Case

Case

Grammatical case pertains to nouns and pronouns. A noun’s or a pronoun’s case shows its relationship with the other words in a sentence. A noun does not change its form in any of the cases other than the possessive case. A pronoun, however, changes its form in the possessive and the objective case.
The main cases you will encounter in English are:

 

  Case Example
1 Subjective /Nominative

(subject of a verb)

Rila went to the shop. Bill is a policeman. She went to the shop. It is he.
2 Possessive/ Genitive

(show possession)

This is Rima’s bag.This is her bag.
3 Objective /Dative / Accusative

(direct/indirect object of a verb/ preposition)

I visited Riva. Rahim reads a book. I visited her. The horse kicked the boy. Take me to her.
4 Vocative Case

(is addressed directly)

Rina, is this your pen? Brother, could I take your pen?  Good bye, mother. You, get off my lawn. Go there, Rahim. May I come in sir.

Nominative and Objective case can be used as pronoun, adjective, infinitive, gerund, verbal noun, phrase, clause etcExample

  Nominative Objective
noun Orin goes to school.  He reads the Quran.
pronoun He visited Khulna. We called him. 
adjective The poor live in hand to mouth.  He helps the poor.
infinitive To err is human. I want to sleep. 
gerund Walking is a good exercise.   
verbal noun The reading of newspaper is a good habit. I like the playing of cricket.
phrase A man of letters came here.  I met a man of parts.
clause What he says is known to all. I know how he did it.

 

The case at a glance

Nouns Person Subjective Possessive Objective
Singular 3rd frog frog’s frog
Minu Minu’s Minu
Plural frogs frogs’ frogs
witches witches’ witches

 

Personal Pronouns Person Subjective Possessive Objective
Number 1st I my, mine me
Singular 2nd you your, yours you
3rd he /she/it his/her/hers/its/ our/ours him/her/it
Plural 1st we your, yours us
2nd you their, theirs you
3rd they them

 

Other Pronouns Person Subjective Possessive Objective
Relative/ interrogative pronouns 3rd Who Whose Whom
Which of which Which
That /what   That/ what
Indefinite pronouns everybody everybody’s everybody

 

 

 

 

 

Formation of Possessive case:

Process   Examples
by adding (’s)  If the word ends without “s” singular Shawkot’s book, kamal’s pen, mother’s glass, baby’s toy. The boy’s father, The girl’s mother
plural women’s co-operative, children’s park, men’s dress, people’s republic.
by adding (’s)   If the word ends in “s” singular jesus’ speech, brutass’ car, keates’ poem. For goodness’ sake, Moses’s laws
plural boys’ school, girls’ school, sailors’ cap, brothers’ garden.
by adding (’s)    Compound noun brother-in-law’s home, Inspector-general’s office, Rahim and Karim’s flat, Sami and Rahi’s mother.
by adding (’s) or   Rahim’s hen or The hen of Rahim. Rabbi’s goat or the goat of rabbi.
using of  before subject material noun The legs of chair are broken.
by adding (’s)    denoting time, space or weight.  Three days’ leave, A yard’s length, A ton’s wait. In a year’s time, A week’s holiday, Five minutes’ walk, A pound’s weight
  Some common phrases At his fingers’ ends, For mercy’s sake, To his heart’s content, A boat’s crew, At his wit’s end,  a day’s work, a month’s pay, today’s newspaper, in a year’s time

 

 

 

 

Possessive case:

অধিকার সম্বন্ধ বা কর্তৃত্ব সম্বন্ধ বোঝায়। এটিকারএই প্রশ্নের উত্তর দেয়

– This is Ram’s book. (কার বই– Ram এর)
– These are Shakespeare’s plays.(
কার নাটক – Shakespeare’s এর)

  1. শেষে ‘s’ বিহীন singular/plural noun এর সাধারণত Apostrophe S (’s) যোগ করে Possessive করা হয়। যেমন– Shawkot’s book, kamal’s pen, mother’s glass, baby’s toy. The boy’s father, The girl’s mother,  women’s co-operative, children’s park, men’s dress, people’s republic.
  2. শেষে ‘s’ যুক্ত singular/plural noun এর শেষে শুধু Apostrophe যোগ করে Possessive করা হয়। যেমন– jesus’ speech, brutass’ car, keats’ poem. For goodness’ sake, Moses’s laws boys’ school, girls’ school, sailors’ cap, brothers’ garden.
  3. Compound noun এর শেষে Apostrophe S (’s) যোগ করে Possessive করা হয়। যেমন– brother-in-law’s home, Inspector-general’s office, Rahim and Karim’s flat, Sami and Rahi’s mother.
  4. And দ্বারা যুক্ত একাধিক noun যৌথ অধিকার প্রকাশ করলে শেষের noun টির সাথে (’s) যোগ করতে হয়। যেমন– Rahim and Karim’s flat, Sami and Rahi’s mother.
  5. সাধারণত ব্যক্তির ক্ষেত্রে (’s) বসিয়ে বা তার পূর্বে of বসিয়ে Possessive করা হয়। যেমন
  6. অচেতন পদার্থের ক্ষেত্রে (’s) না বসিয়ে of বসিয়ে Possessive করতে হয়। যেমন
    Incorrect – The Chair’s legs are broken.
    Correct – The legs of chair are broken.
  7. সময়, দুরুত্ব ওজন প্রকাশক noun এর সাথে (s’) যোগ করে Possessive করতে হয়। যেমন – Three days’ leave, A yard’s length, A ton’s wait.
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