For all classes

For all Classes

Water pollution

Water, an important element of human environment, is essential for human and plant life. It is next to air. Water can be polluted in many ways. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their fields to grow more food. The rain and floods wash away some of the chemicals. They get mixed with river water, canal water and pond water. Mills and factories pollute water by throwing the waste and even sail boats can pollute water by throwing oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers and canals. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside standing on the banks of the rivers and canals also pollute water. The unsafe drains running into the rivers and canals cause water pollution. Water pollution from industrial discharge, the industrial disposal of toxic chemicals and the dumping of human waste into rivers and canals causes poisoning and water-borne disease such as cholera and diarrhea. Clean water is safe for use and polluted water is harmful for man. Water pollution can be prevented in many ways. First of all, we should make the people aware of the fact that water is next to air. It is called life. Mills and factories should not throw the waste materials and unsold products into rivers and canals. Steamer, motor launches and even sail boats should not throw oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers and canals. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside should not be built on the banks of the rivers and canals. In fine, awareness should be created in the public.

 

Tree Plantation 

Tree plantation is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purpose. Trees are useful to us in various ways. They are also a great source of food, vitamins and furniture and they help to prevent drought and floods. Trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel or timber, while cleared land is used for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. This destruction disturbs our ecological balance. It leads to soil erosion and deprives us of fruit and timber and causes economic loss. Trees play a pivotal role in maintaining ecological balance. Trees produce oxygen and receive carbon dioxide. In absence of trees carbon dioxide is increasing worldwide. As a result there is global warming. The sea level is rising. Any time in future the earth may be engulfed by seas. So, we have to realize the bad effects of deforestation. In fact, if deforestation goes on, our country will be changed into a desert. The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. So, we have to educate our common people and to persuade them to abstain from cutting down trees. We should create awareness among the general people about the evils of destroying forests and motivate them to plant more and more trees. Otherwise the forests of our country will slowly disappear and we will be in great miseries. So, every man and woman should plant at least a tree every year.

My Favourite Personality

My best personality of the world, Hazrat Muhammad (S.M), is the last prophet of Allah and the leader of all prophets. He is the greatest of man and teachers ever born of earths. He is the embodiment of all that is noble, pure and good. The prophet Hazrat Muhammad (s.m) was born in the famous Quraish tribe of Mecca in 570 A.D. Before his birth, his father Abdullah died and his mother Amina died when he was only six. So in his infancy he became an orphan who was brought up by a nurse named Halima. He was handsome, of medium height, very active, walked rapidly which forced his companions to race to keep up with him. People reported seeing light around his body and in his face, which they compared to the sun or the full moon. His skin was white and turned rosy from exposure to the sun. He had black eyes and a thick beard. Everybody believed him and called Al-Amen or the trusty one. The prophet taught the people the virtue of forgiveness. He advised them to do well to others and worship Allah. The Qur’an was revealed to him by Allah and the Hadith which contains his sayings taught the Muslims many noble virtues. He always thought about the evils of Arab life which was dirty and barbering killing, robbery, injustice and barbarism prevailed everywhere in Arab. This great and noble soul passed away in 632 A.D. at the age of 63. But his work and teachings remain and will be followed as long as the world lasts. He made Muslims brothers of one another, built a great nation and powerful state. At present one fifth of the people of the world are the followers of this great and noble prophet.

 Environmental pollution

Nature, air, water, land and all other things around us in which we live are called environment. Any unexpected and abnormal change in chemical, physical and biological characteristics in environment is called the environmental pollution. Now our environment is getting polluted every moment in many ways. In major cities and towns motor vehicles, mills and factories are creating fume and smoke. Man makes fires to cook food, to make bricks, to melt tar for road construction and to do many other things. Fires create smoke and pollute the air. Railway engines and powerhouses create smoke by burning coal and oil. Water, another vital element of the environment like air, is also polluted in many ways. Man pollutes water by throwing waste into it. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers, canals and seas. Chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds, and thus pollute water. Moreover, water vehicles, unsafe drains and unsanitary latrines are also responsible for water pollution. Forests and trees are being cut down on a large scale. So, the ecosystem of the environment is now in great danger. The noise of motor vehicles, mills and factories, aeroplanes, domestic appliances, radios, cassette players, CDs, televisions etc pollutes sound and it affects our hearing. Government and people of all classes should come forward to control this environmental pollution because it is necessary for our own existence.

Travelling

Travelling means going from one place to another in different purposes. Travellers always travel the most beautiful places of the world which uphold the existence of nature. There are many means to see the unseen and know the unknown, but travelling is the best of all. For example reading books gives us literary knowledge, listening story gives us indefinite ideas, but travelling gives us visual as well as concrete knowledge. Someone travels to gain knowledge and experience, someone travels for pleasure, someone travels for business purposes etc. There are different types of travelling like- travelling by air, bus, boat, train, bus etc. Every travelling has much educative value. It is a part of education. Our education and bookish knowledge remain imperfect without travelling. For this reason, we can learn many things by travelling. It teaches us trade and commerce, language, sociology, customs, culture, history, geography and so on. Therefore, the educative value of travelling beggars description. Besides, there are some special benefits of travelling. If a man stays at one place for a long time, he becomes monotonous and his life becomes boring and callous. Travelling removes our monotony and gives pleasure. Similarly, it also broadens our outlook and refreshes our mind. A good traveler can easily educate others. He can give us first-hand knowledge of men and matters of other country. I like travelling very much.

Importance of Games and Sports

Games and sports are important for success not in studies but in every walks of our life. Boys and girls may practice races, jumps, discuss throw and javelin throw and thus pass their afternoon in useful activities. They may play various games like footballcricket, hockey, volleyball, basket ball, badminton etc. The importance of games and sports can never be minimized. First of all, they are good exercises and help to make mentally alert and physically strong. Secondly, by displaying their feats before many spectators, one can overcome nervousness. Thirdly, they are good diversions and give energy to learn their lessons well. Fourthly, it gives the necessary break from the everyday monotonous life. Fifthly, games and sports help building a sense of cooperation and team-spirit in an individual. When people of different nations get together on the occasion of an international sporting event, they come closer to each other, sharing views, opinions and friendship. Therefore, we learn to socialize and strengthen international brotherhood through games and sports. For these reasons, every civilized nation values the importance of games and sports and spends large sum of money on improving the standard of games and sports. However, games should be played for the sake of enjoyment, pleasure and recreation. If played in the right spirit, games become an important part of life – a better and healthy life.

Begum Rokeya

Begum Rokeya was a famous writer, a social worker, feminist and a social worker in undivided Bengal in the early 20th century. She is most famous for her efforts on behalf of gender equality and other social issues. She was born in 1880 in the village of Pairabondh, Rangpur. Her father, Jahiruddin Muhammad Abu Ali Haidar Saber, was a highly educated landlord. She had two sisters and three brothers. Rokeya’s eldest brother and elder sister had great influence on her life. She learnt Bangla and English from her eldest brother Ibrahim. She believed that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men have in the society. So she fought for their cause throughout her life. In 1896 she was married to Khan Bahadur Sakhawat Hussain who was the Deputy Magistrate. He was very cooperative, and always encouraged Rokeya to go on with her activities. Rokeya had great love for her mother tongue. She launched her literary career in 1902 with a Bangla story entitled Pipasa (Thirst). Her famous novels are Sultana’s Dream (1905), Motichur (1908), Padmaraga (1924) and Oborodhbashini (1928). Rokeya established Sakhawat Memorial Girls’ High School. It started in Bhagalpur, a traditionally Urdu-speaking area, with only five students. She also founded Islamic Women’s Association. In her life, she remained busy with the school, the association, and her writings for the rest of her life. She died of heart problems on December 9, 1932. The date of her death, 9 December, is now commemorated as ‘Rokeya Day’ in Bangladesh.

Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. It is a very good habit which is very much essential for sound health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. Once one gets into the habit of rising early, one is able to set a routine and that obviously leads to better productivity both at work and home. The man who rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air refreshes both body and mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning.  All these make them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works earlier. He had nothing to worry. He can earn more and become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. So, all of us should adopt a healthier way of living and reap those benefits.

Leisure/Leisure Pursuit/Pastime

Leisure is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. The monotonous working hours of a hectic and busy life load their brains with tiredness and stress. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized or recharged. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Most of the people of Bangladesh pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games, reading for exams, listening to music, visiting relatives on weekends, attending music lessons, going to movies occasionally, helping parents with housework, going on a picnic with family or friends, walking in the park on holidays are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.  

The Selfish Giant

Once there was a selfish giant who had a very beautiful garden in front of his place with soft green grass, beautiful flowers, fruit trees etc. He went to his friend in a distant land and stayed with them for seven years. In the meantime every afternoon children came back from school and used to go and play in the Giant’s garden. One day when the giant came back, he saw the children playing freely in his garden. This made him seriously angry and he drove them away. He built a huge wall round the garden to stop entrance into it. So the children could not play. Then the garden became lifeless without any flower or bird. Though it was the season of spring, winter prevailed in the garden. The giant found no trace of spring in his garden. Then one day he could hear the chirping of birds and looked out of the window. He saw that children were playing in the garden. It was full of flowers and birds. He come out of his castle into the garden and seeing him coming, the children ran away. At once the garden became lifeless again with cold. He could realize the matter and felt sad. Then he allowed them to enter into it and play freely. The garden immediately regained its life with flowers leave. From that time the giant and the children become close friends.

 

My First Day at School

The day a student goes to school for the first time in life is called first day at school. Human life is the collection of some forgettable as well as memorable events. My first day school is an event which will remain ever fresh in my heart. When my parents declared the news of my schooling, I became very much excited and started leaping and dancing in great joy. I was always thinking about the school, the teachers, and the students of the school. I couldn’t even sleep at night. The next morning my mother woke me up early in the morning. I had a bath and put on my best clothes. Having breakfast, my father and I started walking towards the school. After reaching school, I saw many students on the school campus playing and talking to each other. My father took me to the headmaster’s room. My heart beat fast. But his smiling face and gentle words put me at ease.  As I could answer all of his questions, he became pleased. He called in a teacher and sent me to my class with her. My classmates received me very cordially and made friendship with me within a short time. The school broke up at 2 pm. My father again came and took me home. I left the school with a cheerful mind. That day was very remarkable in my life.

 

 A Good Teacher/An Ideal Teacher

A man or woman, who teaches the students to discover hidden treasures in any educational institutions, is called a teacher. He is a friend, philosopher and a guide to the students. Generally a teacher is judged whether he is good or bad according to the temperament of the students. But an ideal teacher must have some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. He who knows the art of teaching, is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. An ideal teacher treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistakes, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his students realise his mistake. An ideal teacher is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He influences young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school.

 

 The Importance of Using Dictionary

A dictionary is a book or electronic resource that lists the words of a language alphabetically, gives their meaning, provides information about pronunciation, origin, and usage. Dictionaries are very important books in the life of a student as it can be both a teacher and a good friend. It lists the words in a language alphabetically so that the reader may find them easily. A dictionary entry gives us the accepted spelling of a word, its division into syllable, its pronunciation, its origins along with its meanings. It informs what part of speech does a certain word belong. Sometimes a dictionary also provides synonyms, or opposites of a word. In addition, if the word is a noun that describes a visible thing, the dictionary may provide a picture of it. In this connection, it guides us in writing words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs. Sometimes examples sentences are also provided. When one wants to use the word and does not know where to put the word, one can look example sentences. However, searching words by using a dictionary takes a lot of time. Using a talking dictionary, words can be searched immediately. We can find some words in a few minute. To sum up, a dictionary does a great help for everyone, especially students who are learning a language and who are interested in language learning to explore new words and enrich vocabulary.

 

 

My Best Friend

A good friend might be someone who’s there to provide support when times are tough, or someone you can rely on to celebrate a special moment. I have a very good friend who really has loyalty and with whom I can share all feelings. My best friend, X is very punctual, obedient, tolerant, leadership in nature, tall, fair in complexion, smart, broadminded, co-operative and respectful. He lives with me as my neighbour in the same colony. We met each other in the nursery class on the very first day. We sit together in the classroom and share everything very happily without any problem. He is very good in studies and behaves well with everyone. He does his class work and homework very attentively. We share our Tiffin in the lunch time. Many things of us like hobbies, likes, dislikes, etc are similar. We love to listen music, watching cartoons and playing carom at home. We take care of each other in the school and playground. We share school copies and help each other whenever one of us remain absent in the school. We love drawing sceneries and arts in our spare time. We go at tour and picnic with our parents together in every winter and summer vacation. I am really proud of him.

 

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

A visit to the historical interest

Man is not satisfied with what he has seen and known. He wants to see more and know more. He wants to get flavor of the historical places, so whenever I get an opportunity, I visit a place of historical interest. I got such an opportunity to visit Bagerhat, a great historical place in Bangladesh. The Mazar of Khan Jahan Ali is a fine one storied building. It has a beautiful dome. Hazrat Khan Jahan Ali was buried there. The tomb is made of cut of stones. It can not be accurately said where from these were brought. It is said that Pir Khan Jahan Brought these fromchittagong by flotting on water, on the tomb there are inscription in Arabic. An inscription says that he died on 25th October 1459. There is a small mosque nearby. A close associate of Khan Jahan Ali was buried outside the tomb. On the night of the full moon of the Bangla Month Chaitra a big fair is held beside the Mazar. Many people attend the fair. There is a big tank in front of the Mazar, the local people call it the Dighi of Khan Jahan Ali. There are some crocodiles in the big tank. They come near fakirs call them and give them something to eat. I saw the Dighi with my own eyes and derived much pleasure. It is a big and beautiful building which is beautifully decorated. It is said that it was used both as a mosque and the court by Pir Khan Jahan. The mosque has great attraction for the tourists and visitors. Bageraht is really a place of historical interest. I shall never forget this visit. It is a wonderful experience that I have ever achieved.

 

 

A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

River gypsies

River gypsies, known as bedey to local people, are one of the ethnic groups in Bangladesh. The gypsies have their own lifestyle and culture. They are used to live a nomadic life travelling from one place to another in small country boats. These boats are their houses. They are an integral part of our waters. Throughout the monsoon, they remain busy with both fishing and diving for natural pearls in waters. Sometimes, they camp for a couple of weeks. Men catch snakes and entertain people with snake charming and sell herbal cures. Women go from door to door to sell bangles, cosmetics and other things. They also try to heal pains of old people often by sucking out blood from their body. When many water bodies dry up in winter season, they return to the mainland and live in make-shift tarpaulin tents on open river banks. Their men can be seen relaxing in the tents. Women often pick off lice in twos or threes sitting in a row. Gypsy people are losing their customers due to the rapid urbanization process. Voting rights, permanent housing, mobile boat-schools and bank loan facilities should be offered to them to survive in the mainstream population.

 Nakshi Kantha

Nakshi kantha is a kind of embroidered quilt. The name ‘Nakshi kantha’ was derived from the Bengali word, ‘naksha’ which implies artistic pattern. It is a type of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The art has been practiced in pastoral areas of Bengal for centuries. The name ‘Nakshi kantha’ gained popularity after the poet Jasimuddin’s poem ‘Nakshi kanthar Math’ which was published in 1929. Traditional kanthas are made especially by the women for family use. Old or new cloth and thread are used to make these quilts. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Rajshahi, Faridpur, Bogra and Jessore are most famous for this craft. Now it is produced commercially. It can be found in many expensive handicraft shops in cities. Because of the colourful patterns and designs embroidered on them, the quilts are now in great demand. Finally, it goes without saying that “Nakshai Kantha” signifies a token of Bengali culture.

 

The wheel

A wheel is a circular object which can rotate around its axis and help easy movement of things across a surface. Although it is a very important invention, the history of its origin is unknown. Experts guess that the first wheel was developed from a circular object. The early man observed that a huge piece of stone could be rolled easily if it was circular in shape. Thus, early man took advantage of rolling objects and developed the first wheel. Apart from its mechanical advantage, a wheel’s mobility has contributed much to the civilisation.The wheels are, in fact, everywhere. They are on our cars, trains, planes, wagons and so on. Besides, they are on most factory and farm equipment. Fans, propellers, turbines are also other types of wheels. So the wheel is very important. They have brought great civilization to the world through this invention. Today we cannot imagine modern life without wheels.

 

 

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

 

A visit to the historical interest

Man is not satisfied with what he has seen and known. He wants to see more and know more. He wants to get flavor of the historical places, so whenever I get an opportunity, I visit a place of historical interest. I got such an opportunity to visit Bagerhat, a great historical place in Bangladesh. The Mazar of Khan Jahan Ali is a fine one storied building. It has a beautiful dome. Hazrat Khan Jahan Ali was buried there. The tomb is made of cut of stones. It can not be accurately said where from these were brought. It is said that Pir Khan Jahan Brought these fromchittagong by flotting on water, on the tomb there are inscription in Arabic. An inscription says that he died on 25th October 1459. There is a small mosque nearby. A close associate of Khan Jahan Ali was buried outside the tomb. On the night of the full moon of the Bangla Month Chaitra a big fair is held beside the Mazar. Many people attend the fair. There is a big tank in front of the Mazar, the local people call it the Dighi of Khan Jahan Ali. There are some crocodiles in the big tank. They come near fakirs call them and give them something to eat. I saw the Dighi with my own eyes and derived much pleasure. It is a big and beautiful building which is beautifully decorated. It is said that it was used both as a mosque and the court by Pir Khan Jahan. The mosque has great attraction for the tourists and visitors. Bageraht is really a place of historical interest. I shall never forget this visit. It is a wonderful experience that I have ever achieved.

 

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

 

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A Rainy Day

On a rainy day it may rain heavily or slowly but continuously all day long. Torrential rains with coolness and rhythmic sounds, damp streets, fields, and houses, lively leaves and buds of trees are some of the enchanting characteristics of a rainy day. The sky is overcast with thick of black clouds and the sun remains hidden behind them. To save the flora and fauna of nature from the scorching heat of summer, rains come down on earth with a refreshing touch. Cars, buses, scooters and taxies are seen plying in knee deep water due to water logging. People with umbrellas or waterproofs are seen trudging along the muddy streets. If it rains heavily before school time, students get a holiday. People pass the day in listening to music, watching TV, reading novels. Those who have imaginary bent of mind enjoy the beauty of nature being drenched in rains. The peasantry welcomes the rainy day; for it helps them to resume the labors that the delay of the rain had interrupted. After the rain, the trees look fresh and green. Water Lily, Aparajita,  Kadam, Krishnachura are seen blooming in this time. Birds are chirping happily in the trees. Every pit and pond is full to the brim. Frogs croak on a far off village basin. The cattle keep standing in their sheds and bellow. Reaching home after the rain people feel refreshed both in mind and body. Despite all its disadvantages, I enjoy myself on this day. It brings some variety to our monotonous life.

 

 

A Railway/ Bus Station

 A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and depart from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. It has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, station master’s room and waiting rooms for passengers. The stationmaster, all in all in a station, is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. It generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. It is a thronged and noisy place; both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here. Some evil doers like beggars, thieves, swindlers and pickpockets often flock in the station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

A Road Accident

Among daily’s unfortunate occurrences, street accident is very common. Despite all efforts to prevent accident, it happens every day. Busy and narrow road, careless driving, it takes place very frequently. Day before yesterday a terrible accident took place just before my eyes. It occurred in front of Bangla College while I was going to the New Market. When I reached the college gate, suddenly I heard a scream of a boy who was trying to cross the Mirpur Road. He was run over by a speedy truck. When the truck was a few feet away from him, he got puzzled and ran backwards and forwards. The driver tried desperately to hold the break but failed. He was crushed under the wheels of the truck and his body was changed into a lump of flesh. The truck was stopped. The passers-by crowded there. The boy was taken up from the pool of blood. A gentleman offered his car to carry the boy to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In the evening I came to know that the boy had passed away on way to the hospital. I was greatly shocked at this incident. The truck along with the driver had been taken to police custody. But that horrible scene still haunts my mind. However, we all should always bear in mind that life is more valuable than time. Moreover, some proper steps should be taken and some strict rules should be introduced to stop street accidents. 

The life of a fisherman

A fisherman is a person who catches and sells fishes from various sources to maintain his life. Generally he lives in a village near a river or a sea. He is hard working and painstaking. He uses nets and boats in fishing. Some have nets but no boats. Some who have boats and nets, employ the boat less ones and work in a group. A fisherman is always at work. While at home, he repairs his boats or nets and paints his boats or dyes his nets. He catches fish in the seas, rivers, haors, beels and ponds. His women-folk make new nets; his children dry fishes in the sun and sell them in the market. The life of a fisherman is very risky and challenging because there may have storms and cyclones at any time. Some fishermen go to fish at night; some go to fish in the deep water or in the sea from home for many days. If he can not earn a day, his family is to starve. He feels happy when he earns the needful amount. After all a fisherman does much good to us by supplying fishes. In spite of being hard working, he can hardly make both ends meet. Government should take some pragmatic steps for the development of minimum standard of their livelihood.

A Tea Stall

A tea stall is a small shop where tea and other things are sold for the passers-by. It is a common place to all classes of people. It is usually found at the turn of the road, bus stands, railway stations, Bazar or even beside an office where the common people are available. It opens early in the morning and closes at late night. Biscuits, bread, banas, betal leaf and different kinds of handmade snacks are available there. A tea stall is furnished with some benches and tables. An ordinary tea stall is dirty. A boy is employed in a tea stall to serve the people. Sometimes, the owner himself serves as the boy and the cashier. People who come to a tea stall usually do not leave it immediately after taking a cup of tea. People refresh themselves with a cup of tea in a tea stall. It is also a place where social disputes are settled. They mainly talk about politics, local events and current affairs. This is why it is called a Mini Sangsad. Intact, tea stall is now –a-days an important place of social gathering and at the same time a place of charm for the common people. So a tea stall occupies an important place in our day-to-day life.

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

Mobile/ Cell Phone

Mobile phone is such a cordless phone by which people can communicate with others immediately. It is a telephone system that works without any wire. Today, mobile phone has become popular to everybody since it is very convenient. For instance, one can contact easily to anyone by calling or sending messages everywhere. Specially, businessman and the service holders are much benefited through the use of mobile phone. But it is also useful for the people who are shopping and supplying valuable information sitting in their houses. Moreover, one can relax with mobile phone’s applications, for example, play games, listen to music, or chat with your friends. A mobile phone in one’s hand can solve many issues and hold most of information around the world. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages. Using a lot mobile phone can harm your brain. If you use mobile phones too much, you will get bad effects like dizzy, blood-brain barrier, or ears problems. Terrorists are using it to spread out terrorism all around the world. In addition, when you use mobile phones while you are driving, you will get an accident. Moreover, “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum”, has proved by many scientist. But in spite of all these disadvantages, it can be finalized here that the necessity of a mobile phone in exchanging messages, cannot be denied in the true sense of the term in our practical life.

 

 

 

 

Adopting unfair means in the examination

The adoption of unfair means in the examination means copying in the examination. It does not simply mean copying from books etc. Inside the hall, it includes any sort of malpractice in or outside the hall to succeed in the examination. It is one of the signs of other degenerating conditions existing in out society. Many students without preparing lessons waste their valuable time in gossiping, roaming, playing, travelling etc. As a result they are compelled to adopt unfair means in the hall. By adopting unfair means a student frustrates the very purpose of the examination. Merely committing to memory and vomiting it in the examination halls cannot determine the merit of a student. In order to solve copying in the examination the govt. has taken some preventive measures. First of all the govt. is trying to raise public awareness through mass media. Recently the government has enforced a law that if any student is found copying in the examination hall, she/he will be expelled from the examination hall. If any invigilator is found helping any examiner, legal action will be taken against her/him. Even if outsiders are found involved in helping any examiner in copying, they will also be punished. The government has interchanged the examination centers and formed invigilation teams to monitor the overall condition of the examination center. The very system of education should be changed. Above all the government, the teachers, the guardians, the students, the intellectuals, the politicians and all the conscious sections of the country should come forward to tackle the problem.

 

Eve-teasing

Eve teasing means molestation or exciting young girls sexually by making indecent remarks or vulgar comments on them. It usually starts with winking eyes and making obscene gestures and may go to the extent of physical assault and harassment. Generally school and college-going girls become victims of eve teasing. It is a matter where boys use bad language to the girls who silently hate them without taking any kind of revenge. In naturally his violations reach the girls to suicide. For removing it forever from the society everybody should careful about it. Everybody should behave each other like brother and sister. Here religion rules can contribute a lot. If anybody makes this again they should be punished for their deeds. And we should take immediate action to them if any body makes this violations. Boys who see their fathers treating their mothers with respect will automatically grow into men who think likewise. Boys and girls should be allowed to mingle freely so that they learn to respect each other’s individuality. Men need to realize that every woman is some mans wife, or daughter, or sister, or mother; and must be treated with the same respect, they would accord their own. Eve teasing is a social crime and it should be prevented at any cost. The law-enforcing authorities should deal severely with the eve teasers. People’s conscience and consciousness must also be aroused to stop this nuisance.

 Victory Day of Bangladesh

Victory means the rebuilt of self-immolation of 30 lacs people. The 16th December is the victory Day of Bangladesh. This day reminds us of the supreme sacrifice of our freedom fighters who will ever shine in our hearts like the luminous stars in the sky. It is a red letter day in our national calendar of Bangladesh. In 1971, Bangladesh discloses herself as a new country and gets a place in the world map. The occupation forces surrendered unconditionally to the allied forces, and with their surrender we got our victory. It is a government holiday. The national flag is hosted in all important offices, buildings, institutions and shops. All important places are tastefully decorated. Meetings and seminars are held to explain the importance of the day. On this day we pay rich tributes to the memory of the day. People from all walks of life irrespective of ages, castes and creeds celebrate Victory Day with huge enthusiasm and inspiration. Different cultural organizations hold various programmes and bring out colourful rallies to mark the day. Radio and television broadcast special programmes, and newspapers publish special supplementary on this day. The parks, museums etc. remain crowded from dawn to dusk with lots of people enjoying their time. We pray to almighty Allah for the martyrs of our liberation war. The victory day symbolizes the triumph of justice over tyranny, of truth over falsehood. So the 16th December is a very important day in the history of Bangladesh.

 

Zahir Raihan

Zahir Raihan, one of the most talented film makers, was born on 19 August 1935 in Feni district of Bangladesh. He was an active worker of the Language Movement, took part in the mass movement in 1969, joined the Liberation War in 1971. All through his life, Zahir dreamt for a democratic society that will ensure freedom of speech and will. He had many dreams about our film industry too. He made a legendary film Jibon Theke Neya based on the Language Movement of 1952. It was a revolt against the then autocratic government. During the liberation war this film was shown outside Bangladesh and earned appreciation. Zahir gave all his money to the Freedom Fighters’ trust that he got from his film shows. Besides, his great documentary on Pakistani atrocities, Stop Genocide, helped create world sentiment in favour of our liberation war. His brother Shahidulla was captured and killed by the Pakistani army and the local collaborators during the last days of the war. On 30 December 1971, someone informed Zahir about an address somewhere at Mirpur, where he might find his brother. Accordingly Zahir left home to get his brother back and he never returned. Zahir’s dream was fulfilled. He could see the inception of a free independent Bangladesh though he did not get back his brother. And it’s a pity that this dreamer was missing at such a time when his dream came true.

Floral culture

Floral culture has widely been flourished in our country because of a rosy environment full of colour and fragrance. It is not only an interesting pastime but also a moneymaker if it can be handled professionally. A florist specializes in the selection and arrangement of flowers for a variety of events such as weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, marriage days, Valentine ’s Day, official receptions and even funerals. Although formal education or a diploma is not always essential, florists must have a good taste, good eye for colours, shapes and proportion. They have to have good sense for selecting flowers, ribbons and other accessories to make beautiful arrangements. Professional florists are knowledgeable about not only flowers but also designs and techniques. Most florists learn the trade mainly through apprenticeship in a previous flower farming job and also by attending formal floral schools and courses. Every flower is with its distinct colour, design, significance and meaning which flower designers have to know well. We know that conventionally roses are meant for romance and anniversaries and tulips for birthdays. However, a true passion for flowers and a bit of aesthetic sense are all that can make a florist’s career successful. Flower designers earn fairly handsome money. But the bonus is that they belong to a fresh fun job. They work in flowers all day long in a nice atmosphere with fresh air, pleasant smells and vivid colours around. But there is a disadvantage too, if you are inclined to see so. Florists deal with flowers, but miss their honey!

 Zainul Abedin

Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin, the founding father of Bangladeshi art, is widely reputed for his Bengal ‘Famine Sketches’. Through a series of sketches, he depicted extremely shocking pictures with human compassion. He developed a knack for drawing and painting when he was a high school student. He graduated with the first position in first class in 1938. He was appointed teacher of the Art School while he was still a student there and later attended the Slade School of Arts, London. His 65-foot long scroll portraying heightened the non-cooperation movement against the Pakistan regime. He organized nabanna exhibition which is a milestone in demanding cultural and political freedom. His dynamic style of work is evident in a 30 foot long scroll painting of devastating cyclone of 1970 called Manpura. He designed the pages of Constitution of Bangladesh. He founded the Folk Art Museum at Sonargoan, and also Zainul Abedin Shangrahasala in Mymensingh in 1975. The river Brahmaputra has a significant role in his paintings and a source of inspiration all through his career. He was awarded by the Governor’s Gold Medal in an all-India exhibition in 1938. During his life time, he produced a series of brush and ink drawings, which later became iconic images of human sufferings.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa, the mother as well as the servant of humanity, was born in Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. At the age of twelve, she realised that what she wanted to do most of all, was to help the poor. She decided to train for missionary work and joined the Sisters of Loretto with a mission in Kolkata. In 1928 she took her initial vows as a nun. She taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata from 1929 to 1948. The suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls disturbed her. She left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poor in the slums of Kolkata. Soon she was joined by many voluntary helpers. This made it possible for her to start ‘The Missionaries of Charity’ for the dying destitute. She persuaded the people that leprosy is not contagious. She founded Nirmol Hridoy, Mahatma Gandhi Leprosy Ashram and many other organizations. Mother Teresa was awarded the Padma Shri and Bharat Ratna. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1979. She passed away in 1997. Though she is no more, she has left a message behind: ‘faith and compassion can heal the world’. She will always be remembered by the world for her selfless service to the poor and the sick.

The Shat Gambuj Masjid

The Shat Gambuj Masjid is one of the greatest tourist attractions and best architectural beauties of Bangladesh. Saint and warrior Ulugh Khan Jahan, the earliest torchbearer of Islam in the South, founded this multidomed mosque in Bagerhat district. The stately fabric of the monument stands on the eastern bank of a vast sweet water tank, clustered around by the heavy foliage of a low-lying countryside characteristic of a seacoast landscape. The mosque is roofed over with 77 squat domes, including 7 chauchala or four-sided domes in the middle row. The vast prayer hall is provided with 11 arched doorways on the east and 7 each on the north and the south for ventilation and light. It has 7 longitudinal aisles and 11 deep bays by a forest of slender stones columns. The arches are six feet in thickness, have slightly tapering hollow and round walls. The interior and the exterior of the mosque give a view of rather plain architecture but the interior western wall of the mosque is’ beautifully decorated with terracotta flowers and foliage. Besides being used as a prayer hall, the mosque was also used as the court of Khan Jahan Ali.

The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty, originally called Liberty Enlightening the World, is a statue on Liberty Island in the harbour of New York. It symbolises liberty in the form of a woman wearing flowing robes and a spiked crown. She holds a torch aloft in her right hand and carries in her left hand a book inscribed “July 4, 1776”. Broken chains, symbolizing the overthrow of tyranny, lie at her feet. The statue was designed by the French sculptor Frederic Bartholdi and was given by France to the USA to commemorate the centennial of US independence in 1876. France raised funds, by popular subscription to pay for the statue; US donors financed the pedestal and installation of the monument. President Grover Cleveland dedicated the work on October 28, 1886. The statue, the island, and nearby Ellis Island were declared a national monument in 1924. The statue formed of copper sheets riveted to an iron framework, is one of the largest in the world. It measures 93.5 m from the bottom of the pedestal to the tip of the torch.  Its head is reachable by staircase or emergency lift. The statue weighs 250 tons. Originally conceived as a gesture of international friendship, the statue has become a global symbol of freedom, marking the arrival of millions of immigrants to the United States.

Steven Paul Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs, the co-founder, chairman and CEO of Apple Inc, was the pioneer of the personal computer revolution. He is the foster son of a car mechanic Paul Jobs and Clara jobs. His mother taught him how to read and write before he went to the elementary school. He became famous through the marketing of Apple computers. In 1985, Jobs left Apple after losing a power battle. He then founded NeXT, a computer platform development company. After returning to Apple as an adviser, he brought back Apple to profitability from the verge of bankruptcy. He supervised the development of iMac, iTunes, iPod, iPhone and iPad. The success of these products and services helped Apple to become the world’s most valuable company. Jobs has changed people’s perspective computer, and how they use it and communicate with each other. Hence i-Books, i-Phones, i-Pods and i-Pads have become extremely popular. It is he who made Wi-Fi a standard feature of every laptop. So Jobs’ dream to be anywhere anytime became a reality. Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios. He became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company. In fact, he has been highly acclaimed as a visionary leader in the electronic field of computers and consumers.

 

 My most favourits song
There are many songs that appeal to my mind. In fact, the list of my favourite songs is rather long. But if I am asked to choose my most favourite song, I have to mention just one that comes to my mind instantly. The song is known as ‘Dhana dhanyo pushpo bhora’. This song is written and composed by the great poet and lyricist Dwijendralal Roy, popularly known as D.L. Roy. This is a song of patriotism which reflects the glory of our motherland. This is one of the most beautiful patriotic songs I have ever heard. It is said in the song that our motherland is the queen of all the lands on this earth and it is made of dreams and enfolded with memories. The song is a tribute to the matchless natural richness of our motherland. Throughout the song we have vivid descriptions of the wonderful natural blessings, love and affection that we enjoy in this land. The song ends with the yarning that this land that nurtured us from our birth will be the place of our final breath on earth. A sense of pride fills me when I listen to this composition. I salute my motherland as I listen to this song. It depicts our love and respect for our own country and nation. There is one more reason why this song is so close to my heart. I grew up listening to this song. Every time I listen to this song, I go back to my mother’s lap and hear her melodious voice singing ‘Sokol desher rani she je amar jonmobhmi’.

 

Deforestation

Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation means cutting down trees at random. According to the ecologists, for live able environment there should be forest on the 25% land of the total land area. In Bangladesh there is 16% forest of the total land. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel or timber, while cleared land is used for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. Trees are useful to us in various ways. They are also a great source of food, vitamins and furniture and they help to prevent drought and floods. To draw quick profit from trees, men cut them down in large numbers. This destruction disturbs our ecological balance. It leads to soil erosion and deprives us of fruit and timber and causes economic loss. Trees play a pivotal role in maintaining ecological balance. Trees produce oxygen and receive carbon dioxide. In absence of trees carbon dioxide is increasing worldwide. As a result there is global warming. The sea level is rising. Any time in future the earth may be engulfed by seas. So, we have to realize the bad effects of deforestation. In fact, if deforestation goes on, our country will be changed into a desert. The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. So, we have to educate our common people and to persuade them to abstain from cutting down trees. We should create awareness among the general people about the evils of destroying forests and motivate them to plant more and more trees. Otherwise the forests of our country will slowly disappear and we will be in great miseries. So, I think every man and woman should plant at least a tree every year.

 

Physical exercise

Physical exercise is the performance of some activity in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and overall health. There are various forms of physical exercise such as – walking, swimming, and riding, running, as well as playing cricket, football, hockey, badminton, tennis and various forms of gymnastics. But all forms of exercise are not equally suitable to all of us for the young all kinds’ games such as cricket, football, hockey, badminton, tennis are quite good. For the women badminton, table tennis, are quite nice. On the other hand, walking is good for the weak and the old. Without physical exercise not any can take pleasure in good health. Physical exercise confers some other profit too. It keeps us free from diseases and makes us physically strong and healthy. We need a sound body and a sound mind in order to live to fine. It is physical exercise which permits us to have a sound mind in a sound mind body. “Build up your body if you want to build up your mind”, was the dialogue of the ancient Greeks. It takes our mind away from the drudgery of work and fills it with joy. It gives us fresh energy, refresher our mind and helps us to return to work with renewed vigor. It increases our longevity too. It ensures us healthy and happy life. It prolongs our life and keeps our body and mind fit for work. It also teaches us the code of discipline and reliability. We should take some sort of physical exercise regularly. We should also remember that morning and evening are the best time for talking physical exercise. And no exercise should be taken in empty stomach or immediately after talking meal.

 

 

Bangla New Year/ Pohela Boishakh

In Bengali, Pohela stands for ‘first’ and Boishakh is first month of Bengali calendar. The festival is celebrated according to the Bengali Calendar. Bangla New Year’s festivities are closely linked with rural life in Bengal. Usually on Pohela Boishakh, the home is thoroughly scrubbed and cleaned; people bathe early in the morning and dress in traditional clothes. They spend much time of the day visiting relatives, friends and neighbours. Boishakhi fairs are arranged in many parts of the country. Various agricultural products, traditional handicrafts, toys, cosmetics, as well as various kinds of food and sweets are sold at these fairs. The fairs also provide entertainment, with singers and dancers staging jatra, pala gan, kobigan, jarigan etc. They present folk songs as well as baul, marfati, murshidi and bhatiali songs. Among other attractions of these fairs are puppet shows and merry-go-rounds. Panta Ilish – a traditional platter of leftover rice soaked in water with fried Hilsa a popular dish for the Pohela Boishakh festival in Bangladesh. The most colourful New Year’s Day festival takes place in Dhaka. Large numbers of people gather early in the morning under the banyan tree at Ramna Park where Chhayanat artists open the day with Rabindranath Tagore‘s famous song. A similar ceremony welcoming the new year is also held at the Institute of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka. Students and teachers of the institute take out a colourful procession and parade round the campus. Social and cultural organisations celebrate the day with cultural programmes. Newspapers bring out special supplements. There are also special programmes on radio and television. Pohela Boishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal one’s class, religion, or financial capacity.

 

A Birthday Party

birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored. In our country rich people are seen to celebrate this day festively .In this day, the drawing room is beautifully decorated. Friends, relatives, well-wishers are invited on this occasion. A special cake is ordered for celebrating this day. My birthday cake was in the shape of a chess board and looked very tempting. Besides, different kinds of delicious dishes are prepared. At the appointed time the invited guests begin to come and are welcomed by the person for which the day is being celebrated. At the appointed time the time the person concerned merrily cuts the cake. A round of applause follows. Plates full of delicious food items are then handed round. Everybody falls to with a good deal of zest. The eating is accompanied by a lot of taking and giggling. Camera is clicked on. After the meal, jokes may be made. Then the presents given by the invited guests may be unpacked one by one. And the person concerned expresses his or her gratitude to the guests. And the party may be rounded off with a chorus “ Happy birthday to you”.

A trade fair

A trade fair is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities.  International trade fair is such a fair where goods of many countries of the world are displayed and sold within a fixed time. The event is expected to provide an immense opportunity both for buyers and sellers to establish new business contacts. A wide range of products including textile & garments, leather & leather goods including footwear, machinery equipment pharmaceuticals,carpets,chemical& allied products, cosmetics & beauty aids, dairy products, electrical and electronic items, food stuff, gift & novelty items,handicrafts, household appliances, furniture, building materials, sports goods, sanitary ware, toys and stationery and watches, clocks & jewellery will be displayed at the fair. International trade fair  of Bangladesh is held at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar just north side of Sngsad Bhaban. Many foreign countries come to participate in this trade fair. Specially China, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Iran, Thailand, Japan, Korea and many other countries join in this fair with their varied commodities. I went their to observe and purchase some national an international commodities. Of course, I had also latent desire to com close contact with culture and things of foreign countries. I enjoyed my self well in Iternational Trade Fair. It will remain ever fresh in my mind.

 

 

Television

Television is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any live programme from the remotest part of the world. Television can display many programmes at a time. Satellite TV has added a new dimension in our oriented life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and articles. So we can easily collect educative information of agriculture, science and technology, politics, education, business, invention etc. Television helps us widespread the sight and outlook of the society. Coming to contact with the western societies, we are getting the opportunities to enrich our society and ourselves. But on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress-pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerns. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation. So, we all should be conscious of that.

Load Shedding

Load shedding is the act or practice of temporarily reducing the supply of electricity to an area to avoid overloading the generators. It happens when there is not enough electricity available to meet the demand of all customers, and an electricity utility will interrupt the energy supply to certain areas. In our country there is hardly any area which is not affected by load shedding. Lack of maintenance of the generating and distribution systems, increased population, improved living standards, lack of planning, illigal connection, wastage of it are the main causes of load shedding. It creates many problems of far-reaching consequences in the economic and social development of the country. Most of the mills and factories become idle and for this reason industrial production declines and workers are retrenched. Social works and activities cannot go in order. Students cannot study properly because of the failure of electricity. During load shedding they are to study in dim candlelight. The housewife gropes in the darkness in the kitchen. The shops are to close down before the closing time. Spectators in the cinema hall spend hours in stuffy suffocation for load shedding. All types of productions stop and the entire life comes to a standstill during the period of load shedding. So, proper steps should be taken to stop load shedding inorder to ensues smooth development of the country. By establishing more power plants, power houses and by stopping unplanned distribution of electricity, illegal connection and reducing system loss, we can solve this problem.

 

A street beggar

One who begs for alms from street to street is called a beggar. The beggar is a common sight in Bangladesh. Beggars are of different kinds and description. Some are old, some are young. Some can walk, some limp, a few move on push carts. There are singing beggars as well as whining beggars. Begging is regarded as a serious social problem because it encourages idleness and aversion to work. There are some beggars who are professionals. These are idlers. They find it easier to beg than work. But majority of the beggars are homeless and hungry. Nobody employs them. They suffer and ultimately become unfit for work. The first thing that begging creates in a beggar is the loss of his sense of honor. There is no certainty in a beggar’s life. The only certain thing in his life is that each day will be full of misery. He does not have any definite place to live in. His home is wherever he sleeps. There are no fixed hours for his work. If the weather is inclement he suffers most. The fortune of a beggar lies in his capacity to approach people. In fact, he is a man without fortune. He looks forward to the days of religious festivals when people are more charitable than other days. Reasons for begging are many. The unemployment problem and poverty are the two main reasons. Moreover, labour is not always viewed as dignified. Arrangement should be made to turn them into a working force.

 

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 Sound pollution or Noise pollution

When the exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears, it creates noise pollution. Today it is one of the talked topics of the day. It has reached an unbearable level. The unnecessary use of powerful vehicular horns is the main source of sound pollution in the City. The other sources are aircraft noise and rail noise. Besides transportation noise, other sources are office equipment, factory machinery, appliances, power tools, lighting and audio entertainment systems. Construction equipment also produces noise pollution. Besides, faulty vehicles, construction sites, loud speaker and thousand of workshops let out loud noises round the clock. This sound pollution damages millions of children’s power of hearing. Sound pollution is so much harmful that it can cause a wide range of malfunctions in the human body including heart attack, high-blood pressure, chronic depression, respiratory disorders etc. Noise leads to emotional disturbances, however, are difficult to measure. Irritating noise at work place reduces concentration efficiency and working capacity. We should take necessary measures to control sound pollution. By developing public awareness and careful awareness and careful town planning sound pollution can be controlled. Strict law should be enforced regarding sound pollution. Use of hydraulic horns should be banned strictly.

 

Air pollution

Air pollution is actually the addition of any harmful substances to the atmosphere, which causes the damaging of the environment, human health and the quality of life. Air is the most important element of human environment. Man cannot live a single moment without it but we do not think it is we who pollute this most vital element. Clean air is essential for life. Air is polluted in many ways. With the development in industry, came along the increase in air pollution, which occurs inside homes, schools, offices even in the countryside. Man makes fires to cook his food, to make bricks burns effuse, melts pitch for road construction and burns wood. All these things produce heavy smoke and this smoke pollutes air. Railway engines, power houses, mills and factories use coal and oil. Buses, trucks and cars use petrol and diesel oil. Again all these things create smoke and cause air pollution. The most serious air pollution occurs in big industrial areas where there are many mills and cars plying the street every day. Sometimes men in industrial area become so sick by inhaling polluted air that they cannot be cured. So proper measures and steps should be taken to prevent air pollution. Consequently there has been an increase in the death rates resulting from various diseases caused by air pollution varying from breathing problem to lung cancer. Air pollution does not only affect people but it also damages the whole ecological system in which plants and animals are harmed as well.

 

 

 

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa is remembered by the world for her selfless service to the poor and the sick. Mother Teresa was born in Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. At the age of twelve, she realised that what she wanted to do most of all, was to help the poor. She decided to train for missionary work and came to India at the age of nineteen to join the Sisters of Loretto, an Irish community of nuns with a mission in Kolkata. In 1928 she took her initial vows as a nun. From 1929 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls disturbed her. In 1948, Sister Teresa became Mother Teresa. In the same yea, she became an Indian citizen. She left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poor in the slums of Kolkata. She had no money so she started an open-air school for homeless children. Soon she was joined by many voluntary helpers. Help flowed in from various authorities. This made it possible for her to start her own order ‘The Missionaries of Charity’ to love and take care for those persons whom nobody was prepared to look after. Now the Missionaries of Charity are working in 125 countries with more than 750 centers. She persuaded the people that leprosy is not contagious. She founded Nirmol Hridoy, Sishu Bhava, Mahatma Gandhi Leprosy Ashram and many other organizations. Mother Teresa was awarded the Padma Shri and Bharat Ratna. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1979. She passed away in 1997. Though she is no more, she has left a message behind: ‘faith and compassion can heal the world’.

 

 

 

A Village fair

Village fair is an annual affair in Bangladesh and is a great event in the life of the villagers. It is generally held on the occasion of some religious festivals or some local important events. It is an occasion for show, sale of various goods and entertainments. It is held in some open place, either on the bank of river or in the yard of a temple. Some fair also sits in an open field under a big ancient tree or in the market place, or by the side of a big road. A village fair is an occasion of great joy and excitement among the villagers. Village fair is a kind of exhibition in miniature of hand made things. The rural artisans and craftsmen make various useful articles which are brought to the fair and offered for sale. It thus acts like a market for cottage industries. Small traders come from far and near to sell their goods. They bring clothes of various kind, ready-made garments, cheap fancy goods, dolls, utensils, sweets and other things. There are many forms of amusement in a village fair. Travelling jatra parties, Circus parties, magic shows, merry go rounds mockfights, jarigan (song) are additional attraction of a fair. Cinema parties also show picture to the people. But the largest crowd gathers around the place where jugglers show their feats. There are the dancing of dolls and feats of skill done on ropes and bamboos. Some of these are really wonderful. A village fair is a much looked-for occasion for all. Everybody waits for this fair with hope and attends it with profound pleasure.

The Necessity of Learning English

We need to learn English because we live in a global village. There is no alternative to learning English to lead a decent life and to prepare ourselves for global challenges. Statistics show that 350 million people speak English as a first language and another 300 million use it as a second language. It is the official or semi-official language in more than 60 countries and of many international organizations.Today more than 80% of all information in the world’s computer is in English. For many reasons, English has achieved the prestige of being global language. English has become the only medium for international communication. Now- a- days not only for international purposes but also for national reasons English is a must. When we look for any good job, advertisements often ask for proficiency in English. The electronic transfer of information regarding banking, financial activities and transaction of business-all are done through English language. We can easily see how English is necessary in every sphere of our lives. Bangladesh is a nation with a bright future, but lack of proficiency in English often appears to be a key hurdle. So, a nation- wide awareness needs to be established by the government to emphasize the necessity of learning English. If proper awareness is created, Bangladesh will reach the optimum levels of their potentials and thus can overcome language barriers.                 

 

Annual Sports Day of our college

 Annual Sports Day is an important event in the life of every school or college. Sports in themselves are an indispensable part of study. The Annual Sports Day of our college was held last week. It was held in our spacious college grounds. We decorated the playground and the college building very gorgeously. The Deputy Commissioner was the chief guest. A huge “shaman” was pitched on one side of the ground to accommodate guests. The whole play-ground had been decorated with flags, buntings and balloons a day earlier. The chief guest arrived in time. He took the salute. The sportsmen and women and O.K. cadets and U.S.A volunteers participated in the march past. The first event was a hundred meter race and then started long and high jumps. Simultaneously there were other actions like the Javelin and the Discus throw. The events which evoked the greatest interest were the 400 meter race, bicycle race, ‘chat’ race and hurdle race by girls. The tug-of-war between the science and arts faculty members was very interest­ing. The last item the musical chairs race in which the guests participated was vied amusing. The dope read out the achievements of the school in sports during the year. The chief guest gave away prizes to the winners. He highlighted the importance of sports in life and hinted at India’s dismal performance at the Olympics. He promised all help to the school in the matter of sports. The Principal then thanked him and other guests. The chief guest declared the sports meet closed and it was over.

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of the air surrounding the earth as a result of heat being trapped by environment pollution. Most climatologists believe that the greenhouse effect is the likely cause of this global warming. This is exemplified by the destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, by traffic that clogs up city streets, by the rapid growth of industry, the use of chlorofluorocarbons in packing and manufacturing commercial products, the use of detergents such as washing powder and washing-up liquid and so on. The oceans are also said to be affected both because of human waste and because of pollution caused by industrial waste products, oil seeping from damaged supertankers and from other maritime disasters. However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century, temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should be taken to put on end to the causes and sources emitting carbon dioxide. These are the measures we can take with a view to preventing global warming.

 

Pastime or Leisure pursuit

 Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.  

 Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. It is a very good habit which is very much essential for sound health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. Once you get into the habit of rising early, you are able to set a routine and that obviously leads to better productivity both at work and home. The man who rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air refreshes both body and mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning.  All these make them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works earlier. He had nothing to worry. He can earn more and become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. So, all of us should adopt a healthier way of living and reap those benefits.

 Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic is a kind of metallic as well as fatal poison. Arsenic pollution means arsenic contaminated water. It is found in the ground water level of the earth. When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened, stained, granulated and one time he suffers from gangrene. Our ignorant people are drinking arsenic polluted water from tube wells and are human being affected by arsenicosis. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. Arsenic is such a poison that is damages all the vital organs ore after another resulting in the subsequent death o the sufferer. The specialists should be sent to different parts of the country which are affected by Arsenic. They should identify the Arsenic contaminated tube-wells. The tube-wells which are polluted by Arsenic should be marked as red sign and the tube-wells of pure water should also be marked as greed sign. They should suggest another alternative easy way to find out pure drinking water. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Recently the World Bank authority has taken some effective steps to identify the arsenic affected countries of the world. An affected person should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. The govt. should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 The Postman

Postman is a person who delivers letters, money orders, post cards, parcels and other postal articles to the proper addressees. He is a familiar figure both in the towns and in the village. He usually wears a khaki dress and carries on his soldiers a bag. Though a postman is a low-great employee of the postal department, he performs a responsible job. His daily work begins with the sorting out of letters, parcels, money orders etc. in the post office. After having finished this job in the post office, he goes out on his beat to deliver them to their addressees. A town postman often drops letters into letterboxes or pushes them through some opening of the door. A village postman generally goes on his beat twice or thrice a week. A postman is really good man and a good friend to us. The postman is a very important person in our society, though he does not enjoy a good social status. When he brings letters of good news, we become happy. He renders and great service to the society. He is such a great friend to us that everybody we expect his nock on the door. He behaves amiably with all. The economic condition of a postman is very miserable. Though he works very hard he gets a very small salary. With it, he cannot maintain his family decently. So he leads a miserable life. No doubt he serves the society as well as the country greatly in the field of postal communication. He should be given good salary so that he can lead a better life and serve us well.

 The 21st February

International mother language day

 21st February of the year is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day. The 21st of February, a red letter day, is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. This day reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. They protected our mother tongue in exchange of their blood. This day has given us the freedom to speak in our mother tongue. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. It is also observed as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. The put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

 

Good Health

Good health means the soundness of body and mind. The body which is free from all sorts of diseases is considered to be healthy. It is the result of living in accordance with the natural laws, pertaining to the body, mind and environment. These laws relate to fresh air, sunlight, balanced diet, regular exercise, rest, relaxation and sleep, cleanliness internal and external, right attitudes of mind, good habits and good patterns of living. One can keep good health by way of observing the rules of health, eating a balanced diet and living a disciplined life. But unfortunately, many people of our country do not get the food they need for good health. While the rich and educated people of our country are conscious of the rules of health, the bulk majority of the common people are ignorant of them. They seem to have no sense of hygiene and sanitation. As a result, they suffer terribly because of their ill-health. Moreover, life has become complicated in this age of technology. And the complexities of life have an adverse impact on our health. Frozen and artificial rather than fresh and natural food make us fall prey to various serious ailments (অস্বাস্থ্য) causing great damage to our health and happiness.  So, to keep in good health we need an environment which is free from air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and menus pollution. I thoroughly believe in the fact that simple and carefree life is conducive to good health. Preservation of health should be the primary duty of mankind.

Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day is celebrated to honor all mothers, thank them for their efforts in giving them life, raising them and being their constant support. Mothers Day came into being due to the efforts made by Ms Julia Ward Howe and Ms Anna Jarvis. In our country Mother’s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May with joy and devotion. In observance of the day discussion programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs and cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the capital city. Television channels air special programs, and newspapers publish special features and columns to mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers and gifts featuring mothers are in high demand at the shops and markets.Young children get especially excited about Mother’s Day and put a lot of effort into making cards and presents for their Mums. For mothers, it is like having a second birthday. It is common for children to cook for their mother so she can have breakfast in bed. She also receives presents, flowers and cards. Mother is a creative and caring woman. She takes time to teach us things like how to read and how to write.  My mother cooked special dishes for us. Actually the celebration of Mother’s Day is the external expression of gratitude of a child to its loving mother.

Book Fair

A book fair is a display or exhibition of books typically by a group of publishers or book dealers for promoting sales and stimulating interest among the readers. It spreads the message vie books that are our best friends and it makes our life glorious. The largest book fair in our country is the Ekushy book fair held in February to observe the Language Movement Day in the Bangla Academy premises. More than hundred of pavilions were set up. The stalls were decorated beautifully to draw the attention of the readers. All sorts of books, text books, fictions, children books, religious books, story books, novels, books on various dramas, books on poems, autobiographical books, books on science and technology, books on raising social awareness, etc. are usually available in a book fair. A book fair becomes crowded specially in the evening. The renowned artists, poets and intellectuals gather there and take part in the seminars and cultural programmes. A book fair promotes the publication of books to spread education and widen the sphere of our knowledge.  It also inspires the young readers for reading books. Some writers are also seen sitting in the stalls and their fans gather there for autographs. Even some stalls are found in a book fair to sell snacks, cigarettes and trifling items of daily necessities. Sometimes in a book fair some unpleasant incidents take place for the evil motive of the miscreants. In fact, a book fair is considered to be an occasion of great festivity to the book-lovers.

An ideal teacher/A good teacher

Generally a teacher is judged whether he is good or bad according to the temperament of the students. But an ideal teacher must have some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. A good teacher is one who knows the art of teaching. He is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. An ideal teacher treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistakes, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his student realise his mistake. An ideal teacher is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He does not allow us to be lazy. He makes a simple living but his thinking is great. He influences our young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school.

 

How to become a good citizen

A good citizen is one who properly fulfills his or her role as a citizen. Human beings are used to living under laws and patterns that are dictated to us by society, but following those patterns does not make us good citizens. To be a good citizen, firstly one has to prepare oneself to do good work in society.To become so, in addition to food shelter, company, etc, one needs knowledge, skills and to change attitudes. Being knowledge based society, we should have knowledge about our country, government, history, tradition, culture and religion. Besides, one must be able to apply one’s knowledge to do good things practically. Finally, knowing and doing things will bring about a change in one’s outlook towards others. Through regular group work it can be highly expected that there will be noticeable changes like freely mixing, disappearance of shyness, behaving in a democratic way.  It develops the attitude of helping and cooperating with others.Most importantly, these behavioural changes taking place in one inside the classroom will be carried over outside the classroom, in real-life situations.Values and ethics should be inculcated to people as they mature, as that kind of information will built them for being good citizens.  

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

May Day/ International Worker’s Day

May 1st, International Workers’ Day, commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world, and is recognized in most countries. It is the day of establishing the legal right to the workers of the world. This day is memorable to the owners of the world for their defeat against the working class people. All  the  privileges  workers  enjoy  today came  about  due  to  the  sacrifice  of  the  workers  in 1886. The history behind it is very sorrowful. On May 3, 1886, some workers gathered in demand of a minimum wage, safety laws and eight hours work day. Police fired in the crowd of strikers at the Mc Comick Harvest Machine, Chicago. Here at least one person was killed and some others were seriously wounded. At the beginning of Industrial revolution people had to work long hours both by day and at night. It was simply inhuman. It stopped when all labourers stood up. The event of May Day 1886 is a  reminder  that  workers  will  continue  to  be  exploited  until  they  stand  up  and  speak  out  to  gain better  working  conditions,  better  pay  and  better  lives.  In fact, May Day is a milestone of snatching away the rights from the blood-sucking owners by the exploited workers of the cosmos. The sacrifices of so many people cannot be forgotten or we’ll end up fighting for those same gains all over again. This is why we should celebrate May Day with profound respect.

 

 Pastime

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.Pastime or Leisure pursuit

 

 

A School Magazine

A school magazine is an annual publication containing the literary works and other information of a school mostly written and contributed by the students. It is published once a year. In order to conduct the work of publication of the school magazine, at first a magazine committee is formed with the Head master as the Chairman and chief patron. The editor, business editors and the assistant proofreaders are selected from the students. A magazine fund is also made up of the school ‘Magazine Fee’. The editor invites writings both in Bangla and English. The students of the school submit their articles to the notified persons at the notified time.Then, after proper scrutiny, the best ones are selected for publishing. Generally, the magazine has two sections-Bangla and English. There are messages from the Head teacher and the secretary of the school, annual reports, essays, short stories, short plays etc in it. It also contains jokes, quizzes and puzzles. The young writers get immense pleasure and confidence when they can see their writings in print. So, they feel encouraged to build themselves as poets, play-wrights, essayists and artists. It plays an important role in one’s school life. It is a forum through which our Juvenile learners can express the green ideas and imagination of their mind. Besides, it promotes team-spirit, fosters to express the dormant power of thinking as well as writing of the young learners. The sight of a magazine reminds the old boys of their sweet bygone school days. The school magazine of the school In fact, the school magazine is the first stepping stone to flourish themselves as future writers and poets.

 

Pahela Baishakh

In our Bengali year we celebrate Pahela Baishakh on the first Baishakh every year. As it is one of our festival days, it is celebrated with traditional festivities across the country. On this day different types of people of different social classes come out from their respective residence and enjoy the carnival enthusiastically and publicly because it is a public holiday. Traders and shopkeepers open halkhata and offer sweets to their customers and clients with a view to satisfying them keeping the age-old tradition. At the very dawn they go outside to celebrate Pahela Baishakh eating panta vath and hilsha fish. Most of the girls adorn themselves wearing fresh dress and flowers in their locks. Young and adult boys like to sing with the traditional musical instruments like ektara, dotara, bamboo-flute, sarinda etc. and somebody likes to wear mask of different things. Different socio-cultural organisations draw up elaborate programmes to celebrate Pahela Baishakh. The day’s first programme begins at dawn at Ramna Batamul where Chhayanat, a leading cultural organisation, organises it. Bangla Academy, Shilpakala Academy, Bulbul Lalitakala Academy, Jatiya Press Club, Liberation War Museum, Bangladesh National Museum, Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University and many other organisations bring out colourful processions with festoons, placards, posters, banners, masks etc. Bangladesh Betar, BTV, ETV telecast different lively programmes describing and showing the festival activities of Pahela Baishakh. We can’t but memorise this day with great pleasure.

 

Landing on the moon

In the history of human civilization, landing on the moon is an epoch making achievement. Before landing on the moon, most of the people of the world thought that nobody could go to the moon. On July 16, 1969 Armstrong along with Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins departed for the moon in Apollo 11, the space craft which was used to reach the moon. On July 20, 1969, the Lunar Module, Eagle, landed on the moon, in a place called the Sea of Tranquillity. Commander Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. As he stepped off the ladder and put his foot on the moon’s surface, he said, ‘One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.’ Armstrong was joined on the moon by Buzz Aldrin, and together they spent two and a half hours on the moon’s surface. They performed a number of experiments and collected rocks and soil to bring back to Earth. They left an American flag on the moon. This historic visit was broadcast live on TV to the world, watched by approximately 600 million people.The top part of the Lunar Module Eagle took them back to the Command Module Columbia, which had remained in orbit around the moon, piloted by Michael Collins, while they explored. These three astronauts have become world famous heroes because of their great achievements. It proves that man can conquer anything if he wishes and the impossible task of today would become possible by tomorrow. History will always remember them.Their names are written with golden letters in the history of space technology.

 

 

Traffic Jam

When the road is blocked with so many vehicles and we cannot move forward, we call it traffic jam. Generally in capital city and other divisional cities traffic jam is a common phenomenon. There are various causes of traffic jam. In proportion to our population roads have not increased. The drivers are not willing to obey the traffic rules. Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. The people of our country often park their vehicles on improper places. Many persons set shops both sides of the road. So vehicles cannot move freely and cause traffic jam. When we fall in a traffic jam, we feel bored. We lose many working hours of our life. As a result we are lagging behind. We feel much helpless and frustrated when we get stuck in a traffic jam. Many people fail to attend their office duty in time. The worst victims are the patients carried in the ambulances to hospitals and clinics. The transportation of the daily commodities gets delayed. To stop traffic jam, we must make more wide roads and flyovers. Widening the streets, making flyovers at the main crossings, reducing the number of rickshaws are mentionable. Well planned spacious roads should be constructed. One way movement of vehicles should be introduced. Traffic rules should be followed properly. Above all growing public awareness is necessary for removing traffic jam. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. After doing all these things we can hope to have a good traffic system for our easy and comfortable movement. 

 

The 21st FebruaryInternational mother language day

21st February, a red letter day, is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day. It is also observed as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. It is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. This day reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. They protected our mother tongue in exchange of their blood. This day has given us the freedom to speak in our mother tongue. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. They put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

 

A village market

A village market is a temporary center for buying and selling goods to fulfill the need of the locality. It which may be either daily or weekly, is generally situated on the bank of a river or by the side of a highway or under a big tree. It begins in the afternoon and ends almost after the sunset. Most of the shops here are temporary but a few permanent shops also may be found here. Temporary sheds are made with straw and bamboo to protect the sellers from heat and rain. It is a place where they go to buy or sell the goods which are needed for their everyday life. Food grains such as rice, dal, wheat, etc. are sold in one row. Vegetables are sold in another row. Fish, meat and dried fish are sold in a different row. Domestic materials, utensils, bangles, cloths and stationeries are sold in different stalls which stand in a special row. There are a few tea stalls. There are tailors who temporarily set up the tailoring machines to make new bags and to repair old bags. The villagers come not only to buy and to sell goods but also to meet with others. So, it can also be regarded as the biggest gathering place for the villagers. A village market with its economic value also bears social value. A village market has some disadvantages too. It is a noisy and unhealthy place. The pickpockets gather there. Besides due to lack of cleanliness, it often turns into an unhygienic place. Infact it is the backbone of the rural economy. Through this village market, people can certainly save their time and money and get their desired goods in this village market.

 

Our National Flag

The flag which denotes the freedom and sovereignty of a nation is known as a national flag. The national flag of Bangladesh is bottle green in color and rectangular in size with the length to width ratio of 10:6. It bears a red circle on the background of green. The color in the background represents the vitality, youthfulness and greenery of Bangladesh while the red circle symbolizes the rising sun and the sacrifice of lives in our freedom fight in the Liberation War of 1971. The national flag was designed by painter Kamrul Hasan. Its size is confined to10:6. It was first hoisted on the March 3, 1971 by ASM Abdur Rab at the historic ‘Bat tala’ in Dhaka University  campus. It is hoisted at govt. offices, semi-government, self-autonomous buildings, educational institutes etc everyday. But it is kept at half-mast on any national or international mourning days. Our glorious national flag was purchased at too great a price at the cost of a sea of blood. The national flag of Bangladesh is our pride. Our feeling about the flag is very sensational and respectful. When we see our national flag, our heart is fulfilled with joy and respect. We bow down our heads towards it. Our duty towards it should be responsible and sacrificial. We should take an oath that we must save the honor and dignity of this flag even instead of our lives. The flag is the source of spirit, hope and inspiration.

 

  

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 

 

Traffic Jam

 

When the road is blocked with so many vehicles and we cannot move forward, we call it traffic jam. Generally in capital city and other divisional cities traffic jam is a common phenomenon. Most often it occurs at office time and also at the time when the officer break. Sometimes it is so heavy that it blocks half a kilometre.  It kills our valuable time and our works are hampered. It causes great sufferings to the ambulance carrying dying patients and the fire brigade vehicles. There are various causes of traffic jam. The number of vehicles is greater than roads. The roads are also narrow and traffic control system is so poor. The drivers are not willing to obey the traffic rules. They often park their vehicles on improper places. Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. Many persons set shops both sides of the road. In big cities there are processions, agitations and demonstrations also. So vehicles cannot move freely and cause traffic jam. When we fall in a traffic jam, we feel bored. We lose money, petrol, diesel and many working hours of our life. As a result we are lagging behind. However, this problem can be solved by adopting some measures. To stop traffic jam, well planned spacious roads should be constructed. One way movement of vehicles should be introduced. Traffic rules should be impost strictly so that the drivers are bound to obey them. Sufficient traffic police should be posted on important points. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. Traffic rules should be followed properly. Above all our people should be made more conscious.

 

A School Magazine

 The school magazine is an annual or periodical publication of the school mostly written and contributed by the students and teachers. Almost every well established school publishes a magazine every year. It plays an important role in one’s school life as it highlights the various aspects of the school development programme. It is a forum through which our Juvenile learners can express the green ideas and imagination of their mind. In order to conduct the work of publication of the school magazine, at first a magazine committee is formed with the Headmaster as the Chairman and chief patron. The Headmaster selects the editor from among the teachers. Both teachers and students write in it. There are messages from the Headmaster and the secretary of the school, annual reports, essays, short stories, short plays, jokes, quizzes and puzzles and other writings relating to school affairs are published in the magazine. The editor at first invites writings from the teachers and the students for the magazine. After proper scrutiny and correction the best ones are selected and sent to the press for printing. The school magazine helps the young learners and writers to develop their latent faculties. It helps them develop their power of thinking and writing. One cannot write something without a clear judgment, imagination and good knowledge of the thing. School magazine provides a scope for writing independently. The young writers get immense pleasure and confidence when they can see their writings in print that can inspire one a lot to become a writer and a poet in later life. In fact, the school magazine is the first stepping stone for the future writers.

 

 

 

 

 

Independence Day of Bangladesh

March 26, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the West Pakistan rulers started to exploit শোষণ, cheat, and oppress জুলুম Bangladeshi people. After the massive attack beginning from the early hours of 26 March, 1971, the undisputed অবিসংবাদী leader of East Pakistan declared independence and told the countrymen to fight against the barbarian Pak Army. The day is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervour. As it is a national holiday, all offices, educational institutions, shops and factories remain closed on this day. People get up early morning by hearing the bombing sounds of gun. Coming with rallies and processions মিছিল, people of all walks of life place floral wreaths at the National Musolium at Savar to pay rich tributes শ্রোদ্ধাঞ্জলি to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. The country also witness a smartly dressed parade of defence forces, border guards, police, ansars and the VDP at the National Parade Ground. School children, scouts and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. Besides, various cultural programmes throughout the day highlighting the heroic struggle and sacrifice in 1971, tournaments including the exciting boat race are organised throughout the country on the day. Milad Mahfil was organized by the different mosque especially in the National Mosque Baitul Mukarram. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated আলোকিত to give the capital city a dazzling উজ্জ্বল look.This day certainly makes bridges between the spirit of Independence Day and the future generations. May Independence Day always be the spirit of prosperity of our nation.

Environmental pollution

Environmental pollution refers to any unexpected and abnormal change in chemical, physical and biological জীববিদ্যাসংক্রান্ত characteristicsবৈশিষ্ট্য in the environment. Now our environment is getting polluted every moment in many ways. Man makes fires to cook food, to make bricks, to melt tar for road construction and to do many other things. In major cities and towns motor vehicles, mills and factories are creating fume and smoke and they pollute air. Railway engines and powerhouses create smoke by burning coal and oil. Man pollutes water another vital element of the environment by throwing waste into it. Chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds, and thus pollute water. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers, canals and seas and water is polluted. Moreover, water vehicles, unsafe drains and unsanitary latrines are also responsible for water pollution. The noise of motor vehicles, mills and factories, aeroplanes, domestic appliances যন্ত্রপাতি, radios, cassette players, CDs, televisions etc pollutes sound and this polluted sound affects our hearing. Forests and trees are being cut down on a large scale. So, the ecosystem of the environment is now in great danger. It gives rise to ecological imbalance and brings about natural disasters in this world. This could horribly reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy wildlife, raise sea level and thereby may cause floods. We should plant more trees and work for forestation. Cutting down trees and hill should be restricted. To prevent pollution, government as well as all the conscious people should come forward to develop civic sense to reduce all kinds of pollution.

Climate Change

Climate change refers to an increase in average global temperatures due to the consequence of unchecked pollution. Most climatologists opine that boh natural events and human activities are contributing to the increase in average temperatures surrounding the earth. This is caused primarily by the increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2). However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. The destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, traffic that clogs up city streets, the rapid growth of industry, the use of CFCs, detergents, maritime disaster, human and industrial waste products etc are highly responsible for this change. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century; temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Pragmatic as well as drastic steps should be taken to create awareness to stop the causes and sources of emitting carbon dioxide. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. These are the measures the whole world needs to be concerned with a view to preventing global warming.

A Road Accident

Among daily’s unfortunate occurrences, street accident is very common. Despite all efforts to prevent accident, it happens every day. Ours is a very over-populated country. Here roads are very busy and narrow. That is why street accidents take place very frequently. Careless driving is also responsible for this. Day before yesterday a terrible accident took place just before my eyes. It occurred in front of Dhaka College. I was going to the New Market. When I reached the college gate, suddenly I heard a scream of a boy. I found that a boy, who was crossing the Mirpur Road, was run over by a speedy truck. When the truck was a few feet away from him, the boy got puzzled and ran backwards and forwards. The driver tried desperately to hold the break but failed. The truck ran over the boy. He was crushed under the wheels of the truck and his body was changed into a lump of flesh. The truck was stopped. The passers-by crowded there. The boy was taken up from the pool of blood. A gentleman offered his car to carry the boy to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In the evening I came to know that the boy had breathed his last on way to the hospital, and I was greatly shocked at this. The truck along with the driver had been taken to police custody. But that horrible scene still haunts my mind. However, we all should always bear in mind that life is more valuable than time. Moreover, some proper steps should be taken and some strict rules should be introduced to stop street accidents. 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices, narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint or daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. So, all of us have to try to be an ideal student to reach the highest peak of the desired success.

A Winter Morning

Of the six seasons, winter is undoubtedly the coldest season of the year in Bangladesh. A morning in winter is misty and cold because of dense fog everywhere. Sometimes it is so dense that the sun rays can’t be seen.Things even at a little distance can hardly be seen. It causes disruption to the communication system. Few drops fall on leaves and blades of grass at night. They look like glittering pearls when the rays of the morning run falls on it. Sometimes shivering cold causes serious sufferings to people and animals. The poor have hardly warm clothes. They gather straw and dry leaves to make fire to warm them. The old and the children bask in the sun. Usually people get up late. In a winter morning people in Bangladesh enjoy different kinds of ‘pithas’. Delicious sweetmeats are also prepared with date juice. But a winter morning is a curse for the poor. They suffer much for want of warm clothes. The scene of a winter morning disappears as the day advances. The best time to visit Bangladesh is in winter when the weather is dry and fresh. It’s possible to observe and photograph a large number of migratory bird species. The Bengali month of Kartik, that is early winter, is celebrated by Jibanananda Das as a period that reveals the inner beauty and soul of Bengal. A winter morning has both advantage and disadvantage. My personal feeling about a winter morning is that it is a bane for the poor but a boon for the rich.

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

Greenhouse Effect

 Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of the air surrounding the earth as a result of heat being trapped by environment pollution. Most climatologists believe that the greenhouse effect is the likely cause of this global warming. This is exemplified by the destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, by traffic that clogs up city streets, by the rapid growth of industry, the use of CFCs in packing and manufacturing commercial products, the use of detergents and so on. The oceans are also said to be affected both because of human waste and because of pollution caused by industrial waste products, oil seeping from damaged supertankers and from other maritime disasters. However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century; temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should be taken to put on end to the causes and sources emitting carbon dioxide. These are the measures we can take with a view to preventing global warming.

Importance of games and sports

The ideal of a good and perfect life is to have a sound mind in a sound body. This is recognized by all as the best means of performing our duties. Body and mind should work at their best, and they cannot do so unless both are in good order. The best way to keep the limbs fit is to exercise them in sports and games of physical skill and strength. This indeed is the importance of games, there is no society, which has not its own special kinds of games. Sports and games supposed to be looked upon as a means of building up the body beautiful. Sports and games have now come to stay in our civilization as an essential feature of human activity, and their object is not merely fun, they also instill the sprit of discipline and team-work. Game like cricket, hockey and foot ball are popular because of the sprit of team work which they inspire. The discipline that gained in playing up games is invaluable in later life. It makes for a life of co-operation and team work which could be used for building up a great society and a nation. Our young man and woman should take active part in sports and games. It is good that our educational institution encourage sports and games by organizing matches and awarding prizes and trophies. The habit of taking part in games and sports is good in several ways. Apart from making us strong, healthy and fit, it teaches us how to use our energy in the right way. But all good things sometimes become bad. This is a strange but the true fact about human activities. Sports and games should be so organized that they will not interfere with studies of our youth. Life is not all sports. They are only a part, though a very important part.

The ways of keeping good health

Health is the condition of our body and mind. Good health means healthy body free from diseases. It is essential for everyone to lead a happy life. If we are not in good health, we cannot concentrate on any activity in our life. A proverb goes, ‘Health is Wealth’ It means health is equally valuable as gold or any other personal possessions. We may have vast wealth and property, but if we are not healthy we cannot enjoy them. To keep ourselves healthy, we have to do certain things. We have to eat a balanced diet.We must exercise regularly to keep our body fit for work. We should go to bed early at night and rise early in the morning. Peace of mind is another condition for good health. So we must not worry over small things of life. Hygiene is important for our good health because we cannot achieve anything physically, mentally or spiritually if we are unclean in our body, mind and soul. We must keep our body clean. We should have a bath every day and wash our hair regularly. This will keep the body and hair free from dirt and bacteria. Secondly, we should wash our clothes regularly. Dirty clothes give off bad smell and invite germs. We should wear socks and shoes when we go out to protect our feet from dust and germs. It is also important to wash our hands before meals and after using the toilet. We should brush our teeth twice a day, after breakfast and supper. We must also cut our nails regularly. Our drinking water must be pure. We can get pure water by boiling and filtering. Finally, we should keep our surroundings and environment clean. If we do and follow all the above things properly, we will be able to lead a happy, healthy, wealthy, comfortable and diseases free life.

 Michael Madhusudan Dutt

Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a popular Bengali poet and dramatist in the 19th-century, was born in Sagordari on the bank of the Kopotaksho River under Jessore district. From an early age, Dutt aspired to be an Englishman in form and manner. Though he was born in a sophisticated Hindu family, he took Christianity as a young man and adopted the first name Michael. In his childhood, he was recognised by his teachers as a precious child with a gift of literary talent. Since his adolescence he started believing that he was born on the wrong side of the planet, and that his society was unable to appreciate his intellect. He also believed that the West would be more receptive to his creative genius. Michael was an ardent follower of the famous English poet Lord Byron. So after adopting Christianity, he went to Europe and started composing poetry and drama almost entirely in English. They proved his higher level of intellectual ability. However, he failed to gain the right appreciation. With his utter frustrations he saw that he was not regarded as a native writer of English literature. Out of his frustration he composed a sonnet in Bangla “Kopotaksha Nad”, which earned him huge reputation in Bangla. Gradually he could realise that his true identity lies here in this Bengal and he was a sojourner in Europe. Afterwards he regretted his attraction for England and the Occident. He came to Bengal and devoted himself to Bangla literature from this period. He is the poet to write the first Bangla epic Meghand Badh Kabya. His lavish lifestyle, which included drinking, added to his financial difficulties and his health also began to fail. Sadly he died in 1873, and was given a Christian burial service.

May Day/ International Worker’s Day

May 1st, International Workers’ Day, commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world, and is recognized in most countries. It is the day of establishing the legal right to the workers of the world. This day is memorable to the owners of the world for their defeat against the working class people. All  the  privileges  workers  enjoy  today came  about  due  to  the  sacrifice  of  the  workers  in 1886. The history behind it is very sorrowful. On May 3, 1886, some workers gathered in demand of a minimum wage, safety laws and eight hours work day. Police fired in the crowd of strikers at the Mc Comick Harvest Machine, Chicago. Here at least one person was killed and some others were seriously wounded. At the beginning of Industrial revolution people had to work long hours both by day and at night. It was simply inhuman. It stopped when all labourers stood up. The event of May Day 1886 is a  reminder  that  workers  will  continue  to  be  exploited  until  they  stand  up  and  speak  out  to  gain better  working  conditions,  better  pay  and  better  lives.  In fact, May Day is a milestone of snatching away the rights from the blood-sucking owners by the exploited workers of the cosmos. The sacrifices of so many people cannot be forgotten or we’ll end up fighting for those same gains all over again. This is why we should celebrate May Day with profound respect.

 

 

 

Independence Day of Bangladesh

March 26, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the West Pakistan rulers started to exploit শোষণ, cheat, and oppress জুলুম Bangladeshi people. After the massive attack beginning from the early hours of 26 March, 1971, the undisputed অবিসংবাদী leader of East Pakistan declared independence and told the countrymen to fight against the barbarian Pak Army. The day is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervour. As it is a national holiday, all offices, educational institutions, shops and factories remain closed on this day. People get up early morning by hearing the bombing sounds of gun. Coming with rallies and processions মিছিল, people of all walks of life place floral wreaths at the National Musolium at Savar to pay rich tributes শ্রোদ্ধাঞ্জলি to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. The country also witness a smartly dressed parade of defence forces, border guards, police, ansars and the VDP at the National Parade Ground. School children, scouts and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. Besides, various cultural programmes throughout the day highlighting the heroic struggle and sacrifice in 1971, tournaments including the exciting boat race are organised throughout the country on the day. Milad Mahfil was organized by the different mosque especially in the National Mosque Baitul Mukarram. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated আলোকিত to give the capital city a dazzling উজ্জ্বল look. This day certainly makes bridges between the spirit of Independence Day and the future generations. May Independence Day always be the spirit of prosperity of our nation.

 

My roots

Human beings have roots but unlike the roots of the trees. They are invisible and lie in our minds. Our families, land of birth, relatives, our culture, traditions, or surroundings are our roots. It’s these roots that make a bond between us and family members, inlaws, friends, neighbours or even between us and the land where we were born and grew up. It’s our roots that develop our identity making us what we are. And whereever we stay, we have a continuous pull of our roots. Eveyone wants to share happiness on different festivals with their near and dear ones. So most of the people, who are living outside their home for different reasons have a strong desire to get back home during the vacations. As a result, there is a mad rush in the buses, trains, or launches for the home-bound people. This often causes transport accidents that take away many lives. However, it cannot stop people’s desire to meet their family, in-laws, or friends. Due to this pull of the roots, people rush for their homes in spite of serious hazards. When we lose that bond, we become rootless. Human beings, who do not have any root or contexts, do not have their own identity. Such persons are devoid of values, humanity, and social responsibilities. They don’t know where they are from, and/or where they are heading towards. This often makes them feel empty and lost. So in spite of forgetting our roots, we should cherish it in our core of heart for our own existence.

 

Mobile Phone

A cell phone popularly known as mobile phone is a typically small type of hand held electronic device which can be carried around. Unlike a traditional landline, it is not rooted in a cable. The mobile phone can be used to communicate over long distances without wires. It has added  a new dimension of our life and to our communication system.  We can send message at any of time. It is handy in emergencies,  light weight,  a good way to pass the time. Though mobile phone we can send messages to distant place, play games and sports, know about time, solve the work of calculation. Be aware of different kinds of news and views. At present the popularity of mobile phone is increasing.  The price of phone is also decreasing in comparison with the past. It has some drawbacks. Scientist have recently discovered that phone can cause cancer to the users. If a user continues his or her conversation more than two minutes, the blood brain barrier  gets damage. Besides, it has become a fashion with the young people to keep the mobile phone. The terrorists are also using it to spread out the terrorism all around the world. It wastes time and has risk of data security. The government should have an official restriction on using mobile phone by children and pregnant women.

 

 

 

Computer

A computer is an electronic device that takes data in one form and gives it out in another form. It is one of the greatest invention of modern science. It is a device that works like a human brain. That is why, it is called the ‘electric brain’. It stores information, analyses it and produces information as required from the data. There are five major components in a computer. They are the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit. The main parts of a PC are a centre processor with its disk drives, keyboards monitor, printer and a scanner. A computer can be opened, operated and shut down with the help of a mouse. All complicated tasks can be done easily in a very short time with the help of a computer. It is used in measuring daily routine work, trade and commerce, diagnosing diseases, entertainment, games and sports, transport, educational sector, researching space and what not. It has done great wonders in inventing e-mail, internet and robot. Nowadays computer helps to diagnose a disease. Computer is of great use to us also in the field of agriculture and buriness. It has lessened our work loads and made our life easy and comfortable. At present lives cannot be led without computer. Truly speaking, modern civilization is dependent on computer to a great extent.  Computer is immensely beneficial though it has some demerits too. It becomes an addiction to some users. Many prefer spending more time with a computer to doing outdoor activities. But in the age of globalization we cannot do without a computer.

 

 

 

My Visit to a Book Fair

A book fair is a display or exhibition of books typically by a group of publishers or book dealers for promoting sales and stimulating interest among the readers. It spreads the message vie books that are our best friends and it makes our life glorious. The largest book fair in our country is the Ekushy book fair held in February to observe the Language Movement Day in the Bangla Academy premises. Last month I paid a visit to this book fair. I am a book lover. I have a habit of collecting books. “Amar Ekushe Grantha Mela” helps to collect precious books. With a view to collecting some books on literature, I went there with my parents. More than hundred of pavilions were set up. The stalls were decorated beautifully to draw the attention of the readers. All sorts of books, text books, fictions, children books, religious books, story books, novels, books on various dramas, books on poems, autobiographical books, books on science and technology, books on raising social awareness, etc. are usually available in a book fair. I bought  three novels . In the afternoon, a discussion meeting on Bangla literature was held as usual. It highlighted the Supreme sacrifice of the martyrs of our Language Movement. This was followed by a cultural function to entertain the music lovers with Sweet Bangla songs. The function was attended by many leading artists of the country. It acted as a soothing balm for many Sorrow-stricken hearts. I became Spell-bound to hear the melodious Songs. I also became a bit nostalgic forgetting the hard realities of life. In fact, a book fair is considered to be an occasion of great festivity to the book-lovers.

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