Conjunction can be defined as “A word used to connect words, clauses, phrases, or sentences or to coordinate words in the same clause”.
What is Conjunction
Conjunction is one of the parts of speech which acts as glue and connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses together (both dependent and independent). It may be placed at the start of sentences. Conjunctions join two sentences and make the sentence more compact.
List of Conjunction Words
Some of the conjunction words are and, or, but, because, for, if, or, when, etc.
He looks very cruel but his heart is soft. (conjunction word ‘but’ is joining two sentences)
It is necessary to go to school because today is my exam. (conjunction word ‘because’ is joining two sentences)
I went to market with my mother and (conjunction word ‘and’ is joining two words)
Three and four make seven. (conjunction word ‘and’ is joining two words)
Using conjunction two simple sentences can be joined into one to become more compact.
Sheela is a very good bowler and Vishal is also a very good bowler.
Sheela and Vishal are good bowlers.
Some conjunctions are used in pairs in the sentences such as either –or, neither –nor, whether –or, both –and, not only – but also, though – yet, etc.
Either go to school or study at home.
I can neither avoid it nor take it serious.
Both, Seema and Geeta are good singers.
Though I was very busy, yet I met my friend.
I don’t care whether you love me or hate me.
Not only he is hard working, but also.
Types of Conjunction
There are three kinds of conjunctions serving their own clear purpose however all functions to bring words together.
1) Coordinating Conjunction
Coordinating conjunctions are generally used to connect individual words, phrases, and independent clauses (of equal rank or importance).
List of Coordinating Conjunction
Some of the coordinating conjunctions are like and, or, but, so, nor, for, yet, also, either….or, neither….nor, etc.
Mohan, Seena, and Rohit met in the party at 6 o’clock. (conjunction joining the individual words togethr)
It is a small but attractive place. (conjunction joining individual phrases)
Coordinating conjunction is subdivided into following types:
Adversative coordinating conjunction is used to indicate opposition or contrast between two statements. Some of the adversative coordinating conjunctions are still, but, only, yet, whereas, while, nevertheless, etc.
I am slow, but I am sure about my destination.
I will take rest, only when I get tried.
It was intolerable, still I kept quiet.
b) Disjunctive or Alternative:
Disjunctive or alternative coordinating conjunction is used to indicate choice between two statements. Some of the alternative coordinating conjunctions are or, neither….nor, either….or, else, neither, nor, otherwise, etc….
I must work hard, or I will fail.
Either he is intelligent or he makes us fool.
Neither you, nor I can do this work.
Do hard work, else you will not go ahead of him.
c) Cumulative or Copulative:
Cumulative or copulative coordinating conjunction is used when we need to only add one statement to another. Some of the cumulative coordinating conjunctions are and, both…and, not only…but also, as well as, etc.
I cleaned the room and My friend cooked the food.
He is both intelligent and smart.
I have to go college as well as market.
He not only helped me but also gave some money to me.
Illative coordinating conjunction is used to express an inference in the sentence. Some of the illative coordinating conjunctions are for, so, etc.
I work hard so I will pass the exam.
I must to go school, for I have no option.
2) Correlative Conjunction
Correlative conjunction is used to correlate or join phrases or words carrying equal importance in the sentence.
List of Correlative conjunction
Correlative conjunction words are appear in pairs such as either…or, whether…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, etc.
She is both rich and
Either I will go to school or stay home and read.
I am neither rich nor
He is not only poor, but also
3) Subordinating Conjunction
Subordinating conjunction is used to join a clause to another in order to get full meaning. It is one of the parts of speech which joins dependent clauses to independent clauses.
List of Subordinating Conjunction
Subordinating conjunction words are after, as, although, before, once, because, since, if, than, though, till, that, until, where, whether, when, while, even if, even though, in order that, once, provided that, rather than, so that, unless, whenever, whereas, wherever, why, how, as, in as much, as if, as long as, lest, as much as, now that, as soon as, as though, since, because, before, etc.
As Mohan got less marks in the Physics, he got his overall percentage down.
He started writing as soon as he got the exam paper.
I started sneezing whenever I opens the window of my home.
Conjunction: Conjunctions join two or more words, phrases, or clauses.
List of Conjunctions: afterপরে, althoughযদিও, asযেহেতু, as if, as long asযতদিন, as much asযতটা, as soon asযত তাড়াতাড়ি, as thoughযেন, becauseকারণ, before সামনে, even ifএমনকি যদি, even thoughযদিও, ifযদি, in order thatযাতে, in case, lestপাছে, provided that, sinceযেহেতু, so thatযাতে, thanচেয়ে, thatযে, thoughযদিও, till, যতক্ষণ না, unlessযদি না, untilযতক্ষণ না, whenযখন, wheneverযখনই, whereযেখানে, whereverযেখানে, whileযখন
Classification of Conjunction
|a. Correlative||as/so….as, both….and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also, too..to, so…that, such…that|
for, and, nor, but, or, otherwise, yet, so
|c. Subordinating||Who, how, why, where, when, where, which, what, whom, whose
If, had, were, in case, unless, provided, provided that, providing that
That, so that, in order that, though, although, as, since, because, till, until, before, after, while, lest, as if, as soon as, as long as, no sooner had, scarcely had, hardly had, as though, even if, even though, whatever, whenever, wherever, however, whoever, whomever etc