  8. Rabindranath Tagore, (a) — (Post-modify the noun with an appositive) was born in 1861 in a (b) — (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) family at Jorasako in Kolkata. He was (c) — (Use article to pre- modify the noun phrase) fourteenth child of Devendranath and Sarada Devi Tagore. He went to school (d) — (Post-modify the verb with an adverbial of time) and wrote his (e) — (Use determiner to pre-modify the noun) verse at the age of eight. At the age of seventeen, in 1878 he reached London (f) —— (use an infinitive phrase to post modify the verb). He gathered (g) — (Use determiner to pre-modify the noun) experience from his stay in London. (h) — (Use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) experience had a lasting effect on his later life. In 1880, Rabindranath returned home without (i) — (Use determiner to pre-modify the noun) qualifications of distinction. However, he never gave up (j) — (Use possessive to pre-modify the noun) habit of writing poetry. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1913 for his Gitanjali.

Answers
1. (a) small (b) huge/large  (c) poverty

(d) just after a few years (e)  simply (f) to be/to educate (g) available (h) increasing;  (i) necessary/requisite (j) which is not over-crowed

  1. (a) a black moor/a brave soldier (b) bloody/fierce/fearful/dangerous (c) highly (d) who loved him/who was very beautiful (e) often/sometimes (f) enough (g) listening to his stories/hearing (h) heavily/much (i) soon/finally (j) to marry  
  2. (a) a black moor/a brave soldier (b) bloody/fierce/fearful/dangerous (c) highly (d) who loved him/who was very beautiful (e) often/sometimes (f) enough (g) listening to his stories/hearing (h) heavily/much (i) soon/finally (j) to marry
  3. (a) the third parliament/the store house of knowledge (b) all (c) a (d) first (e) Bengali/Bangla (f) very (g) our (h) different/various (i) all (j) everyday/regularly/carefully  
  4. (a) a writer (b) rich (c) the (d) early (e) first (f) to study (g) much (h) this (i) any (j) his
  5. Sheikh Saadi, (a) — (Post modify the noun with an appositive), was simple in his ways of life. (b) — (Use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) day, at the invitation of the emperor, he set out for the emperor’s palace in an (c) — (Pre-modify the noun) dress. He took shelter in a courtier’s house (d) — (Post modify the verb with prepositional phrase). The courtier and his men did not show (e) — (Use determiner to pre modify the noun) honour and hospitality to him. On his way back home, Saadi again took shelter in the (f) — (Pre-modify the noun) courtier’s house. (g) — (Use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) time he put on a gorgeous dress. The courtier received him (h) — (Post modify the verb) and entertained him with rich foods. Now Saadi began to put his foods in the pockets of his dress. The courtier’s men were surprised (i) — (Use an infinitive phrase to post modify the verb). They asked him why he was putting the foods (j) — (Post modify the verb with prepositional phrase).
  6. Load-shedding, (a) — (Post modify the noun with an appositive), means intentional stopping of the supply of electricity in a (b) — (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) area for a certain period of time. It occurs when (c) — (Use article to pre-modify the noun) generation of power is less than the demand. Load shedding hampers our (d) — (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) household activities. Students cannot prepare (e) — (Use possessive to pre-modify the noun) lessons and idle away their time. Parents suffer (f) — (Post-modify the verb with an adverb) because of load shedding. In fact, load shedding hampers the smooth (g) — (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) development of a country. In order to solve the problem, we should try (h) — (Use an infinitive to post-modify the verb) more electricity through government and (i) — (Use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) initiatives. An all-out effort can solve (j) — (Use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) problem.
  7. A village doctor is a (a|) — (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) familiar person in the rural areas of Bangladesh. He is (b) —- (pre-modify the verb) known as a quack. A village doctor is not a (c) — (pre-modify the noun) doctor. He (d) — (pre-modify the verb) sits in a small dispensary in the morning and evening. He treats the patients (e) — (use a participle to post-modify the verb) small fees. A village doctor is not a (f) —- (pre-modify the noun) man. His chamber is (g) — (pre-modify the verb) furnished. He cannot supply costly medicines to the (h) — (pre-modify the noun) patients. In our country, the number of qualified doctors is (i) —- (use an intensifier to pre-modify the adjective) few. So, a village doctor is a great friend to the (j) —- (pre-modify the noun) people.
  8. Nelson Mandela, (a) — (post-modify the noun with an appositive), is one of the greatest leaders of the world. During (b) — (use article to pre-modify the noun) time of Mandela, the Europeans were separated from the no-Europeans. It was a (c) — (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) policy of racial segregation. The blacks were subjected to (d) — (use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) sorts of indignities. They were denied all basic (e) — (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) rights. They were in fact aliens in (f) — (use possessive to pre-modify the noun phrase) own country. The blacks were also treated (g) — (use an adverb to post-modify the verb). Even dogs received a much better treatment than the blacks. The (h) — (use an adjective to pre-modify the noun) leader vowed to put an end to the inhuman practice. Unfortunately, (i) —- (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) great man was thrown behind the prison bars. But the oppressive rulers could not break his sprit. All his life he struggled against apartheid. Eventually, the great leader fulfilled the goal of liberating (j) — (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) people.
  9. Water is a (a) — (pre-modify the noun) substance. It has no color of (b) — (possessive to pre-modify) own. The (c) — (determiner to pre-modify the noun) name of water is life. By drinking water, we can quench (d) — (possessive to pre-modify the noun) thirst. Thus we can survive on earth. But (e) — (pre-modify the noun) water is life killing. By drinking contaminated water, we suffer from diseases like diarrhoea, typhoid etc. We may (f) — (pre modify the verb) face (g) — (pre-modify the noun) death by drinking such type of water. We are responsible for (h) — (noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) pollution. Waste materials from mills and factories are thrown here and there. Farmers use fertilizers and insecticides in their land. During the rainy season, they are mixed with ponds and rivers. Besides, latrines (i) — (participle to post-modify the noun) on pons and rivers cause water pollution. (j) — (pre-modify the noun) awareness should be raised to stop water pollution.

 

Answers

  1. (a) an icon of peace/an African President;  (b) the (c) good/government (d) all (e) human (f) their (g) badly/cruelly (h) great (i) this (j) his
  2. (a) a great curse (b) the (c) the (d) daily (e) their  (f) greatly (g) progressive (h) to generate (i) pragmatic (j) this 
  3. (a) very (b) mostly (c) registered/qualified (d) regularly (e)  taking (f) rich/poor (g) ill/well (h) poor (i) very (j) village/rural
  4. (a) an icon of peace/an African President;  (b) the (c) good/government (d) all (e)  human (f) their (g) badly/cruelly (h) great (i) this;  (j) his 
  5. (a) golden (b) in the market (c) to get an egg (d) greedy (e) to get (f) quickly (g) to satisfy (h) cutting the belly (i) extremely/very  (j) bad
  6. 21st February, (a) — (use an appositive to post-modify the noun), in our history is now observed as the International Mother Language Day all over the world. On this day, people of our country get up (b) — (post-modify the verb) in the morning remembering the memory of the martyrs. They walk (c) — (post-modify the verb) to the Sheed Minar. Most of them put on (d) — (pre-modify the noun) badges on their shoulder. They go to the Shaheed Minar (e) — (use a participle) the most cherished song “Amar vaiyer rokte rangano —” They pay homage and tribute to the memory of the martyrs. Offering the flowers, the pray for the (f) — (use a possessive to pre-modify the noun) souls. They also gather in mosques, temples and other (g) — (pre-modify the noun) institutions and pray for the salvation of the martyr’s (h) — (pre-modify the noun) soul. Different social and cultural organizations arrange (i) — (pre-modify the noun) programs on (j) — (use a demonstrative) day.
  7. One day Robert Bruce, (a) — (post-modify the noun with appositive), was lying in the cave. He was thinking of (b) — (use possessive to pre-modify the noun) misfortune. He thought that he would not be able (c) — (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify, the verb). Suddenly, he saw a spider (d) — (post-modify the verb with a prepositional/an adverbial of place). The spider was trying to reach (e) — (use determiner to pre-modify the noun) ceiling of the cave. It almost got to the point (f) — (use quantifier to pre-modify the noun) times, but fell down at the last moment. It did not lose hope. It was trying (g) — (post-modify the verb with an adverbial). On the seventh attempt it reached the ceiling. Robert Bruce became very much amazed (h) — (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb) the success of the spider. He felt encouraged and came out of the cave and began to gather soldiers again. He remembered the small spider and prepared (i) — (post modify the verb with an adverb) for the battle. He fought hard with the English and (j) — (use a demonstrative to pre-modify the noun) time, he came out successful. Strong will and perseverance made Robert Bruce the king of Scotland again.
  8. Bangladesh (a) — (Post-modify the noun with an appositive), has a huge population. Most people here live below the (b) — (Use noun adjective to pre-modify the noun) line and can’t therefore afford to educate (c) — (Use a possessive to pre-modify the noun) children. Many poor children either drop out of school after just a (d) — (Use a quantifier to pre-modify the noun) years or simply do not go to school at all. Despite this situation, we have far too many students (e) — (Use infinitive to post-modify the verb) compared to the number of institutions available. Bangladesh needs (f) — (Use a determiner to pre-modify the noun) schools, colleges and universities to provide for the (g) — (Pre-modify the noun with a present participle) number of students. But the government cannot fund the (h) — (Pre-modify the noun) number of educational institutions. At present every educational institution is over-crowded and class size is (i) — (Pre-modify the adjective) large. Students do not get a (j) — (Pre-modify the noun) education for lack of facilities.
  9. A moonlit night, (a) —(post modify the noun with an appositive), is very charming and enjoyable. It presents an (b) — (Use an adjective to pre modify the noun) sight. On (c) — (Use article to pre modify the noun phrase) moonlit night, the moon looks like a disk of silver. The whole world shines (d) — (Use adverb to post modify the verb). People of (e) — (Use determiner to pre modify the noun) ages enjoy a moonlit night. They pass (f) — (Use possessive to pre modify the noun) time talking to each other. (g) — (modify the whole sentence with an adverb) (h) — (Use quantifier to pre modify the noun) people arrange picnic on the roof (i) — (Use an infinitive phrase to post modify the verb) the time. A moonlit night has (j) — (Use determiner to pre modify the noun) special significance for the poor.
  10. Most of (a) — (use a possessive to pre-modify the noun) students cannot write out their examination papers fairly. As they cannot understand the questions (b) ——- (post-modify the verb), they often beat about the bush and cram the answers with irrelevant and unnecessary details. Sometimes they also fail to arrange their answer neatly, cleanly and systematically. Although the teacher suggests that their answer should be brief and precise, they (c) — (pre-modify the verb) lengthen them unnecessarily. Therefore, their (d) — (pre-modify the noun) answers generally become disgusting and unnecessary. Such answers always earn (e) — (pre-modify the noun) marks. In order to get expected marks, all you should do, is to understand the questions (f) — (post modify the verb) and answer them just to the point.  Don’t worry, if (g) — (use a possessive to pre-modify the noun) answers are fairly short. You should make your presentation neat and clean (h) — (use an infinitive phrase to post-modify the verb). To answer the short comprehensive questions, you should not copy anything (i) — post-modify the verb) from the passage. Make your sentences (j) — (use an intensifier to pre-modifier the adjective) short and simple.

Answers
1. (a) a month of mourning (b) early (c) barefooted d) black (e) singing (f) martyrs (g) sanctified/religious (h) departed (i) various (j) this

  1. (a) the king of Scotland (b) his (c) to regain his lost kingdom (d) in the cave (e) the (f) several (g) again and again/to reach the ceiling (h) to see (i) well/soon/completely (j) this
    3. (a) a small country (b) poverty (c) their (d) few (e) to educate (f) more (g) increasing (h) requisite (i) unusually (j) standard
  2. (a) the king of Scotland (b) his (c) to regain his lost kingdom (d) in the cave (e) the (f) several  (g) again and again/to reach the ceiling (h) to see (i) well/soon/completely (j) this
    5. (a) our (b) properly (c) often (d) long (e) poor (f) properly  (g) your (h) to get good marks  (i) directly (j) fairly 
  3. Nobel Prize is awarded for (a) — (pre-modify the noun) contributions to different fields. It is awarded in (b) — (pre-modify the noun) fields. It is the world’s most (c) — (pre-modify the noun) prize. If the recipients are more than one, the prize money is divided (d) — (post-modify the verb) among them. Alfred Nobel founded the Nobel Prize. He earned a lot of money (e) — (pot-modify the verb with a present participle phrase). For this (f) — (pre-modify the noun) invention he became famous. His name and fame spread (g) — (post-modify the verb). There is a Nobel committee (h) — (post-modify the noun with an infinitive) the right person for award. The winners of Nobel Prize are treated with (i) — (pre-modify the noun) respect. The world will always remember Alfred Nobel for his (j) — (pre-modify the noun) contribution.
  4. Books are (a) — (pre-modify the adjective with an intensifier) essential for us. They help us (b) — (post-modify the verb with an infinitive) knowledge. (c) — (pre-modify the verb with a present participle) books, we can know everything. They show us the (d) — (pre-modify the noun) way. Books can be our (e) — (pre-modify the noun) friends. They help us (f) — (post modify the verb with an infinitive) our mind. They improve our (g) — (pre-modify the noun) power. They give us solace to our (h) — (pre-modify the noun|) mind. Besides reading (i) — (pre-modify the noun) books, students should read other books. If they read other books, they will be able to know everything (j) — (post modify the verb).
  5. Once upon a time there lived (a) — (Use article to pre modify the noun phrase) generous and kindhearted king. But the people were not happy with (b) — (Use possessive to pre modify the noun) king, because the kind was too lazy and would not do (c) — (use determiner to pre modify the noun) work other than eating and sleeping. He spent days and weeks and months in (d) — (Use possessive to pre modify the noun phrase) bed either eating something or sleeping. He became (e) — (use an adverb to pre modify the adjective) inactive. The king became (f) — (use article to pre modify the noun) potato couch and the people started worrying about the king. (g) — (Use quantifier to pre modify the noun) day he realized that he could not even move his body. He became fat and his enemies made fun of him calling ‘fatty king’ or ‘bulky king’ etc. He invited (h) — (Use an adjective to pre modify the noun) doctors from (i) — (use determiner to pre modify the noun) parts of his country and offered them generous rewards (j) — (use an infinitive phrase to post modify the verb) him fit. Unfortunately, none could help the king regain his health and fitness.
  6. Rabindranath Tagore was a (a) — (pre-modify the noun) poet of Bengali literature. He was born in a (b)——(pre-modify the noun) family at Jarasanko, Kolkata. He went to school(c) — (post modify the verb). He wrote his (d) — (pre modify the noun) verse at the age of eight. At the age of seventeen, he went to London (e) — (post modify the verb with infinitive) school there. He was put up in lodging house under the care of a (f) — (pre modify the noun) coach, Mr. Scott. He was lucky (g) —— (post modify the adjective with infinitive) an English family of Mr. Scott. He also visited the House of parliament (h) — (post modify the verb with an infinitive) Gladstone and John Bright’s debates on Irish rule. He wrote letters to Kolkata (i) — (post modify the verb with a present participle) English society. At this, his family thought that they might lose their son (j) — (post modify the verb). So, he was called back to Kolkata.
  7. Macbeth was the General of Scotland. He fought (a) — (post modify the verb) and won the battle. While he was returning to the castle, he saw three witches (b) — (post modify the noun with a present participle) about him. He came (c) — (post modify the noun with an infinitive) from the witches that he would be the king of Scotland. He became (d) — (pre modify the adjective with an intensifier) ambitious. His wife also wanted Macbeth (e) — (post modify the verb with an infinitive) the king. She was a very (f) — (pre modify the noun) woman. So she began (g) — (post modify the verb with an infinitive) Macbeth. Then they both plotted to kill Duncan, (h) — (post modify the noun with an appositive). They planned (i) — (post modify the verb with an infinitive) Duncan when he would come to stay with them in their castle (j) — (pre-modify the verb with a present participle) a knife. Macbeth entered the room of Duncan and killed him.

 

Answers

  1. (a) outstanding (b) six (c) prestigious ; (d) equally (e)  inventing dynamite (f) important (g) all over the world (h) to choose/to select (i) great (j) remarkable/significant
  2. (a) very (b) to gain (c) reading (d) true (e)  best (f) to develop (g) thinking (h) disturbed (i) text (j) properly 
  3. (a) very (b) to gain (c) reading (d) true (e)  best (f) to develop (g) thinking (h) disturbed (i) text (j) properly
  4. (a) renowned/prominent/famous (b) noble/royal (c) early (d) first (e)  to attend (f) professional (g) enough to find (h) to listen to (i) admiring/praising/describing (j) forever 
  5. (a) bravely/valiantly (b) talking (c) to learn (d) very (e)  to be (f) cunning/ambitious/greedy (g) to convince/to persuade (h) the king of Scotland (i) to kill (j) taking/carrying