For HSC only

For HSC only

Group Work

Group work, an effective way of learning and cooperation with others, involves students working collaboratively on set tasks, in or out of the classroom. Its aim is to learn through group cooperation and encourage all students to participate in the learning process. This approach is defined in the classroom as a group. The members obtain useful information from each other to extend their knowledge and abilities through the cooperation. To do group work, the class has to be divided into groups. Each group is to do some tasks given by the teacher or in the textbook. The group members will discuss and share ideas and points, and finally one member will write the answer. All this is knowledge about group work. Then one starts working in groups. In each group one takes turns discussing points, answering questions, etc. In this way one actually does the task. Teacher may monitor and help to do the work. Lastly, through regular group work it is expected that there will be noticeable changes in one’s behaviour. Possible changes are– one will develop the attitude of freely mixing and talking with one’s classmates and teacher. One’s shyness will gradually disappear. One will develop the attitude of helping and cooperating with each other. One will learn to behave in a democratic way. Most importantly, these behavioural changes taking place in one inside the classroom will be carried over outside the classroom, in real-life situations. In order to maximise these benefits, one will need to manage one’s group work effectively.

 Natural Calamities

Natural calamities are the disasters which are inflicted by God, or Nature, or man and his world. Bangladesh is often hit by natural calamities like flood, cyclone, drought, earthquakes, landslides,  tidal bores, excessive rainfall, river erosion, famine which bring great loss to the life and property of our country almost every year. Environmental pollution, climate change, global warming, greenhouse effect, deforestation, lack of plans etc. are responsible for these natural calamities. Many people becoming homeless and helpless suffer untold sufferings. Houses are destroyed, cattle are washed away, crops are greatly damaged and trees are uprooted. The prices of all essentials go up. Famine breaks out. Thousands of people and animals die for want of food. Many dangerous diseases like cholera, typhoid, diarrhea and dysentery break out in an epidemic form. The educational institutions are closed down for a long time. In a word the whole nation undergoes extreme sufferings and socio-economic pressure. Though we cannot prevent natural disasters as we have no hand in nature, we can reduce the damage caused by natural calamities by using the modern technology of weather warning. Flood can be prevented by building embankments, barrages and a well planned irrigation. The river beds should be dredged for carrying more water by the rivers. An efficient relief measure should also be taken to mitigate the suffering of the flood victims. In fine, it can be said that natural calamities for a poor country like Bangladesh are destructive. So, steps should be taken by the government as well as the conscious citizens raising public awareness to prevent their destructive effect for the greater interest of the country.

Natural Beauties of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a country of gorgeous greenery on the shore of the Bay of Bengal which is enriched with natural beauty and resources, many rivers, birds, forests, historical places and above all, six seasons. Every year thousands of nature lover come from various countries come here to learn from nature, to see awesome creations and to know about wild lives. Amongst those places Cox’s Bazar Sea Beach, the Shundarbans, Srimongal Tea Garden, Jaflong, Rangamati, Bandarban, Paharpur Buddha Vihara and so on are well known worldwide. An excellent combination of the picturesque natural beauty, sandy beaches, blue sky and the shimmering expanse of water of the Bay of Bengal and the evergreen forest makes Cox’s Bazar and Kuakata Sea Beach a much sought after tourist destination. It is one of the unique spots which allow a visitor to watch both the sunrise and the sunset from the beach. This sandy beach slopes gently into the Bay and bathing there is as pleasant as is swimming or diving. The Shundarbans, the land of rare plants and animals, is the largest mangrove forest of the world. One can see Royal Bengal Tiger, a lot of deer, monkeys, and elephants and so on. The real beauty of Shundarbans is the Shundori tree which is really exceptional. Various types of birds always charm the tourists. Srimangal which is one of the hilly districts of Sylhet division is famous for tea gardens and Seven Layered tea. Jaflong is known as land of stone. The Mari River is well known to all due to transparent glass like river water. You can see the ground of river from the top of water. In fine, it can be said that if you love nature, love natural beauty and especially green field you must not forget to visit those places of Bangladesh.


War and Peace

War, a terrible evil, refers to an armed battle between nations. War causes big sufferings to the family members of the people who die during the war. During wars, there is massive destruction of property, wealth, trade, industry, etc. It completely upsets the social life of people. Many people argue that war is a necessary evil, and the only process of solving international disputes. But, in reality, war happens, only because people are not ready to settle disputes in a peaceful manner. Peace means complete freedom from disturbance. It refers to those times when there is no war or fight among nations. Once the world starts believing that wars are unnecessary and decide to abolish war completely, they will certainly find a way for peaceful co-existence. Human being’s love for peace is universal. Human being is by nature peaceful. War does not furnish a proof of the idea that human is a fighting animal. Even the acts of war did not spoil in the least human’s spontaneous love for peace. Modern people are threatened by the dreadful inventions of science. But this actual threat is coming not from science but from war, in which the power of science is abused. It is one thing to keep a nation strong and vigorous and save it, it is another thing to infuse a wanton spirit of aggression and destruction into it. The modern nations must truly realize in their heart the full significance of the teaching – ‘For all they that take to the sword, shall perish with the sword’. Then and then only shall peace reign in the world.


Courtesy in the perspective of Bangladesh and other countries

Courtesy means showing of politeness in ones attitude and behaviour towards others. It costs nothing but buys everything. The measure of a truly great man is the courtesy with which he treats lesser man. Saying courtesy words like thank you are simple acts of courtesy they make an impact on every one and go a long way in building long lasting meaningful relationships. Few are the words which we use with courtesy ….thank you, you are welcome, i am sorry, excuse me. The traditional greeting for Muslims is Asalamu alaikum to which the response is wa alaikum salam. The hand shake is common although they may feel rather limp. If people are of the same age, they use first names. When visiting a Bangladeshi’s home, it is more common to bring pastries, sweets or good quality chocolates. Patterns of behaviour and action vary from individual to individual, class to class, society to society and country to country. These differences are referred to as cultural differences. What is an appropriate mode of behaviour in one culture might prove inappropriate or even rude in another culture. For example, when Latin Americans talk to each other, they stand about 18 to 12 inches apart, measured nose to nose. To stand further away from each other while talking seems unfriendly, to them. In some Arab countries too, the proper and polite distance for a conversation is to be close enough to feel the other person’s breath. But in British or American society, getting so close during a conversation is considered inappropriate. An example is the informal use of first names among staff holding different status at work. Although it would be a blasphemy for a student to call his/her teachers by their first names in Bangladesh, it is quite common in British colleges and universities.


Causes and Effects of Road Accident

Road transport in Bangladesh is very popular for various reasons, but the condition of Bangladesh roads is very poor and deplorable. The rate at road-accidents and fatality in the country is very high. Pressure on roads has been on increase and the number of vehicles is increasing by leaps and bounds. Overloading is one of the major factors of road- accidents and deaths. Driving licenses are given on illegal gratifications to the authorities and traffic rules and regulations are thrown to the winds. Lack of road-sense has further complicated the matters. The condition of the vehicles is hardly found road-worthy. The unmanned railway level- crossings further add to the chaos and confusion. The multiplicity of authorities and utter lack of coordination among them is another great source of worry. Drug-abuse and addiction by drivers is another major cause of accidents. The ever increasing use of mobile phones has posed a new challenge to road-safety. lmmediate and effective steps should be taken to check the ever increasing number of road-accidents and death. The effects can be anything from a dent to death, of the drivers, passengers, and occupants of other cars or pedestrians, damage to vehicles. It can be financial loss, psychological, punishment by law or death also. To prevent these accidents, it is imperative that effective long and short term measures are immediately taken. Roads should be properly maintained and looked after. There should be multi-lane roads wherever necessary. There should be separate tracks for slow moving vehicles from those of fast and very fast moving vehicles. There should be an effective check on speed of the vehicles. Violation of traffic rules should be strictly dealt with. Grant of driving licenses and permits to vehicles should be properly streamlined. Those driving under the influence of drugs and alcohol should be given exemplary punishment and their licenses cancelled. 

Problems of Higher Education in Bangladesh

Higher education refers to education beyond the secondary level especially education provided by a college or university. Accessibility to higher education implies that students get the opportunity to get university education and sufficient support from educational institutions. Increasing enrolment at the secondary and higher secondary level puts pressure on higher educational institutions. There are only handful universities in our country. Due to limited capacity, only a small number of students may be enrolled in universities. Thus, each year a large number of students are denied access to higher education. Also, due to poverty and increase in educational expenses, students of the lower middle class do not get easy access to higher education. Only about 12 percent of graduates enter higher educational institutions. More than 80 percent of these students are admitted to NU affiliated colleges. Others are absorbed by the public and private universities. Most universities cannot offer a wide range of subjects. Library, laboratory, Internet and research facilities are not satisfactory. Seminars, symposiums, lectures, workshops, debates, and exhibitions are hardly held in these institutions and there is not much scope for national and international exposure for promising young knowledge seekers.  This problem may be impossible to solve overnight but it can be lessen gradually. The number of universities must be increased in this regard. The poor students should have the accessibility like others. Moreover, the facilities of educational sectors should be increased and upgraded. The govt. should take the responsibility steps to solve the problems. Besides, we all should be aware of this.


Drug addiction

Drug addiction refers to such state of not being able to stop taking illegal harmful substances like heroin, opium, marijuana, morphine, cocaine, phensidyl etc that people take through smoking, inhaling or injection. It being a brain disease leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. It can lead to a range of both short-term and long-term mental and physical health problems. Unemployment problem, environmental factors, political unrest, family feud, lack of love and affection lead a man to frustration which is the main cause of drug addiction. It destroys us morally, physically and financially. Dependence on drugs can create a number of dangerous and damaging complications. People who are addicted to a drug are more likely to get an infectious disease, such as HIV, either through unsafe sex or by sharing needles.  Young people involved in crimes to get money for taking drugs. Behavioral changes may cause marital or family conflict and custody issues. It can also cause declining performance at work, absenteeism and eventual loss of employment. The best way to prevent an addiction to a drug is not to take the drug at all. Drug-addicts must be treated with love and kindness. A strong, stable bond between you and your child will reduce your child’s risk of using or misusing drugs.The society should take strong measures to control the dishonest businessmen and drug-traffickers. The highest punishment of dealing in or smuggling drugs is death in Bangladesh. There are laws of drug-control all over the world, yet drug-addiction is increasing gradually. What is needed an anti-drugs consciousness among the youth of the different countries.


Use and Abuse of Facebook

Facebook is a popular free social networking website that allows registered users to create profiles, upload photos and video, send messages and keep in touch with friends, family and colleagues. It was created by Mark Zuckerberg in February of 2004. This exclusive site, which is available in 37 different languages, includes public features. Facebook makes it possible to connect people sharing interests and activities across the borders and thus have made a lot for the users to feel that they really live in a global village. It is expanding so fast as one can make use of them paying very little. One can make personal profile public before the entire online community. It is like presenting oneself before the entire world. One can also look into other people’s profile simply and easily if one is interested. It allows users to upload pictures, multimedia contents and to update their profiles. User profiles have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. Finally, there are privacy protection measures too. A user himself or herself decides over the number of viewers, and what information should be shared with others. He can block specific connections or keep all his communications private. But this great blessing of modern science has some demerits too. Many young boys and girls become addicted to it and give more time on it than studies. Few senseless people post nude pictures which influence the tender mind of youngsters. A long term bad effects can be seen in those adolescents. Besides, many girls and ladies committed suicide because their enemy posted their privet photos or videos. Despite these few bad sites of Facebook book, it has great importance for the communication of modern people.



Adolescence represents one of the critical transitions in ones life span and is characterized by fast paced growth and change which occurs after childhood and before adulthood. The duration and defining characteristics of this period may vary across time, cultures, and socio-economic situations. Among the factors responsible for the change are education, urbanization and spread of global communication. Besides physical and sexual maturation, these experiences include movement toward social and economic independence, development of identity, the acquisition of skills needed to carry out adult relationships and roles and the capacity for abstract reasoning. It is also a time of considerable risks during which social contexts exert powerful influences. Many adolescents face pressure to use alcohol, cigarettes, or other drugs and to initiate sexual relationships putting themselves at high risk for intentional and unintentional injuries, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections, including the HIV. The use or avoidance of drugs and taking or abstaining from sexual risk can have long-lasting negative and positive effects on future health and well-being. As a result, adults have unique opportunities to influence adolescents. Laws, customs, and practices may also affect adolescents differently than adults.  Adolescents depend on their families, their communities, schools, health services and their workplaces to learn a wide range of skills that can help them to cope with the pressures they face and make a successful transition from childhood to adulthood. Parents, members of the community, service providers, and social institutions have the responsibility to both promote adolescent.

 Food Adulteration

Food adulteration is the act of deliberately adding something to the food, intentionally debasing the quality of the food offered for sale either by the admixture or substitution of inferior substances or by the removal of some valuable ingredient. Unsafe levels of pesticides are present in around half of the vegetables and more than a quarter of fruits sold in the markets. Food posioning, in the form of metals, toxins, or bacteria, stomach disorders, liver problems, vision problems, skin diseases are the diseases caused by adulteration of food. Carbide, formalin, heavy metal, chemical, textile colours, artificial sweeteners, DDT, urea etc. are used rampantly for this purpose. Milk is mixed with water. Vanaspati is used as an adulterant for ghee. Ergot is used as an adulterant for cereals. Chalk-powder is used as an adulterant for flour. Chicory is used as an adulterant for coffee. Papaya seeds is used as an adulterant for pepper. Brick-powder is used as an adulterant for chilly-powder. Tamarind seed powder is used as adulterant for coffee. Wood powder is adulterated for turmeric and dhaniya powder. Adulterated food is impure, unsafe, or unwholesome food. Instead of focusing only on the end products, the issue should be addressed at the root level. Better monitoring and supervision were mandatory for stopping food adulteration. The Ministry of Food had enacted a Food Safety Act, but was yet to prepare the necessary rules. As the issue of food safety was also linked to 14 other ministries, a coordinated agency should take responsibility of ensuring safety in food products.


The term diaspora is used to refer to the movement of people who have left their ancestralhomelands and settled in other parts of the world, either because they were forced to do so or because they wanted to leave on their own. The word is increasingly used for such people as a collective group and/or a community. Its origin is traced in thousands years back. In the Bible there is reference of diaspora. In the history of human civilization, we find a number of events of it. The world has seen many diasporas but scholars have been studying the phenomenon with great interest only in recent decades. They have distinguished between different kinds of exoduses based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labour migrations or by the kind of social coherence. Among the great diasporas of history is that of the Jewish people, who were forced to leave their lands in ancient times. Their ancestor Abraham was forced to leave Iraq and took shelter in Egypt. Then his offspring Jews were forced to leave Egypt and settled themselves in Palestine. In twentieth century history, the Palestinian diaspora has attracted a lot of attention and been a cause of concern for world leaders because of the plight of Palestinians. The movement of Aryans from Central Europe to the Indian sub-continent thousands of years ago is also a noteworthy diaspora, although the causes of this diaspora are unclear. There have been massive diasporas in Africa, too, over the centuries, either because of war or because of the ravages of nature. But the chief reason why the phenomenon of diaspora is attracting so much attention now is globalization.


Early Marriage/ Premature Marriage/Child Marriage

Early marriage is an act of getting married at a tender age when the individual is not fully mature to take responsible or not reaching the proper adult age. In Bangladesh the legal age for marriage is 21 for boys and 18 for girls. Despite this legislation, the average age for marriage of girls is 16.4 years. We find that illiteracy, poverty, selfish attitude, unconsciousness, religious misinterpretation, superstitions, social customs, discriminatory attitude towards girls, wrong idea about girls education, dowry system, etc. are some of the causes of premature marriage. Early marriage is seen as a way to “protect” a girl’s sexuality in an unsafe environment. The effects of premature marriage are, no doubt, harmful for health and mind of a female child. The girls cannot adjust with the new environment of their in-law’s house. They cannot serve their husbands’ families properly. In such a condition of their health, weak baby is born with different complications. As a result, it leads to family conflict and misunderstanding. Sometimes, premature marriage leads to divorce, suicide, and unnatural death. To encourage female education and to discourage early marriage our government has taken some positive steps, such as giving stipends to girls, recruiting more female teachers etc. To prevent thispunishable offense, the conscious people should come forward. The parents should be made aware of the bad effects of premature marriage. Different mass media can play an important role in solving the problem. Early marriage perpetuates an unequal society, increasing female vulnerability, powerlessness and assetlessness, as well as restricting personal and psychological development and having hazardous health effects. To sum up, because of negative effect on young people’s development as well as marriage itself, people should not get married early.

Etiquette and Manners

We have two-terms to describe our social behavior- ‘etiquette’ and ‘manners’. ‘Etiquette’ is a French word and it means the rules of correct behavior in society. The word ‘manners’ means the behavior that is considered to be polite in a particular society or culture. Manners can be good or bad. For example, it is a bad manner to speak with food in one’s mouth. No one likes a bad-mannered person. Remember that etiquette and manners vary from culture to culture and from society to society. We learn etiquette and manners from our parents, families and various institutions, such as schools, colleges or professional bodies. There are rules of behavior for all kinds of social occasions and it is important to learn them ad practice them in everyday life. The manners that are correct in a wedding reception will not do in a debating club. Therefore, we have to be careful about etiquette and manners. We know how important it is to say ‘please’ and ‘thank you’ in everyday life. A few more polite expressions such as ‘pardon me’, ‘excuse me’, ‘may I’ are bound to make your day smooth and pleasant. As a child you must have been told to greet your elders and visitors to your home according to your culture and tradition. You must also have been taught to be polite in company and keep quiet while others, especially your elders spoke. Possibly, you at times grudged such schooling. Possibly, at times you even protested such disciplining. Now, certainly you know that you can’t always behave the way you want especially in the presence of others. There are rules of behavior you have to follow in a company. We are social beings and have to consider the effect of our behavior on others, even if we are at home and dealing with our family members.

My Dream

A dream is a succession of imagesideasemotions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleepThe people of our country are still not free rather sadly crippled by the manacles of segregation and the chains of discrimination. They live on a lonely island of poverty in the midst of a vast ocean of material prosperity. Even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream deeply rooted in the Bengali dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed. We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal. One day the sons of former slaves and slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of brotherhood. The heat of injustice and oppression will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. Our children will live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. Every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. We will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. Then we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day. And if Bangladesh is to be a great nation, this must become true. So let freedom ring from the North to South and from East to West, from every hill, mountainside and molehill of Bangladesh.  And when this happens, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God’s creation, poor men and rich men, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the human spiritual.

Folk Music

Folk music consists of ancient songs and music from the heart of a community based on their natural style of expression uninfluenced by the rules of classical music and modern popular songs. Folk music has great variety, with songs being composed on the culture, festivals, views of life, natural beauty, rivers and rural and riverine life. These songs are also about social inequality and poverty, about the material world and the supernatural. Mystical songs have been composed using the metaphors of rivers and boats. Since the country is basically riverine, the Bhatiyali forms an important genre of folk music. Some notable folk singers like Shiraj Saiah, Lalon shah, Shah Abdul Karim, Hasan Raja, Abbas Uddin‚ Abdul Alim and Radha Roman have made the folk musk popular among the people of Bangladesh. Bangladeshi folk music varies from region to region. Thus there are the northern Bhawaiya, the eastern Bhatiyali and the southwestern Baul songs. Folk songs sung individually include Baul, Bhatiyali, Murshidi and Marfati, while songs sung in chorus include Kabigan, Leto, Alkap and Gambhira. Tribes like the Santal, Garo, Hajong, Chakma, Manipuri, Tripuri, Marma etc. have interacted with ethnic Bengali culture and lifestyle over the years. Some songs are regional in character, but others are common to both Bangladesh and West Bengal. Similarly, some songs belong distinctively to one religious community, Hindu or Muslim; others cross religious boundaries. Some songs belong exclusively to men, others to women, while some are sung by both men and women. Thus only women compose and sing Bratagan and Meyeli Git, but both men and women participate in the ‘’roof-beating’’ songs that are sung while beating down and firming rooftops.



A craftwork is an applied form of art, a social and cultural product reflecting the inclusive nature of folk imagination. It, which usually doesnt bear the signature of its maker, retains a personal touch. It is shaped by the interaction of individual creativity and community aesthetics, utility functions and human values. It is distinguished by its makers desire to locate himself or herself in the wider and ever-changing cultural aspirations of the community, and subsequently of the market. Certain forms, shapes, styles and aesthetic preferences change little over time, suggesting that a craftwork can function as a stable signifier of community values and desires over time. Mechanical and mass production take away this feeling of assurance and stability and the sense of continuity that the handmade craftwork evokes. Traditionalists contend that the society needs to preserve the authenticity and naturalness of craftworks and their association with domesticity and environment; and, on the other, promoters of machine production argue that the machine has helped restore the appeal of the crafts due to their cheaper production costs. Crafts that are disappearing can and should be revived, even where the machine has made the prospect difficult. And crafts that are still practiced can be safeguarded and made to consolidate their position further. This can be done by providing grants, loans, assistance and other support to the producers, and helping them find a comfortable customer base. But more importantly, craftwork can be branded and successfully marketed throughout the country and beyond as there are always buyers and users of handmade products who feel a strong attraction towards such cultural productes.



Internet is a network of computer systems that have been connected to each other using standard communication protocols. Internet gives access to a large volume of precious and useful information provided by both Government and private organizations. It has given the most exciting mode of communications to all the e-mail. The data cost of internet for sending an E-mail is very low. Further, Internet can be used to collect information from various websites on different subjects. This information could relate to education, medicines, literature, software, computers, business, entertainment, friendship and leisure. Internet is also used for carrying out business operations and that set of operations is known as Electronic Commerce. All the newspapers, magazines and journals of the world are available on Internet. Many students are communicating with their teachers, libraries and among themselves with the help of Internet in the shortest possible time. Those days are not so far when boy student will have access to Internet and take its maximum benefits. The possibilities an Internet are endless. The advantages of Internet are low cost, large volumes of information, high speed of access and good quality of entertainment. Its disadvantage is that people often waste time while surfing through various websites on Internet. Some web sites are not suitable for children, for example, violence and sex related sites. The new century has ushered into a new era of Information Technology and Internet is the backbone of this modern era. Though it has few disadvantages, we cannot think a moment without internet.


Scientific Achievements

The amazing scientific advances humankind has made in a relatively short period of time have been nothing short of extraordinary. Implanting a person with an artificial heart was an extraordinary step towards the development of heart transplant surgery. Cell phone that is useful and spreads so fast has to be considered one of the greatest inventions of all time. Now people from street vendors to business executives in luxury cars, and from villagers to urbanites use cell phones. Today, we have computer that allows us to access the Internet, do word processing, use a calculator, watch TV, play games and do a host of other things. Today, we use satellites for GPS, TV, radio, weather tracking, military surveillance, space exploration and global communications, among other things. Putting a man on the moon is perhaps mans most inspiring accomplishment; it opened the door to future space travel and led to a number of spin-off inventions including flame resistant textiles used by firefighters, invisible braces, improved satellite dishes, and better medical imaging. The ARPANET, The first Internet, was invented in 1969 and the public only had access to the World Wide Web starting in 1993. The web has revolutionized the dissemination of information, created a new multi-trillion dollar economic phenomenon, played a role in revolutions, and has interconnected much of the globe. Incredible advances in microchips have made it possible for them to be cheaply and efficiently used for calculators, personal computers, pet identification, automatic teller machines, satellites, pacemakers, cell phones, and microwave ovens among many other products.


7 March 1971 historic speech

The 7 March Speech of Bangabandhu was a speech given by Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the founding father of Bangladesh on 7 March 1971 at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka to a gathering of over two million people. It was delivered during a period of escalating tensions between East Pakistan and the powerful political and military establishment of West Pakistan. He announced a civil disobedience movement in the province, calling for every house to turn into a fortress. The speech inspired the Bengali people to prepare for a war of independence amid widespread reports of armed mobilisation by West Pakistan. The Bangladesh Liberation War began 18 days later, when the Pakistan Army launched Operation Searchlight against Bengali civilians, intelligentsia, students, politicians, and armed personnel. On 30 October 2017, UNESCO added the speech in its the Memory of the World Register as a “documentary heritage”. This day highlighted on the necessity of permanent solution for the long-repressed people. Besides, it solidified and justified the stance of Bengal to go for fight to ensure independence. It won’t be exaggeration to say that the very directives motivations and final determination of that day made it possible to see the golden sun of independence. Thus, as a memorable day, it takes permanent place in the history of Bangladesh. This speech will continue to rekindle the Bangali nation with a spark of fire, show the path of realizing the mundane truths and provide political direction to emancipation of us.

Information Technology

Information technology is that technology by which the information is processed, communicated, exhibited and retrieved in a fast, error-free and proper-way. It means the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers, telephone, television, fax, telex, internet, e-mail, photocopier, printer, scanner, cellular phones, pagers, videophone, digital camera, multimedia, etc. for storing and analyzing information. There is hardly any area which had not been affected by this. Television can not only send message but also telecast live moving events, cinemas, dramas, music, dance and many other entertaining programmes. Wireless or radio can transmit information in a second from one place to another. There is no information but is available in the internet. Various social networking services such as face book, twitter, LinkedIn etc are rendering their services only by means of the internet. The bond of brotherhood and friendship is being built up among the world people. In supermarkets it helps for faster processing of films. In the field of agriculture, a digital moisture meter records the moisture in the soil and tells when harvesting should start. For people, who are suffering from hearing loss, digits technology is of great help. It processes sounds that reduce noise, improves clarity of speech and controls unwanted loudness. The present concept of globalization is completely void and nothing without information technology. But it is not free from demerits. Social and anti-social movement, hijacking, fraudulence and many other crimes can take place for the misuse of it. So, all the world people irrespective of colour and creed should be aware of the demerits of information technology. The government of Bangladesh is very keen to achieve a great deal in the field of information technology. Now we can hope that we will become an information technology superpower in near future.


 War criminals

War criminals are those persons who literally engaged in mass-murder and stood with wrong side.  In 1971, our freedom fight took place.  Some  people  who are  Bangladeshi  by  birth  supported Pakistan  and  butchered  our  innocent  people. They were known as Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams.  We got independence after 9 month’s long bloody war.  In  that  battle,  30  lacks  of  our  brother  sacrificed  their lives  and  2  lacks  of  our  sisters  are  raped.  But,  it  is  considered  excessive  if  we compare  the  time  length  and  victim  numbers.  It  was  happened  because  some unethical  countrymen  of  ours  thought  about  their  own  benefits  over  our  beloved country.  They helped Pakistani Army to brutalise our innocent people.  But, no punishment was given until 2013.  Some war criminals fled abroad.  Abdul Kalam Azad who was sentenced to death is thought to be in Pakistan. Another, however, Abdul  Quader  Mollah,  the  assistant  secretary  general  of  a  Muslim  party  which collaborated  with  the  genocidaires,  the  Jamaat  e-Islami,  was  given  life imprisonment. But, general public of Bangladesh is not happy about that. The want all of the Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams to be executed. For this, they have arranged a protest at “Shabagh Chattor”. Later, it was named “Shadinota Prjonmo Chattor”. It’s new movement for our country. Young people have come forward to eradicate all  injustice  by  taking  inspiration  from  the  freedom  fighters  of  1971.  If  they continue  their  good  work,  Bangladesh  will  be  Rajakars,  Al-Badr,  Al-Shams-Free one day.


E – Learning

E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, streaming video, audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD or DVD-ROM and computer-based, as well as web-based learning. In e-learning every step such as, registration, admission, classroom entry and exit, class work, attendance, discussion with course mates, feedback, exams and finally certification must take place electronically through computer and the Internet technology in a virtual campus. It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education. Many people involved in e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a vehicle for reaching educational goals. Various technologies are used to facilitate e-learning. Most of the e-learning uses combinations of many techniques, including blogs, collaborative software, eportfolios, educational websites and virtual classrooms. E-Learning has become an important technique that educational as well as business institutions invest a great deal of money, time and effort in order to make use of it. E-Learning has proven to be the cheapest way to transmit knowledge to the largest number of people regardless of their location and their devices. Most of the existing e-Learning environments present some similarities and most educators need several tools to efficiently make use of e-Learning. In short, e-learning has helped people to learn about anything they want, anytime they want by using modern technologies and thus spreading knowledge all around the world.

Bangladeshi Culture

Culture is made up of all of its ideas, ways of behaving, working and playing. We, the Bangali, have an age old and traditional culture of our own. We have our own Language, dress, food habit , games and sports, music, art, literature etc. Our culture is a close knit, family oriented. We have a rich history and collection of folk songs in Bangladesh. Of them Palligiti, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya, Jari, Sari, Gambhira, Lalongiti, Palagaan and songs of Hason Raja are very popular. The traditional musical instruments like dotara, sarinda, bamboo flute, tabla are usually played with these songs. Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangladesh, followed by footballShalwar KameezShareekurtafatualungi are the main dresses. The ethnic people in Bangladesh hold a very important place in the culture of the country. They are mostly farmers. By religion they are Hindus, Christians or Buddhists. Nakshi kantha is a kind of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh. Our cuisine is rich and varied with the use of many spices. Panta ilish is a traditional platter of Panta bhat on the Pohela Boishakh. We have delicious and appetizing food, snacks, and sweets. The common ones are roshgulla, sandesh, rasamalai, gulap jamun, kal jamun and chom-chom. In a word, our culture is enriched in unique variety.



Bangladesh, a developing country, though holding quite a small area is flooded with uncountable problems. Among these, eve-teasing, recently has become the burning issue for the country because of its adverse effects on women, especially to the teenage girls. Eve teasing has remained a concern since many years. The practice of eve-teasing is a form of sexual assault that ranges in brutality from catcalls, sexually evocative remarks, brushing in public places and very recently teasing by mobile phone and mobile tracking. These teasers wait in front of girls’ schools and colleges and as soon as they cite the girls walk past them they start passing bad comments, dirty jokes, sly whistles, uncivilised laughter, and sometimes reaching the extreme of rude publicity. Due to the rise of eve-teasing in our country, parents and guardians are passing days in great anxiety for the safety of their children. The normal life of girls is being hampered due to its rapid increase. Strict enforcement of laws and motivational campaign can go a long way in reducing the incidence of the social menace. The government of Bangladesh has pursued a number of legal measures, both direct and indirect, to minimise the violence against women and uphold their rights. If we want to get rid of this practice we need to change our attitudes and engrave a self generated respect for women coming from our hearts.


Electronic mail, popularly known as ‘e-mail’, is the communication of textual messages via electronic means. E-mail is delivered to individual electronic mail boxes based in computers. In order to operate an e-mail system we need a personal computer, a modem and a telephone connection. An important advantage of e-mail is its ability to reduce the consumption of paper in the office. Internal memos and reports can be exchanged electronically without using paper. Being a computer-based messaging system, files prepared on computers can be instantly copied and easily exchanged as e-mail. E-mail turns out to be a cheaper alternative to telephone conversation and eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. E-mail permits communication between two parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously. Privacy is ensured as the mail is delivered to an individual’s mail box which can be accessed or opened only by the intended recipient. E-mail has brought about a revolution in modem communication. Messages can be transmitted from one country to another within seconds. E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten tmes faster than telex. Trade and commerce has become greatly dependent on this speedy mode of communication. It has, however, not reached every one, especially in developing countries like ours, as most people cannot afford to have a personal computer. But even here people have started using commercially operated e-mail facilities for important purposes.

Cultural Assault

Cultural assault means bad influence of foreign cultures on any native culture. Some cultures have profound impact on other cultures that might be harmful and then it will be a cultural assault.  In the present global world it is quite tough to impede this cultural aggression. With the development of hi-tech media, it has been very easy for a society to be infiltrated by alien cultures. Many of the cultural elements may be influenced in this way. Our Bangladeshi culture is mostly affected because of cultural assault of other countries. Our dress pattern especially for teenagers and young generation has altered a lot. Now people like pop song and band music sung in the western style and with western musical instruments. Besides, our eating habits are also being changed. Today many of us like to take fast food outside home using chopstick, fork etc. Now our young generations prefer celebration of 31 December to that of Pahela Baishakh. They never mind celebrating the Valentine’s Day. However, to get rid of the invasion of alien culture, we should be very much strict to exercise our own culture and flourish our cultural elements. We can rightly boast of an affluent cultural heritage. We have our own cultural traits and its identity. In addition to that, we have to accept miscellaneous alien cultures selectively, which will make our traditional culture more affluent.

Child trafficking

Child trafficking is a crime against humanity. Trafficking in persons is nothing short of modern-day slavery. It is, therefore, not only a problem for Bangladesh but rather it is a global problem. The most common forms of human trafficking in Bangladesh are, among others: trafficking for sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour and other forms of exploitation. Child trafficking is now considered one of the major concerns for Bangladesh. However, various studies reveal that over 1 million women and children have been trafficked out of the country in the last 30 years. A UNICEF report says that approximately 400 women and children in Bangladesh are victims of trafficking each month.  Both internal and cross-border trafficking exist in Bangladesh. In the case of internal trafficking, women and children are often taken away from their homes on false promises of a better life with good employment or by using various other criminal acts and means by the traffickers who sell them to brothels. It is mainly people from rural areas with minimal survival options and those who suffer the worst from discriminatory sociocultural practices who are lured or deceived with promises of a better life and more lucrative job opportunities in cities. At the cross-border level, victims are transported and transferred to destinations further away such as India, Pakistan and Middle Eastern countries, by using illegal acts and processes which culminate in the most corrosive forms of human rights violations and a life of unspeakable agony and torture.


Campus Violence

Education in our country is passing through a stage of crisis. Along with political unrest in the country, campus violence has become almost a daily affair. It appears that the students are there in our colleges and universities only to be engaged in violence throwing their main duty of learning something to dust. The impact of such violence is too many to be described. It may simply be said that Bangladesh is already educationally backward. The teachers are growing unconcerned about the welfare of the students. The students are growing to be more concerned about politics endless about their studies. They are gradually forming the habit of intolerance. The basic principles of democracy for which they are shouting are going to be slaughtered at their hands. The innocent students and guardians are becoming the worst sufferers. Campus violence not only ruins the academic environment but also spoils the life of the students and takes away many valuable lives. They have become puppets in the hands of the so called narrow minded politicians. The self centered narrow minded politicians exploit the innocent students and encourage them terrorism by supplying them with weapons. As campus violence is a demon and no one like to see it again, the government is also keen to make campuses violence free and making student activism a process of leadership building for future, people concerned want to see immediate steps from the government and elder politicians in this regards.



“Child labour” defines an extremely complex set of phenomena. It is undoubtedly one of the curses of new era. Poverty poses to be a great threat in Bangladesh. Their working in the hotels or in the garments, as a tempo helper or a tokai is really pathetic. Sometimes they are engaged in full time job from tender age like domestic servant, day-laborer. It may involve too much physical pressure such as brick clinker, railway porter. In many places, children are mentally and physically oppressed during their work. But a child has right to live and survive well. Being deprived of basic rights, a child cannot become a perfect man. We should ensure their good leaving. A child should be protected from all kinds of threats and oppressions. He has the right to get educated. We should encourage them to learn. We should also ensure a child’s health and hygiene. We should try to improve their physical and mental development. A child should not be forced into labor. We must not expect income from the children. The world community has to be more conscious about this. Child labor should be banned from the society as soon as possible for a better future of the country because one who is child today will be a perfect man tomorrow. All children should be given equal privileges to grow up in the interest of mankind itself.


Self-employment means to create job opportunity for oneself by one’s own effort rather than for another person or company. It is earning one’s livelihood directly from one’s own trade or business rather than as an employee of another. To be self- employed, an individual is normally highly skilled in a trade or has a niche product or service for his or her local community. With the creation of the Internet, the ability for an individual to become self- employed has increased dramatically. Self-employed people can also be referred to as a person who works for himself/herself instead of an employer, but drawing income from a trade or business that they operate personally. A business owner is not required to be hands-on with the day-to-day operations of his or her company, while a self- employed person has to utilize a very hands-on approach in order to survive. Policymakers increasingly view self-employment in the form of youth entrepreneurship as a possible solution to the youth unemployment crisis. In some countries, governments are cracking down on disguised employment, often described as the pretense of a contractual intra- business relationship to hide what is otherwise a simple employer-employee relationship. In Bangladesh, various government organizations are trying to create a congenial atmosphere for self-employment. Different NGO’s have also rendered their help. Livestock rearing, agricultural farming, poultry raising are some of the sectors. There are many opportunities for self-employment in Bangladesh. One can easily engage oneself in these jobs and bring about revolutionary change in one’s life.


Nuclear family

The nuclear family or elementary family is a term used to define a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children. I live in a nuclear family. Our family consists of four members such as my father and mother, my sister and myself. Nuclear family is getting popular nowadays because in such a family one can live according to one’s own will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family one may have much facility. He can enjoy his own life. He has no binding to anyone. The advantages of a nuclear family are stability, legacy, moral coding, skill building, shared responsibility, mutual support. The disadvantages of a nuclear family are that here he has to live alone. He has no companion to share his joys and sorrows. He feels lonely. I do not like it because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. In recent decades, this traditional form of the family has undergone major changes, with increasing rates of divorce leading to single-parent families, remarriages, resulting in extended families. These trends and the resulting problems that they cause, especially for the children, has brought the advantages of traditional nuclear families back into focus. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. But above all nowadays nuclear family is getting more popular.

A World Heritage Site

A World Heritage Site is a place of either cultural or physical significance. A place becomes a World Heritage Site when the international community recognizes it as possessing universal value. Then the responsibility for its preservation comes under an international collective body. The country possessing the site nominates it to the World Heritage Convention. And a 21-member international committee decides whether it has universal value. Some World Heritage Sites of the Bangladesh are the Mosque City of Bagerhat, the Sundarbans and Sompura Bihar at Paharpur. The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world, lies on the delta ( –দ্বীপ) of the Ganges (গঙ্গা), Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India. It is inscribed as World Heritage site in 1987. The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. Forest areas are dominated by a few species mostly Sundri and Gewu and patches of Nypa palm and several other of the 27 species of mangrove that are found in the Sundarbans. The area is known for its wide range of fauna (প্রাণিকুল), including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python. Each World Heritage Site is the property of the state on whose territory the site is located. But it is considered in the interest of international community to preserve each site.           


The necessity of education

Education is the process by which we can develop our mind through formal learning at an institution like school, college or university. It is one of the basic needs of human being. It is also essential for any kind of development. The purpose of education is to enlighten the individual and develop one’s capacity to the limit. It helps one to distinguish between right and wrong. It enables us to make the right choices in life and to perform our duties properly. It ennobles our mind and refines our sensibility. In this way education can certainly remove the darkness of ignorance. Besides, education broadens our outlook. It promotes humanity and universal brotherhood. Thus education promotes understanding among people of all climes. Education can be used as catalyst for a change for the better. Education provides us with the knowledge of health, sanitation and population control. It also enhances our ability to raise crops, increase industrial production, store food, protect the environment and carry out our social responsibilities. Thus education contributes enough towards a change for the better and its necessity can more be felt than described. It goes without saying that No Education, No Life! Just like food, water and air, education has become a basic necessity for everyone to survive in today’s world.

Women’s Contribution to Society

From the beginning of the world women have been contributing a lot to build the nation more strong and fruitful beside the male. Maledominated Bangladesh society undervalues women’s work by paying them less honour than men. It is not possible for any nation to get to goal without allowing women to play an active role. They were mere instruments to serve the family affairs. By working in the factory, a number of women in our country earn their livelihood and maintain not only their family but also contribute to the whole development of our country. There are also many women who are working in government and non-government offices with their professionals nowadays. In the field of education, medical science, culture, the government takes special care of women. At present in Bangladesh the Prime Minister and the main opposition party leader are women. They are now more conscious, serious and professional. They are getting educated as well as preparing themselves for competing with the male. The women are now enjoying their fundamental rights. But it is a matter of great regret that a number of women in both villages and towns in our country have to face a lot of social and religious bindings. But according to Islam both men and women should be given equal rights. Thinking women’s contribution to society, our national and rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam uttered, “What are great in this world, half has been done by woman half by man.”  So, we should change our notion and the government, the educated circle and NGO should come forward to establish the rights of the women so that they can actively take part in nation building.

Gender Disparity/ Discrimination

Gender disparity means gender discrimination or difference between male and female in the field of observing rights as a human being. It pervades severely both rural and urban communities in our country. Only boys are allowed to go to school, college and university to complete higher education and to do any job anywhere outside the home. Many girl students are deprived of getting educated both in towns and villages. Many parents love their sons more and always give them more facilities than their daughters. They usually think that educating a daughter is nothing but waste of time and money. After class seven or eight they think that they should marry their daughters off. Even many of the modern and educated families of our country do not think higher education for their daughters or sisters. They do not allow their daughters, sisters and wives to do a job outside the home. They are kept busy with maintaining different household chores and bringing up children. However, both males and females should be considered equal, should be given equal rights and facilities and should be exploited equally so that women can play a vital role in the development of the country like men. For this, we have to educate all females and have to change the mentality. We have to make them aware that women can do the same thing of men. Like men, women can change their lives by working with men and earning a lot of money. After all, government should take effective measures to diminish gender disparity for the development of the country. So, if we want our own betterment, we, both males and females, have to work together.

Microcredit finance

Microcredit, also called micro banking or microfinance, a means of extending credit, usually in the form of small loans with no collateral, to nontraditional borrowers such as the poor in rural areas. This approach was institutionalized in 1976 by Muhammad Yunus, an American-educated Bangladeshi economist who had observed that a significant percentage of the world’s population has been barred from acquiring the capital necessary to rise out of poverty. There are about 800 micro finance institutions in Bangladesh with a total membership of 7 million. The cumulative disbursement by these institutions since there is estimated at Tk. 44 billion. It is estimated that they have made employment of 54000 people. It has many positive effects on socio economic variables. Apart from providing loan to the rural woman it creates employment opportunities, eradicates poverty, and raises consciousness. It also emphasizes children’s schooling, nutrition and family planning. Borrowing by women particularly improved the nutritional status both male and female children. Consumption by 5 percent of the programme participants increased to the point that their households rose above the poverty line. These findings about the importance of micro credit in poverty reduction have been substantiated by other studies both in Bangladesh and in other countries. 


Globalization is, basically, a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a borderless market. The idea of Globalization came into practice only in the last decade thought the idea was age old. It has also a far-reaching effect on many aspects of life. The world has come closer with the development of hi-tech communication media and rapid transport facilities. We can learn instantly what is happening in the remotest corner of the world. We are also able to go to any country in the shortest possible time. This is how countries of the world are like families in a village. We can share our joys and sorrows like next door neighbors. Globalization also brings all types of different customs and behavior into our homes through satellite television channels and the Internet. Now, we can enrich our local culture through constant interaction of different cultures. But, along with this, the cultural assault can also be resisted by the strength of our own traditional social values, beliefs and attitudes. However, as a result of Globalization, capitalist countries are enjoying more opportunities by exploiting the poor countries. Globalization integrates global economy in a way which exerts influence on both economic and social relations among the countries of the world. If Globalization is imposed upon a properly educated and properly trained labour force in an appropriate system it will lead to development and progress. If the developed and developing nations work together on terms of solidarity, equity and justice the process of Globalization will make our world a better place to live in.

Social value

Social value refers to norms or forms of behavior that are widely acceptable and admirable in the society. It refers also to the life style that people think that they should adopt. In the past, honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, piety, fellow-feeling etc. were considered to be social values. Adopting unfair means in any walk of life for any reason whatsoever was regarded as evil. People tried to keep themselves away from all sorts of malpractices and misdeeds. Honesty is the best policy – This was the motto of people in general. The miscreants were in great disrepute in the society. They were hated by all and sundry. But it is a pity those social values are interpreted now the other way round. Now, the criminals are honored as heroes of the society. People feel frightened to speak against their evil deeds. The causes of the present social values are materialistic attitude of people in general. With a few exceptions, people now run after name, fame and fortune without giving any thought to right or wrong, good or evil, moral or immoral. The effects of social values in the present age are deplorable. The noble qualities are now in exile. Honest people are now pushed to the wall. The wrong doers are now held in high esteem because of their post, power and position. Social values which were honored and harbored by people in the past should be preserved by way of raising awareness in people by inculcating the habit of doing good deeds, maintaining moral scruples, detesting vices and corrupt practices.



A hartal day

Hartal mainly refers the act of total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience particularly in political protest. In modern strife torn state hartal has become a common affair. It is observed at the call of a political party to press their demand to the ruling political party. The opposition political parties observe hartal to protest against the corruption, misuse of power and the evil deeds of the ruling party. Sometimes students and people of a locality call hartal to express their demands. On a hartal day normal course of life is stopped. All means of transport and vehicles do not move on the roads. People are to take a lot of troubles to attend their offices. They go on foot as vehicles are not available. As a result the attendance is very negligible in the offices, factories, industries and shops. The economy of the country suffers a heavy loss. Mills, factories and industries stop their work. All the business centers, markets and shops remain closed. The supporters in favour of hartal bring out procession. Often clashes occur between the police and the picketers. Sometime clashes take place between the supporters of the opposition and the ruling political partical parties which result in some deaths. On a hartal day the suffering of the people know no bounds. Actually, it is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular or unacceptable decision.


 Female Education

Female education is very essential for the overall development of a nation. More or less half of the population of a country is female. Leaving the female uneducated and unemployed, no nation can prosper. That’s why female education has been a crying need of the day. Once women were confined within the four walls of the house and were used to doing only household chores. At that time, they were deprived of the light of education because of the prejudice, unconsciousness, superstition, social backwardness, prejudiced outlook, social barrier, obstacle by the fundamentalists and so on. But now it has changed a lot and women are getting educated gradually. But most of the women are lagging far behind in education. The rate of female literacy is alarming because without their education, our satisfactory development is impossible. Napoleon Bonaparte said, “Give me an educated mother and I will give you an educated nation”. From this line we can easily realize the importance of female education. Women need to be educated for different reasons. To be a conscious citizen of the country, to be an active member of the family and society, to be a good mother or wife and to lead a self-reliant better life, a woman should be educated properly. Besides, educated women have higher income potential than those who have had no schooling. Many people consider women inferior to men. But it is their wrong concept. Except the biological difference, a girl has every capacity to work and to achieve high position in life as a man can. An educated woman is conscious of her duties, rights and responsibilities. So, we should take every necessary step to ensure an environment to educate our female force. Parents ought to be encouraged to send their daughters to school. The govt. and NGO’s should patronize the education for girls in order that they can be educated and can play a vital role in the development of our country.


A street child/ Tokai

A street child is he who moves along the roads and has no definite place or house to live in. Sometimes he may not have mother or father or both. He lives beside the street or in a temporary hut either in a slum or in any deserted place of a town or city. Actually there is none to look after him. There is none to think of his education and future. Even if he has parents, they cannot afford to send him to schools and ensure his food and clothes. So, he is left on the mercy of others. This is a cruel joke of the society. The children of affluent families or some well-to-do families go to schools. They play in the school field and watch television for recreation or for learning. But a child living in the street does not have any definite future. He is deprived of all the basic needs of human life. He grows and matures with a sense of anger and revenge towards the society. This mentality leads him to take the path of crime and creates insecurity in the society. If the affluent people don’t take care of him, the ultimate results of the negligence they cannot avoid. So, it is the responsibility of all to give a serious importance to the fact. The social and welfare ministry of the state tries to arrange some education for the street children. But it is a gigantic task which calls for united efforts. When people belonging to all strata of society come forward, a street child will have a secure future.


Basic Human Rights

In the present civilized world everybody has some fundamental rights that are to get food, shelter, education, medical treatment etc. The basic human rights are divided into different categories like social rights, civil rights, political rights, economic rights, religious rights and cultural rights. Social rights mean the rights to move freely, to arrange and attend any social function. Civil rights refer to the rights to be free from the interference, attack and disturbance of others. Political rights mean the rights to join trade union, to take part in the administration, to give vote and to have the freedom of speech including freedom of expression of opinions. An inhabitant will also exercise the cultural rights, religious rights and economic rights. Moreover, people of different religions can independently say their respective prayers going to mosque, church, temple or pagoda, and perform other religious activities. Every person can possess properties, establish organizations, support others financially etc. all these are some examples of economic rights. All citizens are equal in the eye of law and justice. But in many countries of the world including Bangladesh basic human rights are being violated brutally. And this type of crime is usually committed by the law-enforcing agencies, miscreants and politicians. Definitely they should be punished for violating fundamental human rights. So, some pragmatic measures should be adopted by the govt. as well as by all leading NGO’s to raise consciousness among all people through different mass media like radio, television, cinema, newspaper, poster, internet etc. for the overall betterment of all.


Electronic mail or simply E-mail is very much popular now-a-days for its speedy transmission of information’s and cost effectiveness. Hence information provided by a sender is delivered asynchronously to a point where it can be retrieved and processed later on by one or more recipients of the sender’s choice. In an E-Mail system, there is a number and the sender keeps on dialing the desired number till he/she is successful. Once it is connected, the PC terminal of the sender sends the message to the PC terminal of the recipient at a very high speed. There is no need of any physical presence of both the sender and the receiver. The sender can enter the message and the receiver can retrieve it whenever he/she is free. The message will remain in PC’s memory. The transmission of messages is usually done through landlines or satellite communications or through marine cables. E-mail has lot of advantages to its credit. It is cost effective. Very less money is required In comparison to other transmission device. It is time saver. Within very short time messages can be sent. There is no need of presence of either the sender or the receiver. Once the message is entered into PC’s it will remain in the receiver PC’s memory.  E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten times faster than telex. There is the system of using password which each subscriber can choose to use. Hence E-mail gives security of message.


Facsimile, popularly known as fax, is a device that can send or receive a document, pictures and text over a telephone line. It is really a very wonderful machine which can transmit any document to another day machine located with in home or abroad in a very short time.  It looks like a calculator-cum telephone set. Almost all modems manufactured today are capable of sending and receiving fax data. Fax/modem software generates fax signals directly from disk files or the screen. Even if a document is text only, it is treated by the computer as a scanned image and is transmitted to the receiver as a bitmap. Faxing a message online works well if the recipient wants only to read the message. However, if the document requires editing, it must be converted into text by an OCR program, or it must be retyped manually into the computer. A more efficient method of sending documents that require modification is through the e-mail system. E-mail files are already ASCII text so they can be edited immediately in any text editor or word processing program. The Internet now provides a new and cheaper way to send faxes in some cases. A number of free and commercial companies provide arrangements for using the Internet rather than the public telephone system for most or part of the path to the fax point. Some services also provide the ability to broadcast a fax to multiple addresses. Nowadays being practically a time saving device, it has taken the place of teleprinter and is playing a vital role in international communication system.

Nuclear Family

A nuclear family or elementary family is a small group of people usually consisting of a pair of adults and their children. This type of family lives on its own, separate from other relatives. In fact, a nuclear family is based on the husband-wife relationship. Nowadays nuclear family is getting popularity because in such a family one can live according to one’s will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family, one may have much facility. One can enjoy his own life. One has no bindings to anyone. In short, the advantages of a nuclear family are stability, legacy, moral coding, skill building, shared responsibility, mutual support.The disadvantage of a nuclear family is that here one has to live alone. One has no companion to share one’s joy and sorrows. One feels lonely in such a family. Besides, it is difficult to take any crucial decision in a nuclear family and many of the decisions taken in a nuclear family may prove unwise afterwards. Personally, I do not like nuclear family because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. However, I live in an extended family that consists of six members-my grandfather and grandmother, my father and mother, my sister and myself. I am happy with living in an extended family.


Nuclear family

The nuclear family is a term used to define a family group consisting of and their children. I live in a nuclear family. Our family consists of four members such as my father and mother, my sister and myself. Nuclear family is getting popular nowadays because in such a family one can live according to one’s own will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family one may have much facility. He can enjoy his own life. He has no binding to anyone. The disadvantages of a nuclear family are that here he has to live alone. He has no companion to share his joys and sorrows. He feels lonely. I do not like it because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. In recent decades, this traditional form of the family has undergone major changes, with increasing rates of divorce leading to single-parent families, remarriages, resulting in extended families. These trends and the resulting problems that they cause, especially for the children, has brought the advantages of traditional nuclear families back into focus. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. But above all nowadays nuclear family is getting more popular.


Dowry System

Dowry means property or money brought by a bride to her husband when they get married. Nowadays the system of giving and taking dowry in marriage is more prevalent in Bangladesh. To eradicate this social evil, we should remain satisfied with mere laws and by-laws or enactment of some rules. Total change in the outlook of the society is the crying need at this moment. Young men and women must come forward to put an end to this disgraceful system. The political parties and government must match word with action. General inequality is a major cause of dowry. Improving women’s position in society would be an effective measure against dowry. The girl’s guardians must also be conscious about the issue. A girl should be brought up to be self-dependent. There is a tendency for the girl and the girl’s family to simply tolerate the oppression because of risk the marriage’s breaking up. The families must resort to legal action rather than encourage the girl to bear the oppression due to social shame and honour. Educated girls are also asked for dowry, but the poor illiterate girls have no alternative if abandoned by their husbands for dowry. Unfortunately in the rural areas, the daughters of poor farmers often study and work in order to earn enough money to pay dowry. The activists of all spheres against dowry must keep these factors in mind to eradicate dowry effectively.



Earthquake is the tremor caused either by volcanic eruptions or by sudden dislocation in the rock structure underneath. That Bangladesh lies in the active earthquake zone is not unknown to Bangladeshis. There are two schools of experts regarding earthquakes. One school comprising of engineers and geologists is of the view that the recurrence of quakes in recent years should be taken as a signal for a major earthquake. Another school comprising of similar categories of experts, however, believes that the concern should not be amplified, because although there arc a number of fault lines in the geographical area comprising Bangladesh, none of them is active enough to pose a major threat. Yet none of the schools rules out the possibility of a major quake and the dangers that might be associated with it. An earthquake causes unaccountable damage, and sometimes heavy destruction of life and property. During an earthquake, it is unsafe to remain inside a multi-storied house. It is better for the inmates of houses to come out in the open at the time of an earthquake. In Japan, an earthquake is a common phenomenon. It takes place frequently than in other coun­tries in the world. In Bangladesh, earthquake is, however, felt from time to time in mild form in different parts of the country. Alarmed by the recurrence of quakes during recent years, experts have called for the development of an earthquake resistant building code that all buildings should follow as mandatory to reduce the losses.

Significance of the Shaheed Minar

Hamidur Rahman was the man who gave shape to the concept and design of the Shaheed Minar, by combining all the aspirations of Bengali identity and nationalism. When he was assigned to make the design, he was full of enthusiasm focussing on the language movement as the central concept. He experimented with basic horizontal and vertical forms to bring out the concept of Bengali solidarity and unity for their national identity. The vertical lines of his design provided the manifestations of inner strength. The four columns on both sides of the central structure reflect the balance and harmony of a united stand. The original design had included stained glass, with hundreds of eyes, through which the sunlight could pass. The marble floor was to reflect the moving shadows of the column in an unending process of revolt from dawn to dusk. In the basement of the Minar he had designed a grand fresco work of 1500 square feet, depicting the language movement. This was to be his masterpiece, again reflecting the theme of geometric horizontal and vertical motifs of unity and strength. Rahman was fully conscious of the tropical damp climate of Bangladesh and therefore worked out such materials for the Minar that would withstand the climate. He ensured that the columns be made of such mixture of iron rods and cement as to stand for centuries. Today the Shaheed Minar is a symbol of freedom, strength and unity. He is no more with us but we remember him with great admiration and pride for his remarkable design of the Central Shaheed Minar.


 Adopting unfair means in the examination

The adoption of unfair means in the examination means copying in the examination. It does not simply mean copying from books etc. Inside the hall, it includes any sort of malpractice in or outside the hall to succeed in the examination. It is one of the signs of other degenerating conditions existing in out society. Many students without preparing lessons waste their valuable time in gossiping, roaming, playing, travelling etc. As a result they are compelled to adopt unfair means in the hall. By adopting unfair means a student frustrates the very purpose of the examination. Merely committing to memory and vomiting it in the examination halls cannot determine the merit of a student. In order to solve copying in the examination the govt. has taken some preventive measures. First of all the govt. is trying to raise public awareness through mass media. Recently the government has enforced a law that if any student is found copying in the examination hall, she/he will be expelled from the examination hall. If any invigilator is found helping any examiner, legal action will be taken against her/him. Even if outsiders are found involved in helping any examiner in copying, they will also be punished. The government has interchanged the examination centers and formed invigilation teams to monitor the overall condition of the examination center. The very system of education should be changed. Above all the government, the teachers, the guardians, the students, the intellectuals, the politicians and all the conscious sections of the country should come forward to tackle the problem.


Duties of a Student Or, Students and Social Service

Students are the greatest force as well as the future leaders of a Country. They can build or destroy a nation. The primary duty of students is to acquire knowledge and to make themselves worthy citizens. It is needless to say that they get much time for merry making, playing, amusements, touring etc. apart from their routine life of study.Then they should pay attention to the welfare of the society. Students have no worries about earning their livelihood. They have strength and capacity. Students should go to the villages and serve the villagers during vacation. They can make the illiterate masses aware of their rights and duties. Hence the students can guide the people of digging canals or constructing educational institutions. Sympathy and fellow feeling should be imparted the students to do some noble works for the people. Students can co-operate with people on matters of public interest such as education, sanitation, trade and commerce. Students can participate in cleaning drains, ponds during the leisure hours. They can help people during natural calamities such as earth quake, flood, drought, cyclone by collecting funds from different sources. Students have a spirit to work but the guardians and, teacher should guide them in the right way. Student must be the servants of humanity. The aim of all true education is to teach a man how to live and lot others live. A student can learn this though social service. He gains experience, courage and confidence. Thus social service makes him fit for the greater world.    

Social value

Social values are the customs, belief, tastes, social, practices and norms, and attitudes of a particular social community. It refers to the attitude or code of conduct that an individual in certain society has to conform to. Social values determine course of social life of a person and regulate his of her life to a great extent. It is one’s commitment to social values that one cannot get involved in anti-social and criminal or notorious activities. Social values direct an individual to maintain social harmony, to conform to what is accepted majority of the society, and refrain him or her from doing such things those are destructive to social peace and order. In the past social values were very compact and rigid and every individual tried best to maintain or conform to that values. But now people are unconscious and sometimes callous to social values. Lust, greed for money and power, injustice and discrimination in society, excessive desire to achieve something illegally and unfairly, and desire for material gain are the causes of present degradation of social values. Violation and degradation of social values have adverse effects in the society. As we see around us that Younger don’t show any respect to their superiors, family ties breakdown, often a family disintegrates, children go astray, young people become drug addicted, or get involved in various anti-social and immoral activities. These are all signs of people’s loss of the sense of morality of ethics resulting from social degradation. We should be alert to preserve social values. To do so , we can develop social relationship among its members, keep an eye on our younger so that that they are not derailed , and not allow any such things to happen that destroy people’s morality and goad them to do unsocial and anti-social things.


Satellite Television Channels

Television channels broadcast by the use of satellite is called satellite TV channels. Television is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any live programme from the remotest part of the world. Television can display many programmes at a time. Satellite TV has added a new dimension in our oriented life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and articles. So we can easily collect educative information of agriculture, science and technology, politics, education, business, invention etc. Television helps us widespread the sight and outlook of the society. Coming to contact with the western societies, we are getting the opportunities to enrich our society and ourselves. But on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress-pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerns. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation. So, we all should be conscious of that.

Role of media

In general, “media” refers to various means of communication channels through which news, entertainment, educationdata, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapersmagazines, TV, radio, billboardsdirect mailtelephone, fax, and internet. In the world of today, media has become as necessary as food and clothing. It has played significant as well as influential role in strengthening the society and making the world a global village. Media is considered as “mirror” of the modern society. The purpose of the media is to inform people about current, new affairs and to tell about the latest gossip and fashion. It also helps to form opinions and make judgements regarding various issues. It has become one way of trading and marketing of products and prejudices. It keeps people updated and informed about what is happening around them and the world. Media can be considered as “watch dog” of political democracy. It serves to reduce the communication gap between the audience, viewers and the media world. For the sake of publicity and selling, important figures, their lifestyles are usually targeted. But unfortunately, media these days has become a commercialized sector. Media has had a bad effect on a generation, mainly because, teenagers and children are strongly influenced by media. The media affects people’s perspective. I believe, if the media identifies its responsibility and work sincerely and honestly, and then it can serve as a great force in building the nation.

Social network services

A social networking service is an online service provided to the public for social interaction between families, friends, and also for gaining new friends over the internet. The advantages of the Internet technology have made it possible to emerge a good number of web sites like Facebook, Google+, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. These services make it possible to connect people sharing interests and activities across the borders. They have made a lot for the users to feel that they really live in a global village. Social networks are expanding so fast because one can make use of them free, paying a very little to one’s Internet service provider. Secondly, one can make one’s personal profile public before the entire online community. It is like presenting oneself before the entire world. One can also look into other people’s profile if one is interested. It is simple and easy. Thirdly, social networks allow users to upload pictures, multimedia contents and modify the profile. Some like Facebook allow users to update their profiles. Fourthly, networks allow users to post blog entries. User profiles have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. Finally, there are privacy protection measures too. A user himself or herself decides over the number of visitors/ viewers, and what information should be shared with others. In short, the social network connects people with each other over the internet, along with businesses, educational institutions, health, and religious organizations all over the world.

Digital Bangladesh

Digital Bangladesh means digitalizing Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line. Here all the possible tasks of government or semi-government will be performed using digital technology. The motto of digital Bangladesh is to establish technology based digital governance, e-commerce, e-agriculture, e-production, e-education etc. The benefits of digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a digital Bangladesh, corruption will be reduced radically.  It will make people think globally and connect them with the whole world economically, socially, politically, academically and even culturally.  It will improve our banking and financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce – all these sections will be highly benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. To make our country digital first of all, uninterrupted power supply has to be ensured and we have to develop computer network skill and ensure equitable access. Finally, our education should be computer based and in primary and secondary schools students should get easy access to the computer.   Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital transmission. We will be able to buy and sell goods through the electronic screen if we can make a Digital Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, encouraging development towards digitalization of Bangladesh by 2021 can be possible. The ambitious dream for a Digital Bangladesh will remain a dream if the government can not equip the people with the technology needed for establishing the digital era.     


Dhaka International Trade Fair

An export or an international trade fair is a large gathering of international nature for the display of industrial goods to the foreign buyers to get them acquainted with the exportable items of a country. Dhaka International Trade Fair , organized by the Export Promotion Bureau together with the Ministry of Commerce of the Government of Bangladesh, has been held annually at Sher-E-Bangla Nagar in Dhaka on the west side of Bangabandhu International Conference Centre since its inaugural fair in December 1995.  It is open everyday from 10 am to 10 pm and is held from the first week of January to the first week of February every year. The local producer in the remote areas of rural Bangladesh who does not have financial strength to participate in International trade fair will have the opportunity to display their products to the buyer from abroad at this fair. Besides, there are country specific foreign sections at the fair, which has nearly seven hundred mini-stalls, general stalls, premium stalls, mini-pavilions and mega-pavilions. Various food stalls offer local and foreign items to customers wishing to take a break from walking around. The visitors are drawn to the numerous attractive discounts, special offers, introductory prices, gifts and lotteries. The last seven days see hectic buying with very large crowds during holidays and especially during weekends, which are Fridays and Saturdays in Bangladesh. Besides, the participants will be able to identify business contacts with prospect of entering into subsequent business negotiation. International trade fair is very much useful for developing trade of our countries and it should be held every year to encourage the importers form countries to import goods from our country. Thus it will widen scope for the sale of industrial goods and will thereby create market for our exportable good.


Peace Movement

A peace movement, a social movement and anti-war movement, seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war, minimize inter-human violence, including ban of guns. It is primarily characterized by a belief that human beings should not wage war on each other or engage in violent conflicts over language, race, natural resources, religion or ideology. It is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace, advocacy of pacifism, non-violent resistance, diplomacy, boycotts, demonstrations, peace camps; supporting anti-war political candidates, creating open government, direct democracy; supporting people who expose war-crimes or conspiracies to create wars, and making laws. Different organizations involved in peace movements may have some diverse goals, but one common goal is sustainability of peace. The peace movement tends to oppose the proliferation of dangerous technologies and weapons of mass destruction. The first peace movement appeared in 1815-1816. The first such movement in the United States was the New York Peace Society, founded in 1815 by the theologian David Low Dodge, and the Massachusetts Peace Society. Afterwards, peace organizations were set up in many countries. The United Nations was founded with the primary objective to maintain peace and resolve inter-state conflicts in the world. Many treaties have been signed between many nations, a noteworthy one of which is the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. Everyone wants peace and likes the principles of non-violence.


Reckless Driving

Reckless driving is often defined as a mental state in which the driver displays a wanton disregard for the rules of the road; the driver misjudges common driving procedures, often causing wrecks, accidents and other damages. All road safety measures using the prevention of road accidents and road safety defend. While traveling on the road, it is to save people. These are all people who use the street as a pedestrian for safe, two-wheel, four-wheel, multi-wheeler and other vehicles used for abusers. Of all people throughout their entire lives to follow road safety measures is very good and safe. All the time while driving or walking should respect others and must care for their safety. Plain road, avoid injury and death is one of the very important aspects of road safety. Complete information about accidents and deaths on national statistical data, we can evaluate the importance of road safety. Approximately 42% of the pedestrians use one-way street. Many ways to create awareness among the general public, such as seminars, workshops, courses, students in basic road safety education by adding text, wait, see, listen, think and then cross the Green Cross Code of the People made aware, learn the traffic lights, road signs, etc. To avoid problems following the road all road safety measures help a lot. Some of the most effective road safety measures, such as basic information about the vehicle, according to weather and road conditions, defensive driving, vehicle using lights and horn, seat belt wear, correct use of the vehicle windshield, to avoid over-speed, roadway lights understanding, keep distance from other vehicles on the road, proper handling of trouble understanding, awareness documentary broadcast on TV.