Graph/Chart

Describing Graphs, Tables and Charts

What is a chart?

A chart is a diagram that makes information easier to understand by showing how two or more sets of data are related. There are two common types of chart, a pie chart and a bar chart.

  1. A pie chart is a circle divided into segments . It is usually used to show percentages.
  2. A Bar chart is a diagram that makes information easier to understand by showing how two or more sets of data are related. A bar chart is divided into columns .

1. Population growth in Canada

This graph shows the growth of the population in Canada from 1978 to 2009. It is taken from the website about Statistics in Canada.

There are three graphs in the chart. The green graph shows the total growth of the population, the black one deals with the migrated people in Canada and the blue graph shows the natural increase of the population. In 1988/89 there was an enormous growth. In the following years the total growth went down to about 250,000 in 1998/99. From that time on the Canadian population has been gradually growing again although the natural increase slows down. So we can say that the growth of the population in Canada is based on migration.

 

The chart shows the educational achievements of homeless people in America (divided into those in families and single homeless people) compared to those of all US adults, for the year 1997. The (i) _ worst­__ ___ educational attainment was for homeless people in families (53% with less than a high-school diploma), (ii) ­­­_________ the (iii) ________ results were for all US adults (45% or more with a high-school diploma). Single homeless people were (iv) ___________ than those in families: the percentage of single homeless without a high-school diploma was much (v) _________ than for homeless people in families (37% compared to 53%), (vi) ________ the percentage having only high-school diplomas was much (vii) _________ (36% compared to 21%). Having said this, similar percentages of homeless people in families and single homeless people had more than a high-school diploma: 27% and 28% respectively. In sum, it is clear that homeless people had (viii) _______ educational attainments than US adults as a whole, and that homeless people in families had (ix) ________ levels of achievement than single homeless.

 

 

This chart shows the populations of major European countries in 1996 and 2007. In all countries except Poland the population rose in this period. The largest rise was in Turkey where the population increased from over 62 to over 73 million, whereas the smallest increase was in Germany where the population of 82 million rose by a few thousand. Spain also had a fairly large increase from 39.4 million to 44.5 million, and France was not far behind with an increase of almost 4 million. In the other two countries, Italy and the United Kingdom, population growth was more modest with increases of about 2.3 and 2.8 million respectively. In Poland, the population fell by half a million. Poland had the smallest population in both 1996 and 2007. Although Spain and Portugal had comparable populations in 1996, Spain’s population is now nearly six and a half million greater than Poland’s.

 

Now take a look at a model answer:

 

 

The pie charts illustrate the primary reasons that people came to and left the UK in 2007.  At first glance it is clear that the main factor influencing this decision was employment. 

Having a definite job accounted for 30 per cent of immigration to the UK, and this figure was very similar for emigration, at 29%.  A large number of people, 22%, also emigrated because they were looking for a job, though the proportion of people entering the UK for this purpose was noticeably lower at less than a fifth. 

Another major factor influencing a move to the UK was for formal study, with over a quarter of people immigrating for this reason.  However, interestingly, only a small minority, 4%, left for this.

The proportions of those moving to join a family member were quite similar for immigration and emigration, at 15% and 13% respectively.   Although a significant number of people (32%) gave ‘other’ reasons or did not give a reason why they emigrated, this accounted for only 17% with regards to immigration.

 

Look at the following simple line graph:

Simple Graph

It shows the population of Denmark from 1996 to 2007. You can see that in 1996 the population was 5.25 million and that by the year 2007 it had grown to 5.45 million.

When you write about a line chart it is important to look first at the Chart Title. This tells you what information the graph displays and you can use this information in your description.

Then look at the X and Y axes. The titles of these axes sometimes give you information you can use in your description. It is important also to look at the UNITS. On the Y-axis in this graph the units are millions. The population of Denmark in 1996 was not 5.25, but 5.25 million people.

Line graphs describe change. When describing these graphs you must answer the question, “What changed?”. In this case we can see that the population of Denmark increased from 1996 to 2007.

We can also ask the question, “How did the population change?”. Because the line is fairly smooth, we can say that the population increased steadily.

Lastly, we can ask the question, “How much?”. In this case, “How big was the change in population?” The population in 1996 was 5.25 million and in 2007 it was 2.45 million. So there was an increase of 0.2 million or 200,000 people.

 

 

This chart shows the relative size of populations of countries of the European Union in 2007. So we can only make comparisons; we cannot say anything about change.

We can see that the country with the largest population was Germany with 16.6% of the European Union’s population. We can also see that the second largest population was that of France with 12.8% of the population.

We do NOT know from this chart which country has the smallest population because the 21 smallest countries are included in one group. (If you’re interested, it is Malta with less than 0.1 per cent.)

You can see that the four largest countries (Germany, France, the United Kingdom and Italy) together make up more than half of the European Union’s population.

You CANNOT say that Poland has the smallest population: 21 other countries have populations smaller than Poland’s.

The twenty-one smallest countries of the European Union make up nearly 30% of the population.

 

CV Writing

March 7, 2017                                                                                                                      

The principal,

Monipur High School and College,

Mirpur, Dhaka.

Subject: Application for the post of an Assistant Lecturer in English

Dear Sir,

In response to your advertisement published in the daily Rainbow on October 18, 2016, I came to learn that some eligible candidates are going to be appointed. I would like to offer myself as an enthusiastic candidate for the position of an Assistant Lecturer.  My qualifications and necessary documents are enclosed here with my curriculum vitae for your kind consideration.

In the circumstances stated above, I do hope that you would consider and allow me to prove my ability.

Yours faithfully,  

Md. John Sarkar,

Enclosures:    1. 2 Passport size photographs

  1. All mark sheets and certificates

Curriculum Vitae

Of

Md. John Sarkar

Mobile: 01716352326

Email:john@gmail.com

Career objective              :  Intend to work in a challenging and competitive environment where the strong sense of responsibility and commitment are required; where the dignity of work provides job satisfaction and the place of the work provides potential avenues for learning, growing and achieving a top position.

Profile                                  : Strong team working, leadership and communication skills.

Education                          :

2010                                      SSC, Dhaka Board, GPA 5.00

2012                                     HSC, Dhaka Board, GPA 5.00

2016                                      BA, United International University, CGPA 3.73

2017                                     MA, United International University, CGPA 3.60

Personal details:

  1. Father’s Name :
  2. Mother’s Name :
  3. Present Address :
  4. Permanent address:
  5. Date of Birth :
  6. Nationality :
  7. National ID :
  8. Religion :
  9. Marital Status :
  10. Height :
  11. Weight :              
  12. Blood group :

Work Experience            : Working as a senior teacher of BN College since 2010

 language Skill                  : Fluent in both Bangla and English

 Computer skill                 : Basic computing, M/S office program, Can maintain software & hardware

Interests                              : Bird watching, Stamp collecting, travelling, reading

Reference                           :  1,   Abul Kalam Azad, Professor                           

                                                    Math department

                                                     Dhaka University           

                                                     Cell No: 01710507674.

                                                  2,    Md. Anis Tuhin , Professor

                                                  Department of CSE

                                                Jahangirnagar   University

                                                 Cell No: 01937777022.

 

Md. John Sarkar

Signature

Story Writing

A Farmer and Three Sons

Long ago and far away, there was a rich and industrious farmer who had three sons. His sons always quarreled and fought with one another. Though their father often advised them to mend their ways, they did not pay any heed to him. He was not only very angry but also very depressed. One day, the old farmer was lying on his bed and he thought that he would not live much longer. He gathered his sons about him. He told a servant to bring in a bundle of seven sticks tied together. He handed the bundle to his oldest son and said to him to break the bundle then. The son tried with all his might, but he could not break the bundle. One by one, the other brothers tried. Not one of them was strong enough. By looking at them farmer again ordered them to open the bundle and then cut the sticks. This time they had no difficulty breaking the sticks. In a few moments all the sticks were broken. Finally farmer said them that if u will be united nobody would hurt you but if you will always fight, everyone will hurt you. The old man looked at his son affectionately and said, “Remember, in unity there is strength.” These words worked magic. They promised to live in peace.

Moral: United we stand, divided we fall. / Unity is strength.

 

 

 

 

A Cobbler and a Banker

There lived a happy cobbler who passed his days working and singing from morning till night. A rich neighbour of his was a banker who one day asked him how much he earned a year. The cobbler replied that he earned enough to make both ends meet. But he was used to this sort of life and he was happy. The next day the rich banker again came to visit the cobbler. He came with ten thousand taka in a bag. He said to him, “My friend, I have brought ten thousand taka for you. Keep this money and remove your distress.” The cobbler was greatly surprised. At first he refused to take the money. Then he took the money from the rich man and thanked him. Now a new thinking took hold of the cobbler. He said to himself, “Ten thousand taka is a lot of money.” He could not think where to keep the money. He did not find any safe place to keep the bag. He dug a hole in his hut and kept the money there. But he always thought that his money could be stolen any time. This thought kept him awake and his sleep fled away at night. He even could not devote himself to his work. As a result, his life became more miserable. Peace and happiness vanished from his life. The cobbler gradually realized that he had money, but no peace of mind.  

Moral: Money can’t bring happiness

 

 

 

A Greedy Dog

Once there lived a very greedy dog. One afternoon, the dog was terribly hungry. He decided to go look for something to eat. He walked across the wooden bridge and started sniffing around for food. Suddenly, he spotted a bone lying at a distance. “Ah, I am in luck. This looks a delicious bone,” he said. Without wasting any time, the hungry dog picked up the bone. When he was just about to eat it, he thought that somebody might see here with this bone. So, holding the bone in his mouth, he ran towards his house.  While crossing the wooden bridge, the dog looked down into the river. There he saw his own reflection. The foolish dog mistook it for another dog. He thought, “How nice it would be to snatch that piece of bone as well. Then, I will have two bones.” So, the greedy dog looked at his reflection and growled. The reflection growled back, too. This made the dog angry. So he started barking at the reflection to have the other piece of meat. But Alas! During barking, his piece of meat fell from his mouth in the stream below and the current swept it away. The he realized that what he had seen was nothing but his own reflections and not another dog. But it was too late. He had lost the piece of bone because of his greed. Now he had to go hungry. 

Moral: Greed brings about disaster. / Do not be greedy. / Greed is a curse. / Grasp all, lose all.

The Fox Without a Tail or Dirty tricks seldom work

A fox that had been caught in a trap, succeeded at last after a lot of effort. But he had to leave his beautiful bushy tail behind him. For a long time he kept away from the other foxes. He knew well enough that they would all make fun of him and crack jokes behind his back. But it was hard for him to live alone. At last he thought of a plan that would perhaps help him out of his trouble. He called a meeting of all the foxes. When they were all gathered together, the fox without a tail made a long speech about the harm caused by their tails. With proof of the danger and uselessness of having a tail the fox advised every fox to cut it off if he valued life and safety. When he had finished talking, an old fox arose and said, “Fox, kindly turn around for a moment, and you shall have your answer.” When the poor fox without a tail turned around, there arose such a storm of jeers and hooting. Then he saw how useless it was to try any longer to persuade the foxes to part with their tails.

Moral: Empty words cannot become facts. / Do not trust someone with self-interest. /Misery loves company. /Losing a tail is embarrassing.

 

Bayazid’s devotion to his mother

Bayazid was a small boy whose mother was ill. One day he was studying by the side of his ailing mother. All on a sudden his mother woke up, raised her head and told her son to give a glass of water. Hearing this, Bayazid went to fetch a glass of water but unfortunately he found no water in the pitcher. Then he went out with a jar in that dark night to fetch water. He got frightened but he did not give up his effort of fetching water. At last, he reached a distant fountain to bring water. He filled the pitcher with water and began to walk fast towards his house. At about 2.a.m. he reached at home. But he saw that his mother was in deep sleep. He refrained from disturbing his mother and stood still beside his mother’s bed with the glass of water. She was surprised to find Bayazid still standing by her bed. She said, “O my son, why did you not leave the glass on the table and go to sleep? “Dear mother, I thought you would not find the water on waking. So I did not leave it on the table and go to sleep. Please take the glass and drink, “answered bayazid with a smile. His mother drank water and prayed to Allah to bless her son with the highest spiritual honour. Later on, Bayazid became one of the famous devotees of Islam.

 

Mercy never goes unrewarded

It was a hot summer day. Sun was shining bright up in the sky. A lion was sitting under the shade of a big tree and in some time got asleep. Nearby that tree, there was a hole, in which there lived a mouse. When the lion was sleeping, the mouse came out of its hole and saw him asleep. Unaware of the lion’s strength, it got tickled by an idea. It thought of waking up the lion by running over his body just for fun. Unfortunately, the lion seized it in his strong paw. The mouse pleaded for its life. Being generous by nature, the lion set it free. The mouse promised to help the lion if it ever got the chance. The lion laughed aloud at this. After all, how could a tiny mouse help the king of the jungle? A few days later, the mouse was passing through the jungle when he saw the same lion trapped in a hunter’s net and it was tied into a net under a tree. The lion was groaning and shouting for help. But nobody was there. The mouse came to him. The mouse said, “Don’t worry sir. I will help you”. It cut the ropes of the net with his sharp teeth one after another and soon the lion was free. Then the lion realized that a little animal can also help others. He was very grateful to the mouse and thanked the little mouse for its timely help.

Moral: Never under-estimate anyone. /Everything has its own value. /A friend in need is a friend in deed.

 

Grapes are sour

Once upon a time, a hungry fox was roaming around here and there searching for food. Because of hunger, he was feeling weak and tired. Fortunately, he came to a garden where he saw a grape-vine laden with bunches of grapes they looked quite ripe and juicy. The fox looked at the grapes with longing eyes and licked his chops. But the bunches were too high for him and he was feeling weak. So he sat down for a while to take some rest. On feeling refreshed, he jumped as high as he could, to get at the grapes. But he failed to reach them. Then he again rested for some time and made another bold attempt, but was unlucky for the second time. He tried again and again, but it was all in vain. Forced to give up trying anymore, he just walked away and instead of accepting his failure, he remarked “The grapes appeared to be ripe and juicy, but now I see them to be quite sour and are not at all worth eating.” This story, thus, proves that, people generally hate what they can’t get. 

Moral: It’s easy to despise what you cannot have. /People pretend to dislike what they cannot get.

 

 

Grasp all, lose all or A Greedy farmer

Once upon a time, there lived a poor farmer who used to maintain his family with much hardship. One day he went to market and bought a wonderful goose spending all of his money. At first glance his wife insisted to kill the goose and determined to tame. One day, the farmer found there an egg all yellow and glittering lying outside his hut and the goose sitting beside it. When he took it up it was as heavy as lead and he was going to throw it away, because he thought a trick had been played upon him. But he took it home on second thoughts, and soon found to his delight that it was an egg of pure gold. He could hardly believe his eyes and disclosed it to his wife delightfully. Every morning the same thing occurred, and he soon became rich by collecting and selling his eggs to the local market. Within a very short time, he owned huge sum of money and built a gorgeous house to live in. At the same time he did not reveal this incident to any one, fearing that others would catch the goose. From that day onwards, the goose would lay a golden egg every day. In return, the farmer along with his wife took good care of the goose. But by this time the man became very greedy and impatient to have all the eggs at a time. Since he was greedy and wanted to be millionaire overnight. So, one day he hit upon a plan that he would kill the goose and get all the eggs of gold from its belly. Then he would sell the eggs and became rich at once. The farmer told his wife about his plan. His wife was wise but not greedy. She frequently forbade her husband to be greedy and requested to be contented with what they have. The farmer did not pay any heed to his wife’s suggestion. He immediately killed the goose with a sharp knife. No sooner had he cut its belly than unluckily he did not find a single egg inside. He became extremely disappointed and lost the valuable goose forever. Instead of becoming rich, he became poorer. Through this incident, the farmer realised his fault clearly that over greediness brought misfortune for him.

The story of greedy dog

Once there lived a dog. He was very greedy. There were many times that he had to pay for his greed. Each time the dog promised himself that he had learnt a good lesson and he would never be greedy again. But he soon forgot his promises and was as greedy as ever. One afternoon, the dog was terribly hungry and went in search of food. He stole a piece of meat from a farmer’s kitchen. Taking it in his mouth, he started to run away from the place.  The dog happily carried the bone back home. He held the bone tightly in his mouth and scowled at anyone who tried to take it away. On his way home, he had to cross a bridge. While crossing the bridge, the dog saw his reflection in the water below. The foolish dog thought there was another dog in the water, holding another juicy bone. The greedy dog wanted to have that bone too. He growled and barked at his own reflection in the water. As he opened his mouth, the bone in his mouth fell into the river. It was only when the water splashed that the greedy dog realized that what he had seen was nothing but his own reflections and not another dog. But it was too late. He had lost the piece of bone because of his greed. The dog lost his bone and had to go home, hungry.

 

Slow and steady wins the race

Once there lived a hare and a tortoise in a jungle. The hare was very proud of his speed and therefore used to ridicule the tortoise for his slow speed. He uttered that it was a little creature and he crawl very slowly. The tortoise listened to him but said nothing. The hare grew more impudent. He began to call him names. This was too much for the tortoise to bear. He became angry and challenged him to a race. The hare at first laughed but then accepted the challenge. A tree at a distance was fixed as the victory post. At a whistle from the fox the race started. As expected, the hare left the tortoise far behind. Soon the hare felt bored. So, he stopped and began eating blades of green grass. Having had his fill, he felt sleepy. Seeing a shady bush nearby, he lay down under it. As the tortoise was quite away behind, he had no worry from his side. As for the tortoise, he plugged along at his slow place and overtook the sleeping hare. Passing by him silently, he got to the winning point. When the hare awoke, it was fairly late. He feared that the tortoise might have passed by him. So, he ran at break-neck speed but only to find his rival already there as a winner.

 

The bone in throat

Once upon a time, there was a lazy wolf living in a jungle. Near his house was a pond. Many animals came to the pond to drink water. The wolf was always in search of food. One day, he was sitting near the pond hoping to get something to eat. When suddenly he spotted a dead bull. He began to eat the bull. In his haste, a piece of bone got stuck in his throat. He tried to bring it out of his mouth. He tried to cough it out but in vain. Next, he tried to swallow it down but he failed. Suddenly he remembered that a crane lived on the nearby riverbank. The wolf went to the crane and pleaded that he had got a bone stuck in my throat. He will give him a present, if he could pull it out of his throat with his long beak. The crane took pity on the wolf. He asked the wolf to look up with his mouth open. The crane then put its head into the wolf’s mouth and pulled out the bone. Then the fox got relief. Now the crane asked where his present was. “What present?” the wolf replied, pretending not aware of its promise. He added that it was not a present that he put his head into his mouth and got out alive? “He could have easily crushed his head while his beak was inside his mouth,” said the ungrateful wolf and went away. The crane felt helpless and decided not to help any ungrateful creature in the future.

 

A fox and a goat

It was a hot summer day. A fox was very thirsty. Looking around for a place to quench his thirst, he came across a well that had very little water in it. He was so thirsty that he got down into it and quenched his thirst. Having had his fill, the fox wondered how he would get out of the well. At that time a very thirsty goat passed by the well and saw the fox there. She asked the fox what he was doing there. The cunning fox replied that he had himself jumped into the well and found it very cool and pleasant. He also asked if he wanted to drink sweet and cold water. He further told to come down and experience the pleasure there. Without thinking of the result she jumped into the well. The fox at once jumped on her back, and with another jump he was out of well. The fox smiled at the poor goat and went his way leaving behind the goat to repent. The goat felt so sorry but nothing to do for escaping.

 

Cunningness of the monkey

 

Once there lived two cats in a house. One day they stole a piece of bread form their neighbouring house. But the problem arose how to divide it because each of the cats wanted the larger portion of it. When they failed to reach any conclusion, they went to a monkey who is considered to be the wisest of all the animals. They requested the monkey to divide the bread equally.

The monkey brought a pair of scales but couldn’t resist his temptation. He determined to eat the bread and made a plan in his mind. He torn out the bread into two pieces and put them on the scales. He told the cats that one piece was clearly heavier than the other. So, he bit off a part of the bigger piece. As a result the piece became heavier. Then the monkey took a part form the heavier piece and put it on the scales. Actually he was doing it intentionally. The monkey continued doing the same thing again and again until there remained only one piece of bread.

Now, the cats being very much annoyed, told the monkey to return that piece to them. They said that they themselves would divide the bread equally. But the monkey said that he toiled much to divide the bread equally. So he wanted it as his fee. Saying so, the monkey ate up that piece also. The cat left the place in a very sad mood but the incident made them wise also.

 

Pathetic consequence of an egotist king

King Lear was very old and tired. He decided to abandon his power and divide his kingdom among his three daughters: Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia. He portioned the land according to how much his daughters loved him. The daughter who loved him most got the most land.  The three daughters were summoned before the king.

Goneril came to the throne and was asked how much she loved her father. She really despised him, but spoke of her “everlasting” love. The next daughter, Regan, who also hated him, told her father that Goneril had not gone far enough. She claimed that she loved Lear even more than Goneril. Cordelia, who loves her father very much, said she loved him no more or less than she should. The old king was so angry that he banished her from the kingdom.  The King of France admired Cordelia’s honesty and married her. He and his new wife moved to France.

Lear had no castle now, so he took one hundred knights. Goneril treated him badly and Lear discovered how evil she really is. He then went to see Regan and her husband Cornwall. Regan would not come out and see her father either. His children too had cheated him. His younger son, Edmund and favorite son, Edgar, had talked of murdering his father.

News reached the unhappy family that Cordelia, the other sister, had raised an army at Dover, a town close by. The sisters took Goneril’s husband to Dover with them and their troops. The battle started. Lear was so tired that he slept through the whole battle. He awoke to find that Cordelia’s army had been defeated. He rejoiced, oblivious of the fact that he and Cordelia had been sentenced to death.

A servant came and explained that Goneril had poisoned Regan. Cordelia had been hanged. At last the king stumbled into a faint, and took his last breath. Thus the egotist king faced a terrible death due to his egotism.

 

The integrity of a young boy

Once upon a time there was a lad named Harun who has a strong sense of morality. Oneday he was returning from school to home. On the way he suddenly noticed that there was something lying on a footpath in a major market at Mirpur. Approaching its nearer, he could behold a bag. He thought for the time being and determined to take the money bag. Seeing none around him, he at once picked the bag and brought it at home. He searched the ins and out of bags and got  some valuable things  like 500 taka along with two credit cards, an address book,  an admit card. While sleeping, he devised to spend that money for several purposes. He became joyous thinking himself to be very fortunate. Meanwhile he fell into deep sleep. It was 9 o’clock when he got up from bed. He started remembering what happened last night. Promptly, a strange idea came to his mind. He thought himself that this small amount of money could help him but other things were completely valueless to him. On the other hand, the owner of the bag had lost the thinge that could be very important to him. He then shared the idea with his mother. She ordered him to make a phone call to the owner as early as possible finding his phone number. I found it very easy to get his number and phoned him. I disclosed the incident and gave our address sothat he could co operate with me. After an hour later, I heard our calling bell ringind. I saw Mr. X, the owner of the bag and requested him to come in. Then I handed down the bag to him. He became surprised and wordless. When my mother entered into the drawing room, he showed his gratitude towards my mother for giving birth a child like mine. The man thanked me so much and proposed me to wish what I wanted. I informed him to pray for me. He became happy and presented me a nice pen. When papa came, mother described it to him whothen assured me to buy a computer. I felt  my long cherished dream was going to be fulfilled.

The story of Rina

Rina works in a big garment factory. There are more than five hundred workers in the factory. One day as usual, she was busy at her work. Suddenly a sound came to her ear that there was break out of fire from the short-circuit. As ill news runs fast, the news spread very fast among the workers. But no one noticed whether there was actually any fire at all. All the workers tried their best to come out from the house. But some fell down and others stumbled them. At least 14 were died. So flied and jumped through the window. Among them two were died and all of the rest were injured. Rina also was injured. But later everyone came to know that it was just a rumor. There was a blast of electric transmitter near the building. It was really a tragic scene.

An ant and  a dove

Once an ant was very thirsty. He went to a pond to drink water. When he began to drink water, a wave swept him away. He was about to drown. There was a tree on the bank of the pond. A dove was sitting on a branch of the tree. He noticed the ant was about to drown. The dove felt pity for the ant. He wanted to save the ant. So he dropped a leaf of the ant. The ant got on the leaf and saved his life. Another day the ant was seeking food under that tree. Then he noticed that a hunter had aimed at the dove. The dove did not know it. The ant thought, “I must save the life of the dove.” So he bit on the right leg of the hunter. At this the hunter’s hands trembled and the bullet missed its aim. Then the dove flew away and saved his life.     

 

 

The Fox Without a Tail or Dirty tricks seldom work

A fox that had been caught in a trap, succeeded at last after a lot of effort. But he had to leave his beautiful bushy tail behind him. For a long time he kept away from the other foxes, for he knew well enough that they would all make fun of him and crack jokes behind his back. But it was hard for him to live alone, and at last he thought of a plan that would perhaps help him out of his trouble. He called a meeting of all the foxes. When they were all gathered together, the fox without a tail got up and made a long speech about the harm caused by their tails. With proof of the danger and uselessness of having a tail, said fox, he would advise every fox to cut it off, if he valued life and safety. When he had finished talking, an old fox arose, and said, smiling: ” fox, kindly turn around for a moment, and you shall have your answer.” When the poor fox without a tail turned around, there arose such a storm of jeers and hooting, that he saw how useless it was to try any longer to persuade the foxes to part with their tails.

The golden touch

There was once a king named Midas who was a very greedy king. Even though he was very rich he always craved for more and more. One day, he called his court magician and commanded, ‘’Find me a spell that can get me more treasures than I already have.” The magician said, “Your majesty, I can give you a power that no one else in this world has. Anything that you touch will turn into gold’- The king was delighted with his good fortune. Everything he touched turned into gold. He turned trees, grass, tables, chairs, flowers, and vases into gold. He thought that he must be the richest man in the world. But in the evening, when he sat down for supper, King Midas was dismayed. His food turned into gold the moment he touched it and he had to go to bed without any food! How­ever, King Midas was too greedy to be sad about it. The next morning, the king’s daughter ran to hug her father. But alas! The minute she kissed him, she turned into a gold statue! King Midas loved his daughter who was a very beautiful girl with a beautiful smile that everyone adorded. Being very sad, he ran to the magician for help. He cried, “Please help me, 0 Magician! I don’t want to be rich anymore. I only want my beloved daughter back.” The magician changed everything back to normal. King Midas had learnt his lesson and was never greedy again.

 

 

The Fox Without a Tail or Dirty tricks seldom work

A Fox that had been caught in a trap, succeeded at last after a lot of effort but in his srtuggle. But he had to leave his beautiful bushy tail behind him. For a long time he kept away from the other Foxes, for he knew well enough that they would all make fun of him and crack jokes and laugh behind his back. But it was hard for him to live alone, and at last he thought of a plan that would perhaps help him out of his trouble. He called a meeting of all the Foxes, saying that he had something of great importance to tell the tribe. When they were all gathered together, the Fox Without a Tail got up and made a long speech about those Foxes who had come to harm because of their tails. This one had been caught by hounds when his tail had become entangled in the hedge. That one had not been able to run fast enough because of the weight of his brush. Besides, it was well known, he said, that men hunt Foxes simply for their tails, which they cut off as prizes of the hunt. With such proof of the danger and uselessness of having a tail, said Master Fox, he would advise every Fox to cut it off, if he valued life and safety.

When he had finished talking, an old Fox arose, and said, smiling: “Master Fox, kindly turn around for a moment, and you shall have your answer.” When the poor Fox Without a Tail turned around, there arose such a storm of jeers and hooting, that he saw how useless it was to try any longer to persuade the Foxes to part with their tails.

Cunningness of the monkey

Once there lived two rats in a house. One day they stole a piece of bread form their neighbouring house. But the problem arose how to divide it because each of the rats wanted the larger portion of it. When they failed to reach any conclusion, they went to a monkey who is considered to be the wisest of all the animals. They requested the monkey to divide the bread equally.

The monkey brought a pair of scales but couldn’t resist his temptation. He determined to eat the bread and made a plan in his mind. He torn out the bread into two pieces and put them on the scales. He told the cats that one piece was clearly heavier than the other. So, he bit off a part of the bigger piece. As a result the piece became heavier. Then the monkey took a part form the heavier piece and put it on the scales. Actually he was doing it intentionally. The monkey continued doing the same thing again and again until there remained only one piece of bread.

Now, the rats being very much annoyed, told the monkey to return that piece to them. They said that they themselves would divide the bread equally. But the monkey said that he toiled much to divide the bread equally. So he wanted it as his fee. Saying so, the monkey ate up that piece also. The rats left the place in a very sad mood but the incident made them wise also.

The pied piper of Hamelin

Once upon a time there was a town called Hamelin. There were rats everywhere in Hamelin – rats in the corn silos, rats in the shops, rats in the streets, and rats in the houses. The rats bred and soon there were so many. The people of Hamelin came to the Town Hall and demanded to know what the Mayor was doing about the rats. When the Mayor was surrounded by his Councillors, he announced a magnificent reward of one thousand gold guilders to any person who could rid the town of the rats. The very next day a stranger appeared in Hamelin wearing a hat. He told the Mayor and his councillors that, for a thousand gold guilders, he could rid Hamelin of the rats that infested it. The Mayor enthusiastically agreed and the Pied Piper stepped outside. Now the Pied Piper started to play a dancing tune and the rats followed along behind. At the river side the Piper stopped, the rats continued dancing and al last all were sunk in the river. The people of Hamelin were celebrating the victory against the rats. The Pied Piper asked for his one thousand gold guilders but the Mayor refused to pay such amount of money. The piper left the place being humiliated. The Piper now came to the street and started playing his pipe again. All the children came out of their house dancing and were following him.

The parents were relieved when they saw the Pied Piper turn away from the river towards the mountain. When a small door appeared in the side of the mountain, the Pied Piper and all of the children disappeared inside the mountain and the small door shut so tightly that no one could tell exactly where it had been.

A cap seller and a monkey

It was a hot summer day. A man was passing through a village. He sold caps to the villagers. He walked for miles and felt very tired. He sat under a big tree to take rest. He put his basket of caps beside him. He then fell asleep. There were monkeys in the tree. The monkeys saw the caps in the basket. They became curious.

The monkeys came down from the tree and took away the caps. After some time, the man woke up. He found that there was no cap in the basket. He was surprised. He looked for the caps. Then he heard some sound above his head. He looked up. He could not believe his eyes! The monkeys were wearing the caps.

The cap-seller became very worried. He did not know what to do. Suddenly he remembered that monkeys like to imitate. So he took off his own cap and threw it on the ground. The monkeys saw it. They also threw their caps on the ground. The cap-seller did not miss the chance. He at once collected the caps from the ground. Then he quickly left the place.

An idle king

Once there was an old king who was averse to physical labour. As a result, he grew very fat and could not move from one place to another easily. He called on a very clever and wise doctor. So he could easily understand that the idleness of the king is the root cause of his obesity. But the only way to reduce the obesity was to advise the king to do physical labour. The doctor was afraid thinking that if he advised him to do physical labour and if the king didn’t do so, he would grow more bulky. Finally, he hit upon a plan. He told the king that his (k) physical condition was not good at all and that’s why he needed immediate treatment. Hearing this, the king became gloomy. Then the doctor gave him a club and told him to brandish it in the morning and in the evening for at least one hour each day. At the very beginning day, when the king started brandishing the club, he became very tired. Sweat came out of his body and he found the task very difficult. The king continued doing the job for one month. After a month, he found himself fresh and healthy. His bulky body became normal and he looked very smart. After a month, the doctor called on the king in his palace. The doctor told the king that physical labour is the best medicine to keep the body fit. The king understood the doctor’s technique. He praised the doctor and thanked him for prescribing such a good medicine for him. He also rewarded him.

The king and the clever astrologer

Once upon a time there was a king who was very fond of knowing his future from the astrologers. He often invited the best astrologer of the kingdom. A famous astrologer happened to stop at his capital on his way to Benares. The king called on him to know about his future and the astrologer told him something unpleasant. At this the king got furious and condemned him to death saying,”Men like you should not live to spoil the peace of the world.”But another thought crossed his mind before the astrologer was removed for execution.”How long would you live?”asked the king.This astrologer mused for a while for some way of  escape,as he was sure the king would prove him a liar putting him to death then there,if he would live longer than that day.With ready wit he said,’’The stars declare that I shall die only a week before your majesty.So,good-bye.I shall wait to receive your Majesty where you have been sending me”.At this the king turned pale as dead and shouted,”Drive this wrech away,let him not come again.”

What is play to one is death to another

Once upon a time there was a pond full of frogs. As it was during the rainy season, it was filled to brim with water. Many dogs took their shelter in the pond. Some of them often put their heads out of the water and croaked loudly. One day some wicked boys were playing by the side of the pond. When they heard the frogs croaking, they began to throw stones into the pond for fun. Some of the frogs became seriously wounded. But the frogs had no ability to stop them. They requested them again and again but it was of no response. So, all the frogs at once went down into water. But the boys did not leave the place. They remained standing there with stones in their hands. They went on pelting the frogs with stones when they raised their heads above the water.

The boys enjoyed much for doing this. But the frogs fell in a danger. Finding no other alternative way an aged old frog raised his head out of the water and said, “Dear boys, don’t throw stones at us, please.” “We’re playing,” said the boys, laughing. “I understand that,” said the old frog. “But the stones you throw hit and hurt us. What’s play to you is death to us.” The boys did not pay any heed and ran away from there.

At night the most intelligent of the boys dreamt a bad dream that he was tied with a small net under a big tree. Some frogs started throwing stones to him. He repeatedly requested the frogs to do so but the frogs continued their activity. He was badly wounded due the cruelty of the frogs. He was about to die. He could understand how painful it was! Meanwhile he woke up from sleep and called his friends. He narrated what happened to him in his dream. The boys realized their fault and promised not to do it again

Informal letter

  1. A letter to friend about his pen friend

 July 21, 2017

17, Amtala Road,

Dhaka-1206

My dear ’X’

Peace be on you through the mercy of Almighty. At the very outset take my cordial love and best wishes. I am extremely sorry not to write to you for a long time. It is a matter of great pleasure for me that I could receive your letter day before yesterday with the information that you have been interested to know about my pen friend. Now I am writing to you about him.  

My pen friend, Susan is 14 years old. He reads in class 10. He lives with his parents in Australia. He is very punctual, obedient, tolerant, leadership in nature, tall, fair in complexion, smart, broadminded, co-operative and respectful. He is very good in studies and behaves well with everyone. Many things of us like hobbies, likes, dislikes, etc are similar. He loves to listen music, watching cartoons and playing carom at home. He has two sisters but no brother. Her sisters are students too. They are sweet. My pen friend is curious about Bangladesh. We write letters to each other. We exchange gifts. My friend has sent me many pictures of her country. He has written me about her country, people, culture and others. I have also sent some pictures of my country to her. He wants to visit my country soon. I am really proud of him.

No more today. Convey my best regards and heartily complements to your parents.  May all my cordial greetings be on your sisters. Please pray for me and write to me how you are.

Yours sincerely

‘Z’

 

 

2. A letter to friend describing the picnic you attended

May 21, 2017

17, Amtala Road,

Dhaka-1206

My dear ’X’

Peace be on you through the mercy of Almighty. At the very outset take my cordial love and best wishes. I am extremely sorry not to write to you for a long time. It is a matter of great pleasure for me that I could receive your letter day before yesterday with the information that you have been interested to know the picnic I attended.  

It was the month of December. My examination was over. I along with my friends decided to go on a picnic. It was a thrilling idea. We all were excited. We decided to go to a tea-garden in Sylhet. The garden was the home land of a friend. It was a short journey. We gathered at our school premises. We started our journey in the morning and reached the garden at about 10.00 a.m. We selected an open space which was shaded by trees. Then we proceeded to make arrangements for cooking our food. We brought all the equipments with us. Rima was in charge of cooking. We all assisted her. It took only two hours to prepare the delicious dishes. After taking our food and making a lot of enjoyments, we decided to return. We talked and danced gaily, we sang merrily, we laughed. In fact, we enjoyed the picnic very much. Before evening we got ready to start back. We also enjoyed on our way back home.

No more today. Convey my best regards and heartily complements to your parents. May all my cordial greetings be on your brother. Please pray for me and write to me how you are.

Yours sincerely

‘Z

 

 

A letter about the importance of reading newspaper

11th September, 2013

25, Mugda, Dhaka

Dear Mahir,

I hope you are well and I am also well by the grace of almighty Allah. I became very shocked when I have heard from mother that you are not interested in reading newspaper regularly.

I think it’s really very bad for me because through daily newspaper you can keep yourself in close contact of everyday world which will help you to grow up as smart and intelligent boy. Similarly, you should bear in mind that newspaper is the store house of knowledge. It is a mirror of the current world. By reading newspaper we can enrich our knowledge on various fields. So, the importance of reading newspaper beggars description. Again, the paper is not only for news but also for entertainment. It can provide you education, literature, arts and culture cartoons, puzzles, rhymes, poems, short-stories, paintings, agriculture, jokes and many other entertainments. Moreover it will help you to be thoughtful. Besides this, to be a civilized person, you must be conscious of the social, political and economical conditions of the present time. It is only newspaper, which can save the purpose appropriately. By reading it you could know modern science too. Every student and every educated person should read newspaper. From now, I hope you will read the daily newspaper regularly.

No more today, convey my Salam to father and mother and love to the youngers.  

Your loving brother,

Murad

 

 

Write a letter to a friend thanking him for his hospitality.

I received your affectionate letter a few days ago. I am sorry for not being able to write you earlier because of some uncongenial circumstances. However, now here is everything in order.

Thank you very much for the warmth and hospitality you showed me on my visit to your home last month. You were a great hostess and took so many pains to make me comfortable. Your father was so nice and so was Aunty. I shall never forget the taste of good food she specially cooked for me. Not for a moment, I felt uneasy or an unwanted guest. It was beyond my expectations. I’ve never seen like a family like yours. All the members of your family treated me as you. I found no difference between you and me there. It is said a fish and a guest begin to smell after three days. But I stayed for two weeks and not a single number of protests from any of you. I thank you for helping me in visiting all the places. I also thank you for taking me to the theatre that night. It was a nice movie full of fun, laughter and comic situations. I enjoyed it besides the ice-creams and soft-drinks we had in the interval.

I have brought back rich and everlasting memories. I will never forget those happy and joyful days while I had been with you at your village home. Besides it, please convey my thanks to your all members of the family for their kind treatment and love.

 

Describing the Prize Giving Ceremony of Your College

I am glad to receive your letter. You have written me about the prize giving ceremony of your college and wished to know about ours. I am glad to let you know that our annual prize giving ceremony came off yesterday. On this occasion we decorated our college campus very nicely. The ceremony began at 2 pm.Our Principal presided over the function and the Education Minister was the chief guest.The function started with the recitation from the holy Quran. One of our senior teachers read out the annual report. The honourable chief guest delivered a brief encouraging speech, advised us to be regular in studies and take part in the movement against illiteracy. Then hegave away the prizes among us. I’ve got two prizes–one for regular attendance and the other for good results in the last year-ending exams. Then the president of the function delivered his speech. He congratulated the prize winners and consoled others. The Principal also expressed his heart-felt thanks to the chief guest. The ceremony came to an end. No more today.

Yours ever

letter to your friend inviting him to attend your birthday party

I am very glad to inform you that mybirthday falls on 26 December. I am planning to celebrate it with you. Our school will be closed for winter break. There is no problem in visiting our place.We have arranged a small tea party in the evening. There will be some refreshments there. There will be dance and music programmes. I have invited all my friends and relatives there. I wish that you should come on my birthday and grace the occasion with your presence. I hope you will come here to attend the party and add to my pleasure. Eagerly waiting for a confirmed reply from you.

 

 

A letter about the importance of reading newspaper

I am very glad to receive your letter and also pleased that you have written it in English. I hope you are well and I am also well by the grace of almighty Allah. I became very shocked when I have heard from mother that you are not interested in reading newspaper regularly.

Well, you can improve your English not only studying your text books but also a newspaper. The news paper reading interesting because you are getting the current topics and up to date knowledge and it will also increase your vocabulary, that is, stock of words and also the expression will be enriched. You will learn many things with less conscious effort. You love games and sports and if you read the news you will get both pleasure and language items like new words, new phrases and new structures. You should bear in mind that newspaper is the store house of knowledge. So, the importance of reading newspaper beggars description. Again, the paper is not only for news but also for entertainment. It can provide you cartoons, puzzles, rhymes, poems, short-stories, paintings, jokes and many other entertainments. Moreover it will help you to be thoughtful.

No more today. Convey my regards to father and mother. Hope you would look into my advice seriously. Take care.

 

Write a letter to your friend inviting him for the picnic that you are going to arrange

April 10, 2013

Mirpur, Dhaka

Dear Luna,

At the beginning of the letter, take my cordial love. Hope that you are well by the grace of all mighty Allah. I am also well by the grace of Allah. I am very glad to receive your letter and learnt that you are enjoining the winter vacation.

You will be very pleased to know that, we are going to arrange a picnic on next Friday from our school on 25 April 2013. We have selected Sonargaon for our picnic spot. It is a very beautiful place for picnic. We will start at 8.a.m from school. We will start by our school bus. Many students and teachers will attend the picnic. We will spend the whole day there. Some of our friends will sing their sweet songs. We will eat, drink, and enjoy together. It will be a day of much pleasure for us. We have already managed all the things to make the program successful. In this situation we cannot think without you. We hope we will make a lot of fun. So, I cannot but invite you to the picnic. All of my friends will also be happy if you join with us. 

No more today. Convey my regards to your parents and love to the little ones. We are eagerly waiting for your arrival.

Your loving friend

Sathi

Report Writing

Meghna launch capsize death toll 43

Staff Correspondent,

Mirpur, Dhaka, March 9, 2012: The death toll from Friday’s launch capsize in Meghna rose to 14 as rescuers recovered 12 more bodies on Saturday. Rescuers recovered two bodies in the place after the launch, the ML Saros, had capsized in the river at Gazaria in Munshiganj after being hit with a cargo vessel carrying sand about 7:30 am Friday. The launch was going from Narayanganj to Matlab in Chandpur.The passenger launch carrying over 150 passengers capsized Monday afternoon as it caught in storms, leaving dozens of people missing.

Soon after the mishap, local people recovered four bodies from the river on Monday evening.  Later, the rescue workers pulled up 39 more bodies from the sunken launch on Tuesday, raising the death toll to 43. The one-member committee headed by Kazi Saiful Islam has made its inquiry report public, saying that the capsize was mainly caused by overloading of passengers and goods on the launch.

Meanwhile, the district administration provided 4,000 taka (about 63 U.S. dollars) as grant to each of the 33 families of the capsized victims. Remaining families will also be provided with the money.

A police boat was patrolling the river looking for more bodies.

 

Buriganga River Pollution

Staff Reporter, Mirpur, Dhaka, March 9, 2012: Buriganga was once the lifeline of the Bangladeshi capital. But the once mighty Buriganga river, which flows by Dhaka, is now one of the most polluted rivers in Bangladesh because of rampant dumping of industrial and human waste. “The water of the Buriganga is now so polluted that all fish have died, and increasing filth and human waste have turned it like a black gel. Even rowing across the river is now difficult for it smells so badly,” he told the reporters. The plight of the Buriganga symbolises the general state of many rivers in Bangladesh, a large flat land criss-crossed by hundreds of rivers which faces an uphill battle to keep them navigable and their water safe for human and aquatic lives. Unabated encroachment that prevents the free flow of water, dumping of medicinal waste and waste of river passengers have compounded the problem, making the water unusable for humans and livestock.

Among the top polluters are dozens of tanneries on the banks of the Buriganga. The government recently initiated a move to relocate the tanneries outside the capital, and also asked illegal encroachers to vacate the river. But environmental groups say they defy such orders by using their political links or by bribing people.

 

 

4-day science fair in Monipur High School

The Science Fair 2013 was held recently at Monipur High School amid enthusiasm of young scientists displaying various innovative projects. Wasima Parveen, Deputy Chairperson, and Mira Murshed, Head of Academics, were among the judges who assessed all the projects at the fair.

Contestants presented their science project results in the form of a report, display board, and models that they have created. A few creative students of Class IX have successfully built a cheap car, which they believe will cut down environmental pollution because it runs on batteries, and will also allow more people to have access to cars because of the low price.

Some of the outstanding projects of the Science Fair were on heart disease and fermentation, the star chart and solar system, and double circulation. Students were looking for problems to local solutions as well, such as flooding, load shedding and global warming.

Main thrust of the fair is to encourage the young scientists alongside flourishing their innovative latent talents and building a science minded nation.The Science Fair was a platform for students to develop both their research and creative skills and the event was greatly enjoyed by the students, parents and management of the school.

 

 

Celebration of Baishakhi mela

A Baisakhi Mela was arranged in the Rotary School and College primises yesterday. The two-day fair mark cultural shows like singing, dancing, play acting, poetry recitation, stand-up comedy, food and other stalls, and raffle draws on one LCD TV, a laptop computer and a DVD player. Food stalls, among other items, sell typical Bengali food items like pitha, payesh, panta-ilish, shutki, jhaal-muri, and cotton candy. Traditional handicrafts, hand-made cakes, special kinds of food stuff, sweets, potteries, bangles, pitchers and cane products are the main exhibits. The fairs also provide entertainment, with staging Jatra, Pala gan, Kavigan, Jarigan and Gambhira Gan. Artistes present folk songs as well as Baul, marfati, Murshidi and Bhatiali songs.

Several hundred Bangalis came to attend this fair and observed the Pohela Boishakh with much fanfare. Young women came to the mela wearing white sari with red borders and adorn themselves with bangles, flowers and tips. Men wear white pyjamas and panjabi. Children enjoyed shows by clowns, face painting and mehendi painting on their hands.

The Baisakhi Mela is an ancient form of Bengali folk festival that continues to thrive in the modern age.

 

 

Child labour on the increase

Staff Correspondent, Dhaka, March 9, 2012: Child domestic service is a widespread practice in Bangladesh. A UN Children Fund has found that more than 6.3 million children under 14 are working in Bangladesh. Children are labouring as maids and servants, in garment factories and engineering workshops, in the construction sector, as bus or tempo helpers, in the cigarette factories, as roadside restaurant workers and street vendors, and in tea plantations and other agricultural sectors. Boys often perform tasks like going to the grocery, cleaning the drain, talking the garbage to roadside bins, washing the car and sell nuts etc. On the other hand, girls have to iron the cloths, attend phone calls and serve the guests. The child domestic workers are often the least paid in the society, their remuneration ranging from 80 taka to 400 taka per month. In most of the cases, they hand over all their earnings to their parents, leaving nothing for themselves. Children have been injured while engaged in factory work, in maritime work and while operating or cleaning machinery in motion. Child workers are regularly exposed to dangerous levels of dust, gases, fumes, heat and noise. Muscular-skeletal and respiratory-related ailments are common among child labourers.

Child labour is not only inhuman but also destructive. Bangladesh must be prompt in making void child labour by taking effective and pragmatic steps so that today’s children can be ideal citizens for future. Children are the future hopes and aspirations of a country. So, we should give them proper facilities to grow up well stopping their unexpected and outrageous labour.

 

 

 

Visiting a historical place

Staff Correspondent, Dhaka, March 9, 2012: Historical place means a place which bears testimony to history. Bangladesh is a land of historical importance. Everywhere there are places of historical interest. Visiting a historical place is truly interesting and exciting. Visits to such places have a great educative value too. Besides, it helps to remove the dullness of mind which occurs from the monotonous work. Mahasthangarh, a glorious chapter of old history, opened up before our eyes. Mahasthangarh was the site of Pundrangar. Pundranagar was the capital of the Mouryas, Guptas, Senas and Other Hindu Kings. The old city was about 2000 meters long and 1500 meters wide and was surrounded by a wall. Once it was a very flourishing city. Mahasthangarh stands on the western bank of the river Korotoa. There are some elevated places near Mahasthangarh. These place are known as ‘Vitas’, ‘Kundus’, ‘Ghous’ and ‘Dhaps’. One part of the dried river is known as the ghat of Khakabati. There is a museum at Mahasthangarh. Some images, dice, ornaments and posts excavated from Mahasthangarh have been kept in the museum. All the relics of the past make a permanent impression and tourists can learn a lot of things about our past civilization.

A visit to a place of historical interest seems to be an interesting and source of entertainment of mind. It will undoubtedly be a great pleasure for everyone to be at Mahasthangarh. At the same time the government should come forward to protect this restricted area from its further decay.

 

 

Shortage of playground, an acute problem

Staff Reporter,

Dhaka, March 9, 2012: Though the school and college industry have been flourishing day by day in Bangladesh, most schools here in the capital have no playgrounds despite high tuition fees being charged from parents. Lack of playgrounds is affecting students’ physical and mental fitness, the specialized doctors of Bangladesh Shishu Hospital reported. It also impedes the normal course of education. However, a lot of such schools have been unable to fulfil the expectations of students. Students of nearly all schools and colleges have expressed their concern over the shortage of playgrounds and have urged authorities to construct playgrounds at the earliest. Md. Raihanul Haque, father of a student, said most schools and colleges were operating in small houses and students are forced to use parks as playgrounds, creating problems for residents. Shaheena, mother of a student, said schools or colleges without playgrounds should not be allowed to function. Murtaza Noor, an official from the government’s Higher Education Commission, said it was mandatory for schools or colleges to arrange cricket, hockey, football, basketball, volleyball and gymnastic competitions and physical training sessions for students. He, however, did not explain why no action was being taken against schools that lacked playgrounds.

In order to ensure a congenial atmosphere in schools and colleges, there is no alternative way without having playgrounds which can play a pivotal role in the way of producing a healthy and sound minded new generation.

 

 

 

Swine flu: A Threat to Humans

 

 Star Correspondent

Like people, pigs can get influenza, but swine viruses are not the same as human flu viruses. It spreads from person to person and it is happening among people who have not had any contact with pigs. But it is originated from swine. First it is found in Mexico.

Many people died as a consequence. Slowly this virus has spread to America and Europe. Now it is spreading rapidly in Asia. The world Health Organization (WHO) calls it pandemic 2009. It has become an epidemic in Bangladesh. Many people have already been infected and hospitalized in our country. Some people have died also. The H1N1 virus is mainly responsible for this flu. Symptoms of swine flu are like regular flu symptoms and include fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache and sneezing. Many people with swine flu have had diarrhoea and vomiting. If any patient has severe respiratory problem and proper medication is not given in time, he is to face death. But it is a matter of hope that China and Switzerland have already made vaccines. And our country also has proper medication. And special units have been opened in every government hospital.

Special awareness and advice are given repeatedly by the health ministry. It is advised to remain clean all the time, to wash hands properly and not to spit here and there and to use mask while staying outside. By following the advice of the health ministry, we can certainly prevent its spreading and we can remain safe.

 

 

Price hike: A great concern

Star Correspondent

The most talked problem now that is threatening the common people is price hike. The prices of necessaries have already gone up to two or three manifolds.

While visiting different kitchen markets in Dhaka city yesterday, our correspondent reported that the price range of rice varieties was between TK 32-40 per kg in the retail market. Prices of pulses of different varieties were between the ranges of TK 85-90 per kg yesterday. But the price of oil rocketed to a record of high point. Palm oil was sold at TK 100-105 a kg while soybean oil was sold for TK 112-116 per kg. Prices of eggs rose sharply in the city’s kitchen markets in the previous day. The prices of eggs raised to 23-26 a hali (four pieces). The prices of chickens also witnessed a fresh hike. The price of chickens rose to 120-135 per kg, being affected by bird flu. However, the prices of vegetables and sugar came down slightly in kitchen markets in the last one week.

A brief survey in the kitchen markets shows that if the trend of rising prices can not be checked, the consequences will be devastating. The people of low income group will not be able to buy their daily necessaries and so there will be untold sufferings. It is the right time to be aware or else the whole country will be doomed for want of food.

 

 

Frequent load shedding at Mirpur

Staff Correspondent

Mirpur, July 5, 2012: Frequent failure of electric power supply at Mirpur has made lives of people here miserable. Electric and electronic devices are getting damaged, normal activities of all kinds of people are being seriously interrupted due to excessive load shedding. People of locality informed that load shedding occurs 8-10 times a day. This is severe especially in the pick hours. Mirpur is one of the most important police stations of Dhaka district with many government and non-government educational institutions. Besides, many garments industries, factories, mills, brick fields etc uphold its commercial significance. Its frequent load shedding causes serious adverse impacts on every sphere of people. It hampers all the productions. Students cannot study at night. Besides, darkness creates much inconvenience for the general people and a safe passage for the miscreants. By establishing more power plants, power houses and by stopping unplanned distribution of electricity, illegal connection and reducing system loss, this problem can be solved to an extent.

GM of Pally Bidyut Samity has informed that they are trying much to keep the supply smooth and regular, but cannot due to lack of production than demand.

 

 

 

5 died, 30,000 affected at Mirpur

Staff Correspondent,

Mirpur, July 5, 2012: 5 persons died and other 30 thousands have been affected by recent flood in different places of Mirpur of Dhaka district. The water level of river Buriganga crossed the danger level and submerged different villages of Mirpur. Most of the unions of Sadarghat, Puran Dhaka and Islampur are now under water. Devastating flood has washed away the standing crops and cattle. People are now helpless. Flood water has entered into the dwelling places. Most of the villagers have taken shelter in the relief camp established in the two storied high schools and colleges of the district. They are passing their days without food, water and medicine. Most of the tube-wells of the flood affected areas are now under water. So there prevails a severe scarcity of pure drinking water. Water borne diseases have broken out in these areas. 5 persons including 3 children and two old women have died already due to diarrhea. So the flood affected people need immediate relief goods like dry food, medicine and pure drinking water. Government as well as district administration has sent some relief materials in the affected areas. But it is very insufficient. So people of all walks of life should come forward to help the flood affected people and to save them from miseries.

 

 

 

Prize giving ceremony was held in our college

Staff Reporter, Mirpur, July 5, 2012: A prize giving ceremony was held in our college auditorium a few days ago. It was a very happy occasion. The meritorious students of our college who obtained GPA-5 in the last year final examination were awarded prizes at the function. The function was arranged in a befitting manner. The college auditorium was nicely decorated. All the students, guardians, teachers and invited guests attended the function. All the persons attending the function were in festive mood. The function started at 10 o’clock in the morning. The Chief Guest of the function was the Member of Parliament who is also the chairman of the Governing Body of our college.

The function started with the address of welcome presented by the Principal of our college. Then the Chief Guest was requested to come onto the stage and to distribute the awards among the brilliant students. As our college is a reputed institution of the area, a good number of students received the awards. The award distribution being over, the Chief Guest delivered a valuable speech. His speech was highly educative and very inspiring for us as well. Finally, a short cultural function was staged by the students of our college. The students rendered patriotic songs, Nazrul Geeti, Tagore songs and recitation of poems. There was a great round of applause when the function ended. At the end, the Principal concluded the programme with a vote of thanks towards our distinguished guests.

 

 

 

Food adulteration is on the increase

Staff Reporter, Dhaka, July 5, 2012: It may arouse astonishment among the people of the world that Bangladeshis devour adulterated foods from outside and still they are alive. Food adulteration has become a new problem in the country. People do not bother what they are having as foods even they know that it may cause them much harm.

There are hardly any food items from fish to meat, vegetables to milk; biscuits to juice that are not adulterated in one way or another. The hotels and restaurants are also serving these poisonous and unhealthy menus. Different reports show that adulterated foods are causing serious diseases including diarrhoea and dysentery round the year. Recently, the government and general public have been much worried about this issue. The government has set mobile courts to detect and punish dishonest people. But this scopes are hardly enough. And at least some steps are taken by the conscious people of the country. For example, they are trying to avoid some of these foods. But it is not enough. Both the government and public have to work together in order to eradicate this problem entirely.  

 

Drug Addicts Turning Desperate at Mirpur

Staff Reporter, Mirpur, July 5, 2012: Most of the frustrated youths of Mirpur are now drug addicted. More and more people are beginning to use them – middle aged people, old people, housewives and young girls, University´s student, even high school students especially in English Medium student. Drugs have caused deterioration in standards of education and students have also given up going to schools and colleges. Even university’s professors are getting addicted recently. According to the police- “In the last 3 or 2 years many more teens have been arrested for using drugs than ever before”. The rapid increase of their number now concerns all. Though taking drug is now a fashion and recreation for them, frustration is the cause of this addiction. Selling drug is now a good business. Its reckless deal has aggravated the situation with mysterious silence of the police. It includes phyncidyle, opium and even heroine leading these deviated youths towards a fatal end. To buy these, they even commit pretty crimes such as hijacking, looting, plundering killing, robbery etc endangering the social security of the people. The helpless people want to get rid of this problem. The attention of the government is drawn in this regard. When each and every person is sincere to drive this curse of drug addiction from the society, local people can get rid of it.

 

 

 

Celebration of Independence Day

Staff Reporter, Mirpur, July 5, 2012: ‘The National Day’ was observed with great enthusiasm and due solemnity at the college premises of Rotary School and College. A special committee was formed earlier to celebrate the day. The Assistant Lecturer, Mr. Abul Kalam Azad was the head of this 7-member committee. The committee launched on the occasion a number of programmes including discussion meeting, milad mahfil etc. The college premises were decorated beautifully. An artistic gate was built at the entrance of the college field. Some special guests as well as our guardians were invited to attend the programmes. At 7 a.m. the programme began with the hoisting of our national flag by the principal. Students brought out a colourful procession and paraded round the main street of the town. Then a discussion meeting was held in college auditorium. The Deputy Commissioner, Dhaka, Mr. Maruf Hossain was the chief guest. He delivered an important speech full of patriotic zeal. Among others Mr. Zahur Ali Mollah, Mr. Yakub Ali and on behalf of the students this reporter spoke on the occasion. The Principal Mr. Nurul Momen presided over the meeting. At the end, a milad and doa mahfil was held. Maulana Yakub Ali conducted it.

 

 

 

Water logging in Dhaka City

Staff Reporter, Dhaka, July 5, 2012: Excessive rainfall triggered a massive water logging which has crippled life in several areas of Dhaka city. Low-lying areas like Mirpur, Farmgate, and Rup Nagar remain waterlogged with knee-deep water flowing at several places. The worst-affected lanes in these areas are the ones located near the telephone exchange. Even the manholes in these areas remain choked. The floods and prolonged water-logging have caused significant displacement presenting humanitarian challenges in safe water supply, sanitation, shelter and food security. It also damages dwelling houses, roads, educational institutions and so on. Efforts to drain out rain water from these localities have proved futile. It is known to all that the root cause of water logging is faulty drainage system.   Large-scale use of polythene bags and ceaseless dumping of garbage by the people into storm sewers have chocked the outlets in many places. Shortage of fund, skilled manpower and lack of proper planning are responsible for the prevailing situation. Government of Bangladesh, the UN agencies and NGOs conducted assessments of the situation from various scopes and recommended a number of long and short-term actions. According to officials, the PMC engineering wing had recently taken an initiative to remove water logging from different parts of the city.

 

 

A massive fire on Feroza-Yakub garment factory

Staff Reporter,

Mirpur, July 5, 2012: A devastating blaze raced through a garment factory near Bangladesh’s capital on Tuesday. The fire started in a 10-storey factory owned by local business giant Feroza-Yakub Group in the Mirpur industrial zone, just outside Dhaka. killing at least 25 people and injuring more than 100, witnesses.The extent of damage caused by the fire and origin of it could not be ascertained immediately. Fire fighters said the fire gutted fabrics, garments machinery and other equipment. The blaze broke out on the two upper floors during lunch break. A gate on a stairwell was locked, trapping people inside the factory. Many of the dead included trapped workers who jumped from the smouldering building engulfed by flames, said witnesses at the scene.

As witness saying, at least 25 bodies were loaded onto ambulances. Islam said about 13,000 people work at the factory each day, though most were outside buying lunch when the fire started. Being informed, fire fighting units from Fire Brigade Headquarters in Phulbaria, Kazipara and Pallabi rushed to the spot. The flame could not be tamed till filing this report at 8-10 pm. It was not immediately clear what caused the blaze, and the government ordered an investigation. The company and the Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters Association announced they would provide roughly $1,420 in compensation to families of the dead and would pay for the treatment of the injured.Workers’ safety in the rapidly growing textile industry is a major concern but has improved in recent years, the association said. Labour rights groups say safety standards are still inadequate in many factories.

 

 

Food adulteration is on the increase

Staff Reporter, Dhaka, July 5, 2012: It may arouse astonishment among the people of the world that Bangladeshis devour adulterated foods from outside and still they are alive. Food adulteration has become a new problem in the country. People do not bother what they are having as foods even they know that it may cause them much harm.

There are hardly any food items from fish to meat, vegetables to milk; biscuits to juice that are not adulterated in one way or another. The hotels and restaurants are also serving these poisonous and unhealthy menus. Different reports show that adulterated foods are causing serious diseases including diarrhoea and dysentery round the year. Recently, the government and general public have been much worried about this issue. The government has set mobile courts to detect and punish dishonest people. But these scopes are hardly enough. And at least some steps are taken by the conscious people of the country. For example, they are trying to avoid some of these foods. But it is not enough. Both the government and public have to work together in order to eradicate this problem entirely.  

 

 

Book fair commenced at Bangla Accademy

Omor Ekushey Boi Mela, popularly known as the national book fair of Bangladesh, has been started at the Bangla Accademy premises from today. It will take place over whole month of February, and is dedicated to the agitators who died on 21 February 1952 in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former united Pakistan. The Prime Minister inaugurates the fair. Between 300 and 400 publishing houses takes part. In the book fair all the leading publishers set up stalls. Some importers of foreign books also have their own stalls. Islamic Foundation and Bangla Academy open stalls at book fairs. Thus there is a large number of well-decorated and attractive book-fairs thus widen the forum of reading public.  Besides books cassettes of Rabindra Sangeet, Nazrul Geeti, folk songs and of recitation are also put on display for sale. At one corner of the fair the visitors can find a few stalls that sell snacks mainly traditional Bangladeshi snacks. Spectators from all classes of people including old and children are found gathering there. Visitors are found to maintain discipline at the time of entering the fair. They felt enthusiasms and fervor to collect books according to their choice. Law enforcing agencies cover the whole areas with full of security. Book-fairs are a noble venture and it proved a success.

 

E-Mail

 

An email to bank manager for cancellation a cheque

From     : Al Karia<karia@yahoo.com>

To          : Asma Haque<asma@yahoo.com>

Sent       : Thursday, March 20, 2014; 12:09 pm.

Subject : Cancellation of an issued cheque

Dear Sir,

This refers to my Savings Account No 47208 with your Bank. This is to bring your kind notice that I had issued a cheque No 875329 dated the 22nd of May, 2016, for an amount of 10,000/- in favour of Mr Mamun. He informed me that he has not received the cheque till now as it has been lost. I sincerely request you to cancel the cheque and please stop the payment, if and when it is presented to your bank. Please confirm me that you have taken necessary action in this regard.

 Please acknowledge the receipt of this letter and treat it as immediate.

Thanking you,

Yours faithfully,

 

 

An email to your friend congratulating on brilliant success

From     : Tamzid<tamzid_20@yahoo.com>

To          : Shapno< shapno_13@yahoo.com>

Sent       : Sunday, October 20, 2013; 7:32 pm.

Subject : Congratulation for brilliant success.

Dear Friend      

A sweet note from you have just anchored to the shore of my heart. I came to know by your email that you have passed the JSC examination with G.P.A-5:00. Heartiest congratulation on your brilliant success. In fact, this brilliant result is a matter of pride and joy for us. All of us expected such a brilliant performance from you. My parents are also extremely happy to know of your brilliant success. There is no doubt that your hard work has borne fruit. We hope your sincerity, devotion and seriousness will take you a long way. Your performance will inspire the students of average merit like me.

 Your friend

Tamzid

 

 

An email to father informing results of the annual examination

From     : Tushar<tushar@yahoo.com>

To          : Sijan Ahmed<sijan@yahoo.com>

Sent       : Thursday, March 20, 2016; 12:09 pm.

Subject : results of the annual examination

My dear Father, 

Peace be on you through the mercy of Almighty. I hope you are fine by the grace of Allah. I am also fine with blessings of all. I have been awaiting for the results of my annual examination and just today they have been out. Father, you all will be glad to learn that I have stood third in the examination. I have got A+ in mathematics, science, and English. My total marks are 786. My teachers are very satisfied with the results. Here my friends and relatives have congratulated me on my good position. I will send you a copy of my mark-sheet. I have the determination to do much better the next year. For this, I will leave no stone unturned. During my Ramadan holidays I have decided to visit you. Convey my best regards to mother. 

Your loving son, 

Tushar

 

 

Write an e-mail to your friend requesting him to return the book immediately.

From     : Sharmin < sharmin@yahoo.com>

To          : Satabdi < satabdi@yahoo.com>

Sent       : Thursday, March 20, 2014; 12:09 pm.

Subject: Request to return a book.

Dear Satabdi,

It is pretty long time you borrowed a book entitled “A Lucid Roadmap on English Grammar and Composition” from me but you have not yet returned it to me. Perhaps you have forgotten it. However, Junior School Certificate Examination-2014 is knocking at the door. So, I have to study more and more. I have revised the syllabus of almost all the subjects except English Second Paper. At this moment I need it badly. Friend, I think you have already realized the importance of the book. So, I would be highly delighted provided that you return the book as early as possible.

Thanking you,

Sharmin.

 

Write an e-mail to your father to send you some money.

From     : Tushar < tushar@yahoo.com>

To          : Sijan Ahmed < sijan@yahoo.com>

Sent       : Thursday, March 20, 2014; 12:09 pm.

Subject: Asking father to send money.

Dear Father,

I hope you will be in the best of your health and spirits. I am also well here. As you know, I am very sincere to my studies. I am very regular to my classes. For the new academic session, my teacher has suggested a number of books. I managed to get some books in the library. But a few books are not available in the library. So, I have to buy those books. Oxford Dictionary, Atlas and a book for English composition are urgently required. I do not have sufficient money to buy them. Kindly send me 1,000/- by money order as early as possible so that my study may not be affected. I assure you of the best performance in the examination.

Please convey my regards to mother and love to Rana.

Your loving son

Tushar.

 

E-mail to your mother informing her that you will spend summer vacation with her in your village

From     : Al Karia < karia@yahoo.com>

To          : Asma Haque < asma@yahoo.com>

Sent       : Thursday, March 20, 2014; 12:09 pm.

Subject: Informing summer vacation

My dear mother,

At the beginning of the letter, take my cordial love. Hope that you are well by the grace of all mighty Allah. I am also well by the grace of Allah. I want to inform you by my letter that the summer vacation of my school will begin from the next Sunday. So I hope that I will spend this summer with you and father in our village. From going there I will pass some dreamy moments with you. I will enjoy special dishes cooked by your own hands. We must go to visit my grandparents’ house. I will eat a lot of mangoes, Jackfruits and pineapples in this time. Please tell father to buy them from market quickly.

Please convey my regards to father and love to Rana.  This is all for today. Best wishes to you and all. More when I will meet you.

Your loving son

Al Karia

 

Suppose the marriage ceremony of your elder sister is going to be held at your residence in Jhenaidah. Now send a message through e-mail to your friend Shahriar Mahmud Shapno who lives at Dhamrai in Dhaka to attend the marriage ceremony.

From: Tamzid< tamzid_20@yahoo.com>

To : Shapno< shapno-13@yahoo.com>

Sent: Sunday, October 20, 2013; 7:32 pm.

Subject: Invitation to attend marriage ceremony.

Dear Shapno,

I am glad to inform you that the marriage ceremony of my elder sister is going to be held on 28 October, 2013. My parents have assigned me to invite my friends. I cordially invite you to attend the function and make it a happy moment for all of us. My parents desire to see you in our family one day before commencing the function at our home. Your absence will throw cold water into my joy and happiness. Please do not fail to attend in due time.

Yours cordially,

Tamzid

 

 

Suppose your friend Saad has made a brilliant result in the Junior School Certificate Examination. The news of his result has given you much pleasure. Now, write an e-mail to your friend congratulating him on his brilliant success.

From: sami< sami30july@yahoo.com>

To:saad< saad10@yahoo.com>

Sent: Tuesday, October 22; 2013

Subject: Congratulation for brilliant success.

Dear Saad,

I would like to congratulate you on your brilliant success in the Junior School Certificate Examination. My joys knew no bounds when I came to know that you have secured the first position. Please accept my heartiest congratulation on your brilliant success. You are really worthy of this result. Not only I but also my parents are proud of your brilliant success. We must pray to the Almighty Allah so that you can secure such a result in every examination and pave the way of your life with the ingredients of such brilliant result.

Yours loving,

 

 

E-mail to to your father informing him about your progress of study

From: Nazim Islam<nazim@yahoo.com>

To : Mr. Rahman<rahman@yahoo.com>

Sent: Sunday, October 20, 2013; 7:32 pm.

Subject: Informing progress of study

My dear father,

Peace be on you through the mercy of Allah. I am very glad to receive your mail and I have read it many a time and felt deeply that you are so much anxious of me. I assure you that you  need not think so much about my studies. I am preparing very well for the ensuring examination.

Well, you will be delighted to know that I have got G.P.A.-5:00 in the test examination. I am sure  now you will be proud of me it. I can do better in the  JSC examaination. I have completed my revision of English, Math, Bengali and other subjects quite successfully with the help of my respective teachers. Do pray that I can keep your heads high by the grace of Allah.

Covey my salam to mother and love to Sony. With lots of love.

Your affectionate son

Nazim

 

 

E-mail to to your friend asking suggestion for jsc examination.

From: Tusher Islam<tusher@yahoo.com>

To : Shezan Rahman<shezan@yahoo.com>

Sent: Sunday, October 20, 2013; 7:32 pm.

Subject: Asking suggestion for jsc examination

Dear friend,

At the very outset accept my cordial greetings and best wishes. I do hope that you are in sound health and taking a great preparation. You know I live in a remote village where I hardly keep in contact with qualified teachers. Besides I am a dull student. I have wasted my valueable time roaming aimlessly. Now I am not getting any reliable short suggestion for my upcoming examination. That’s why I am confused to take a good preparation. You can help me a lot in this purpose as you are a brilliant student.

Please, help me giving some short suggestions of all subjects sothat I can pass in the examination. Your suggestions and advices are highly expected at this moment. Try to send it as soon as possible otherwise my dream to pass will be nipped in the bud.

Your loving friend

Tusher

 

 

# Suppose your friend Nafiz has made a brilliant result in Junior School Certificate examination. The news of his result has given you much pleasure. Now, write an email to your friend congratulating him on his brilliant success in Junior Certificate Examination.

From : Sami<sami30july@yahoo.com>
To : Nafiz<nafiz10@yahoo.com>
Sent : Thursday, 1 October; 2015

Subject : Congratulation for brilliant success

Dear Nafiz,
I would like to congratulate you on your brilliant success in Junior School Certificate Examination. My joys knew no bounds when I came to know that you have secured the first position in Junior School Certificate Examination in order of merit. Please accept my heartiest congratulation on your brilliant success. We knew that you would be able to make a very good result in Junior School Certificate Examination but you have surprised us with such a very splendid result. You are really worthy of this result. Not only I but also my parents are proud of your brilliant success. We expect that you will secure such results in all examinations and pave the way of your life.
Yours loving,
Sami.

# Imagine, you are Nusrat Mehzabin. Your younger brother Ahsan is a student of class eight at Jhenaidah Ideal School. Now write an email to your younger brother telling him about the importance of reading newspaper.

From : Nustrat Mehzabin<nusratmehzabin@yahoo.com>
To : Ahsan<ahsan@gmail.com>
Sent : Thursday, 1 October; 2015; 4:25 p.m.

Subject : Importance of reading newspaper

Dear Ahsan,
Take my affection at the very outset of the email. Hope you are fine. You know that reading newspaper is one of the best habits of the human life. It is the newspaper, which can easily provide us the news and views of the world at the very early of the day. Through newspaper we come to know about politics, economics, culture, literature games and sports of the whole world. It bears the sign of good taste and wisdom. It plays a vital role in mobilizing public opinion on various national issues. By reading newspaper, we can keep pace with time and enrich the arena of knowledge. What is more important is that reading newspaper we can enhance our knowledge on language and improve our power of thinking.
Your sister,
Nusrat.

 

 

Suppose you are Zubayer. Your younger sister Lucky is indifferent to learning English. Now, write an email to her about the importance of learning English.

From : Zubayer<zubayer654@hotmail.com>
To : Lucky<luckyuk@hotmail.com>
Sent : Friday, 2 October, 2015; 10 a.m.

Subject : Importance of learning English

Dear Lucky,
Take my affection at the very outset of the email. Hope you are well. You know that English is the treasure house of knowledge. The best books on different branches of modern science and technology are mostly written in English. Hence, we must learn English to understand the language and grasp the knowledge contained in these books. If a student wants to be a pilot or a tourist guide, he must know English well. If he wants to get a good job in a big hotel, he must know English well. Even if he wants to be a repairman or a mechanic, he must know English. For many jobs, he needs to know English. So, there is no scope to be indifferent to English.
Your brother,
Zubayer.

# Suppose, you are Kamal. You have watched a cricket match between Bangladesh and India. Now, share your joys with your friend, Hafiz through email.

From : Kamal<kamal20@yahoo.com>
To : Hafiz<hafiz917@gmail.com>
Sent : Friday, October 2, 2015; 3:00 pm.

Subject : Watching a cricket match

Dear Hafiz,
I have recently enjoyed a fantastic cricket match between Bangladesh and India at Bangabandhu National Stadium in Khulna. I felt thrilled when I was enjoying the match. The captain of India won the toss and decided to bat. This stadium was packed with spectators. There was a hard contest between the two teams. Finally, Bangladesh won the game and we, the spectators, gave a big hand for Bangladesh team. The match was so enjoyable we would not forget it.
Yours ever,
Kamal.

 

# Suppose you are Maruf, a residential student of class eight of Dhaka Residential Model College. You need money to buy books. Now write an E-mail to your father who lives in Jamalpur asking money for buying books.

From : Maruf<marufdrmc@yahoo.com>
To : Shahid<shahidjpur13@yahoo.com>
Sent : Saturday, October 3, 2015; 4:32 pm.

Subject : Asking to send money for buy books

My dear father,
Take my salam at the outset of the E-mail. Since I am going to sit for the JSC Examination this year I need to purchase some extra books along with an Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and keep some money in my hand against contingencies. You know that to enrich the vocabulary a dictionary is a must. That is why my teacher has suggested me to purchase a dictionary immediately. I am sending a copy of my book list attached with this mail. I have calculated that, in total, I need Tk. 2000.00 (two thousand only) to meet these expenses up to October 20, 2015. So, please send me the money as early as possible.
Your loving son,
Abir.

# Suppose you along with some of your friends have recently been to a picnic at a place of historical importance. You have a friend named Jamil at Dhanmondi in Dhaka. He is too much interested to know how you have enjoyed it. Now, send him an email about the picnic.

From : Shahed<shahed571@gmail.com>
To : Jamil<jamil32@gmail.com>
Sent : Saturday, 3 October, 2015; 5:00 pm.

Subject : About the picnic, I enjoyed

Dear Jamil,
We went to a popular and lovely picnic spot at Kuakata. We had our journey by launch. The charming sights and sounds of the surrounding area of Kuakata moved us greatly. The waves of the coastal sea stirred the waves of our mind. We had a hearty meal of steaming roast meat. We enjoyed dance, songs, jokes performed by ourselves. I missed you greatly. No more today.
Yours ever,
Shahed.

 

# Suppose you are Ruwad, a student of class eight of Dhaka Residential Model College. Your friend Efty who lives in Kishoregonj, has sent you an E-mail to know about your hobby. Now write him an E-mail describing your hobby.

From : Ruwad<ruwadrmc@gmail.com>
To : Efty<efty3m2@gmail.com>
Sent : Sunday, 4 October, 2015; 5:00 p.m.

Subject : About my hobby

Dear Efty,
Take my cordial love at the very outset of the E-mail. Hope you are well. The name of my hobby is gardening. It strengthens my body and refreshes my mind. My garden is in front of my reading room. Whenever I get time, I work in it with great attention. I make the soil loose with a spade; weed out the grass and plant flower plants in it. Sometimes I sow the seeds of some plants and water them regularly. I have also put a fence around my garden. It keeps away cattle and naughty children. When different types of flowers bloom in my garden, my heart leaps with joy and merriment. I become thrilled with the beauty of flower, one of the purest ingredients of nature.
Yours ever,
Ruwad.

# Suppose you are Apurbo from Mirpur, Dhaka. Your friend Asif has sent you an E-mail to know about your aim in life. Now send him an E-mail to describing your aim in life.

From : Apurbo<apurbodrmc@gmail.com>
To : Asif<asifmahmud@gmail.com>
Sent : Sunday, 4 October, 2015; 5:00 p.m.

Subject : About my aim in life

Dear Asif,
Accept my cordial love at the very outset of the E-mail. Hope you are well. My aim in life is to be a doctor. My parents and teachers have given their consent to my choice. The village people in our country are very poor. Many people meet premature death for want of proper treatment. Therefore, I have decided to serve the people of my village through this profession. I have been learning every single subject with great attention. It was my cherished desire from my boyhood to serve the nation. I will render free service to the poor villagers. I will set up a charitable dispensary and distribute medicines to the poor free of cost. I have also a plan to set up a hospital with few beds for serious cases. Pray for me so that I can reach my goal and serve the nation. No more today.
Yours ever
Apurbo.

 

  1. Write an email to your friend about the harmful impact of deforestation.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : audrey31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: The harmful impact of deforestation.

Dear Audrey,

You know trees play an important role in our environment. But many people cut down trees at random. It is a sore to me that we will fall in a disastrous situation if cut down the forest at random.

Thanks,

Sanjida

  1. Write an email to your friend thanking him/her for sending you a nice present/gift.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : audrey31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: Thanks for birthday present.

Dear Audrey,

I am very glad to receive a parcel of a nice birthday gift. I would be happier if you could attend. But I know you could attend my birthday party because of your examination.

Thanks a lot for the gift. Thank you very much for the dictionary, which you have presented on the occasion. I wonder how you could guess my desires of a dictionary. I shall preserve it. It will come to use altogether my life. So I shall bear in mind the sweet memory of yours. Many presents I received on the occasion but the one received from you is the best of all.

Yours ever

Sanjida

  1. Write an email to your brother or sister advising him/her to study regularly and not to adopt unfair means in the examination hall.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : audrey31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: advice not to adopt unfair means in the examination hall.

Dear Audrey,

Remember, SSC examination is an important public exam in the life of a student. So utilize the time before the exam by studying heart and soul to make a brilliant result. You should not adopt unfair means in the exam. If you do so, you will darken your life.

Your sister

Sanjida

  1. Write an email to your brother or sister advising him/her to be regular in his/her studies.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : audrey31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: To be regular in studies.

Dear Audrey,

I am greatly hurt to know that you are not regular in your studies. I am informed that you are mixing with bad boys. It has broken my heart. You know that our economic condition is not good. You are our hope. You should not hurt us this way. You should use your time properly. You should be regular and serious in your studies. I hope that you must follow my advice.

Your sister

Sanjida

  1. Write an email to your father informing him about your preparation for the JSC examination.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : mshaque31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: To be regular in studies.

Dear father,

You will be delighted to know that I have got G.P.A. 5.00   in half yearly examination. I am sure now you will be proud of me if I can do better in the annual examination. I have completed my revision of English, Bengali, Mathematics and other subjects. Do pray that I can keep your head high by the grace of Allah.

Your loving daughter

Sanjida

  1. Write an email to your friend inviting him/her to join the picnic.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : audrey31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: Invitation to go for a picnic.

Dear Audrey,

You will be very glad to know that we are going to have a picnic on the 25th instant. We have decided to go to Sonargoan. You know it is a place of great historical interest. It is also quite near to Dhaka. Sara, Amy, Labony, Mony and some of our other friends will join us to the picnic. We expect to have a pleasant time. I hope you will join us and increase our pleasure.

Your loving friend

Sanjida

  1. Write an email to your friend inviting him/her to attend the marriage ceremony of your elder sister.

From     : sanjida01@yahoo.com

To          : audrey31@gmail.com

Sent       : Sunday, 20 October, 2013; 10:00 pm.

Subject: Invitation to the marriage ceremony of your elder sister.

Dear Audrey,

You will be glad to know that the marriage ceremony of my elder sister/sister will be held on Sunday next. All of my friends will attend the marriage ceremony. I would request you to come to our house at least three days earlier.

Your loving friend

Sanjida

 

Question-1n
Suppose the marriage ceremony of your elder sister is going to be held at your residence in Jhenaidah. Now send a message through e-mail to your friend Shahriar Mahmud Shapno who lives at Dhamrai in Dhaka to attend the marriage ceremony.
From: Tamzid<tamzid_20@yahoo.com>
To : Shapno< shapno-13@yahoo.com>
Sent: Sunday, October 20, 2013; 7:32 pm.
Subject: Invitation to attend marriage ceremony.

Dear Shapno,
I am glad to inform you that the marriage ceremony of my elder sister is going to be held on 28 October, 2013. My parents have assigned me to invite my friends. I cordially invite you to attend the function and make it a happy moment for all of us. My parents desire to see you in our family one day before commencing the function at our home. Your absence will throw cold water into my joy and happiness. Please do not fail to attend in due time.
Yours cordially,
Tamzid

 Question-2n
Suppose, your friend Shahrukh Kabir is going to have an Eid vacation next month. Now, write an e-mail to requesting him to visit your house during the Eid vacation.
From: Jahir < jahirdrmc30@yahoo.com>
To: Shahrukh < skabir2000@yahoo.com>
Sent: Monday, October 21, 2013; 1:52 p.m.
Subject: Request to visit our house.

Dear Shahrukh,
Accept my cordial love at the very outset of the e-mail. Hope you are very well. Friend, I would like to invite you to pass few days with me in my village during the ensuing Eid vacation. You will enjoy the natural beauty here in my village. You would able to enjoy the riverside, green fields of paddy, chirping of birds, etc. Here in the river Chitra you can enjoy the boating and taking a thrilling bath with great pleasure. Not only I but also my parents will be highly glad to have you amongst us. Please don’t dishearten us.
Yours cordially,
Jahir

Question-8
Suppose, in your school the common room facilities are not adequate. Now, write an e-mail requesting your headmaster to increase the facilities in the common room.
From: Mehenaj<mehenajm2005@yahoo.com>
To : < office@headmaster.com>
Sent: Tuesday, October 29, 2013; 9:13 am.
Subject: Request for increasing common room facilities.
Dear Sir,
I would like to draw your kind attention to the fact that we scarcely find any opportunity to enjoy and utilize our free time to extend the capacity of our knowledge. The condition of the common room has been deteriorated much. Only two dailies are supplied which are quite insufficient to meet the need of all the students learning here in your school. There is no arrangement for playing indoor games. Even the number of chairs and tables in the common room are only a few. So, the students loiter about in the campus during their leisure.
In the circumstances stated above, I hope that your honour would be kind enough to take necessary measures for increasing the common room facilities of our school.
Yours sincerely,
Mehenaj Minhaj,
Class: Ten, Section-A, Roll: 1
On behalf of the students of Munuria High School,
Munuria, Jhenaidah.

Question-9
Suppose you booked a ticket from a travel agency. But owing to unavoidable circumstances you have to cancel your fixed journey. Now, write an email to the manager of the travel agency to cancel the ticket booked for you.
From: Jamal < mdjamal68@yahoo.com>
To : < office@haniftravelagency.com>
Sent: Thursday, October 22, 2013; 4:21 pm.
Subject: Regarding cancellation of a booked ticket.
Dear Sir,
I would like to inform you regretfully that I booked a ticket for Jhenaidah bound chair coach. But due to some unavoidable circumstances I am unable to go to Jhenaidah on the fixed date. So, it would be a great favour to me if I could cancel the ticket. The ticket is of the coach no 42, on 25 October, 2013 and the seat booked for me is B1. I believe there would not be any inconvenience in the process as I am informing you three days before the date fixed for the journey. I would be grateful if you could consider my case, and cancel the ticket booked for me. I am looking forward to hearing from you about the confirmation of the cancellation.
Respectfully,
Md. Jamal Uddin,
5/3, Tajmahal Road,
Mohammadpur, Dhaka-1207.

Question-10
Suppose, you are an inhabitant of Narayanpur, Jhenaidah. Cholera has broken out in your locality in an epidemic form. Now, write an e-mail to the Upazila Nirbahi Officer of Jhenaidah Sadar seeking immediate arrangement for vaccination in your locality.
From: Anil Kumar<anilkumar68@yahoo.com>
To : < office@upazilanibahiofficer.com>
Sent: Thursday, October 31, 2013; 9:06 am.
Subject: Immediate arrangement for vaccination.
Dear Sir,
With due honour, I would like to draw your kind attention to the fact that cholera has broken out in the area of Narayanpur in an epidemic form. It has already begun taking toll of many human lives. Many are counting days of death. But it is a sorrowful matter that no vaccination work has yet been started in the affected areas. In these circumstances, I request you to take immediate steps for the arrangement of vaccination.
Best regards,
Anil Kumar, House No. 21, Narayanpur, Jhenaidah.

 

 

Question-7
Suppose, you are an inhabitant of the village Narayanpur in Ghorshal Union in the district of Jhenaidah. The roads of your village have been damaged during the recent flood. Now write an e-mail to the Chairman of your Union Parishad for repairing the damaged roads.
From: Rashid< mrashid1999@yahoo.com>
To : <office@ghorshalunion.com>
Sent: Monday, October 28, 2013; 9:33 am.
Subject: For repairing damaged roads.
Dear Sir,
I would like to inform you that I am an inhabitant of the village Narayanpur in Ghorshal Union in the district of Jhenaidah. I would like to draw your kind attention to the fact that the main road of our village has been badly damaged by the devastating flood recently. Consequently, water remains here and there. It is really impossible for us to go along the damaged roads. Students as well as the people of our area are the worst sufferers. People often fall down and get drenched.
I hope that your honour would be kind enough to take necessary steps to repair the damaged roads, especially the main road first so that we, all the inhabitants of Narayanpur, can move comfortably. I would really appreciate your favour regarding the issue.
Best regards,
Md. Abdur Rashid,
On behalf of the inhabitants of Narayanpur
Ghorshal Union, Jhenaidah.

Question-5
Suppose, your friend Niladry Raiyan borrowed a book from you. The Junior School Certificate Examination-2013 is knocking at the door. You need the book immediately. Now, write an e-mail to your friend requesting him to return the book immediately.
From: Mugdho < hsmugdhodrmc@yahoo.com>
To : Niladry Raiyan < nraiyan2012drmc@yahoo.com>
Sent: Thursday, October 24, 2013; 12:09 pm.
Subject: Request to return a book.
Dear Niladry,
It is pretty long time you borrowed a book entitled “A Book of English Grammar and Composition” from me but you have not yet returned it to me. Perhaps you have forgotten it. However, Junior School Certificate Examination-2013 is knocking at the door. So, I have to study more and more. I have revised the syllabus of almost all the subjects except English Second Paper. At this moment I need it badly. Friend, I think you have already realized the importance of the book. So, I would be highly delighted provided that you return the book as early as possible.
Thanking you,
Mugdho.
Question-6
Suppose, your locality has been seriously affected by a recent flood. Now, write an e-mail to the DC of your district for relief for the flood affected people.
From: Puranjan< puranjan1955@yahoo.com>
To : < office@deputycommisd23.com>
Sent: Sunday, October 27, 2013; 10:12 am.
Subject: Request for granting relief for the flood affected people.
Dear Sir,
Most humbly and respectfully I would like to draw your kind attention to the fact that our locality has been seriously affected by the recent flood. The flood affected people are living most pitiable lives for want food, drinking water and medicine. In this situation, they are badly in need of some relief. I, therefore, hope that your honour would be kind enough to grant some relief for the people for this locality.
Respectfully,
Puranjan Kumar,
Assistant Teacher,
Munuria High School, Jhenaidah. 

 

Question-3
Suppose your friend Saad has made a brilliant result in the Junior School Certificate Examination. The news of his result has given you much pleasure. Now, write an e-mail to your friend congratulating him on his brilliant success.
From: sami< sami30july@yahoo.com>
To:saad<saad10@yahoo.com>
Sent: Tuesday, October 22; 2013
Subject: Congratulation for brilliant success.
Dear Saad,
I would like to congratulate you on your brilliant success in the Junior School Certificate Examination. My joys knew no bounds when I came to know that you have secured the first position in Junior School Certificate Examination in order of merit in Dhaka Board. Please accept my heartiest congratulation on your brilliant success. We knew that you would be able to make a very good result in the Junior School Certificate Examination but you have surprised us with such a very splendid result. You are really worthy of this result. Not only I but also my parents are proud of your brilliant success. We must pray to the Almighty Allah so that you can secure such a result in every examination and pave the way of your life with the ingredients of such brilliant result.
Yours loving,
Sami
Question-4
n
Suppose, you want to participate in the Inter-School Debate Competition-2013 organized by The Daily Prothom Alo, one of the leading national dailies in Bangladesh. Now, write an e-mail to the editor requesting him for sending you the guidelines and other information of the competition.
From: Shahriar Mahmud< smahmud2006@gmail.com> To : < office@prothom-alo.info>
Sent: Wednesday, October 23 2013; 12:33 pm.
Subject: A request to inform details about the Inter School Debate Competition-2013.
Dear Sir,
I would like to inform you that I want to participate in the Inter-School Debate Competition-2013 organized by The Daily Prothom Alo, your reputed national daily. But while I was going through the daily, I found that all types of information were not provided. Firstly, the educational qualification of a participant essential for the competition is not mentioned clearly. Secondly, the entry fee of the competition is not written as well. Even the topic of debate is not crystallized. So, I will be highly delighted provided that you make a reply though email informing me in detail. I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Respectfully,
Shahriar Mahmud
Class: Ten, College No: 11032
Dhaka Green Residential Model School, Dhaka-1207.

 

17

Suppose your friend Saad has made a brilliant result in Junior School Certificate examination. The news of his result has given you much pleasure. Now, write an e-mail to your friend congratulating him on his brilliant success in Junior Certificate Examination.

 

From : Sami < sami30july@yahoo.com>

To : Saad < saad10otober@yahoo.com>

Sent : Tuesday, September 16; 2014

Subject : Congratulation for brilliant success

 

Dear Saad,

I would like to congratulate you on your brilliant success in Junior School Certificate Examination. My joys knew no bounds when I came to know that you have secured the first position in Junior School Certificate Examination in order of merit. Please accept my heartiest congratulation on your brilliant success. We knew that you would be able to make a very good result in Junior School Certificate Examination but you have surprised us with such a very splendid result. You are really worthy of this result. Not only I but also my parents are proud of your brilliant success. We must pray to Almighty Allah so that you can secure such a result in every examination and pave the way of your life.

Yours loving

Sami

 

18

Imagine, you are Nusrat Mehzabin. Your younger brother Ahsan is a student of class eight at Jhenaidah Ideal School. Now write an e-mail to your younger brother telling him about the importance of reading newspaper.

 

From : Nustrat Mehzabin < nusratmehzabinjis@yahoo.com>

To : Ahsan < ahsan@gmail.com>

Sent : Wednesday, 20 August 2014; 4:25 p.m.

Subject : Importance of reading newspaper

 

Dear Ahsan,

Take my affection at the very outset of the e-mail. Hope you are fine. You know that reading newspaper is one of the best habits of the human life. It is the newspaper, which can easily provide us the news and views of the world at the very early of the day. Through newspaper we come to know about politics, economics, culture, literature games and sports of the whole world. It bears the sign of good taste and wisdom. It plays a vital role in mobilizing public opinion on various national issues. By reading newspaper, we can keep pace with time and enrich the arena of knowledge. What is more important is that reading newspaper we can enhance our knowledge on language and improve our power of thinking.

Your sister

Nusrat

 

19

Suppose you are Zubayer. Your younger sister Lucky is indifferent to learning English. Now, write an e-mail to her about the importance of learning English.

From : Zubayer < zubayer654@ hotmail.com>

To : Lucky < luckyuk@hotmail.com>

Sent : Friday, 19 August 2014; 10 a.m.

Subject : Importance of learning English

 

Dear Lucky,

Take my affection at the very outlet of the e-mail. Hope you are well. You know that English is the treasure house of knowledge. The best books on different branches of modern science and technology are mostly written in English. Hence, we must learn English to understand the language and grasp the knowledge contained in these books. If a student wants to be a pilot or a tourist guide, he must know English well. If he wants to get a good job in a big hotel, he must know English well. Even if he wants to be a repairman or a mechanic, he must know English. For many jobs, he needs to know English. So, there is no scope to be indifferent to English.

Yours brother

Zubayer.

 

20

Suppose, you are Kamal. You have watched a cricket match between Bangladesh and India. Now, share your joys with your friend, Hafiz through email.

From : Kamal < kamal20@yahoo.com>

To : Hafiz < hafiz917@gmail.com>

Sent : Thursday, August 28, 2014; 3:00 pm.

Subject : Watching a cricket match

 

Dear Hafiz

I have recently enjoyed a fantastic cricket match between Bangladesh and India at Bangabandhu National Stadium in Khulna. I felt thrilled when I was enjoying the match. The captain of India won the toss and decided to bat. This stadium was packed with spectators. There was a hard contest between the two teams. Finally, Bangladesh won the game and we, the spectators, gave a big hand for Bangladesh team. The match was so enjoyable we would not forget it.

Yours ever

Kamal

E-mail writing

21.

Suppose you are Maruf, a residential student of class eight of Dhaka Residential Model College. You need money to buy books. Now write an email to your father who lives in Jamalpur asking money for buying books.

From : Maruf < marufdrmc@yahoo.com>

To : Shahid < shahidjpur13@yahoo.com>

Sent : Friday, August 15, 2014; 4:32 pm.

Subject : Asking to send money for buy books

 

My dear father,

Take my salam at the outlet of the e-mail. Since I am going to seat for the JSC Examination this year I need to purchase some extra books along with an Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary and keep some money in my hand against contingencies. You know that to enrich the vocabulary a dictionary is a must. That is why my teacher has suggested me to purchase a dictionary immediately. I am sending a copy of my book list attached with this mail. I have calculated that, in total, I need Tk. 2000 (two thousand) to meet these expenses up to Sepetember10, 2014. So, please send me the money as early as possible.

Your loving son

Abir

 

 

22.

Suppose you and some of your friends had recently been to a picnic at a place of historical importance. You have a friend named Srijon at Dhanmondi in Dhaka. He is too much interested to know how you have enjoyed it. Now, send him an e-mail about the picnic.

From : Shahed < shahed571@gmail.com>

To : Srijon < srijon532@gmail. com>

Sent : Tuesday, 12 August 2014; 5:00 pm.

Subject : About the picnic, I enjoyed

 

Dear Srijon,

We went to a popular and lovely picnic spot- Kuakata. Our journey was by launch. The charming sights and sounds of the surrounding area of Kuakata moved us greatly. The waves of the coastal sea stirred the waves of our mind. We had a hearty meal of steaming roast meat. We enjoyed dance, songs, jokes performed by ourselves. I missed you greatly. No more today.

Yours ever

Shahed

 

23.

Suppose you are Ruwad, a student of class eight of Dhaka Residential Model College. Your friend Efty who lives in Kishoregonj, has sent you an e-mail to know about your hobby. Now write him an email describing your hobby.

From : Ruwad < ruwadrmc@gmail.com>

To : Efty < efty3m2@gmail.com>

Sent : Tuesday, 23 August 2014; 5:00 p.m.

Subject : About the my hobby

 

Dear Efty,

Take my cordial love at the very outlet of the e-mail. Hope you are well. The name of my hobby is gardening. It strengthens my body and refreshes my mind. My garden is in front of my reading room. Whenever I get time, I work in it with great attention. I make the soil loose with a spade; weed out the grass and plant flower plants in it. Sometimes I sow the seeds of some plants and water them regularly. I have also put a fence around my garden. It keeps away cattle and naughty children. When different types of flowers bloom in my garden, my heart leaps with joy and merriment. I become thrilled with the beauty of flower, one of the purest ingredients of nature.

Yours ever

Ruwad

 

24.

Suppose you are Apurba from Mirpur, Dhaka. Your friend Asif has sent you an e-mail to know about your aim in life. Now send him an e-mail to describing your aim in life.

From : Apurba < apurbadrmc@gmail.com>

To : Asif < asifmahmud@gmail.com>

Sent : Tuesday, 23 August 2014; 5:00 p.m.

Subject : About my aim in life

 

Dear Asif,

Accept my cordial love at the very outlet of the e-mail. Hope you are well. My aim in life is to be a doctor. My parents and teachers have given their consent to my choice. The village people in our country are very poor. Many people meet premature death for want of proper treatment. Therefore, I have decided to serve the people of my village through this profession. I have been learning every single subject with great attention. It was my cherished desire from my boyhood to serve the nation. I will render free service to the poor villagers. I will set up a charitable dispensary and distribute medicines to the poor free of cost. I have also a plan to set up a hospital with few beds for serious cases. Pray for me so that I can reach my goal and serve the nation. No more today.

Yours ever

Apurba

 

Composition

Empowerment of women

Empowerment of women is a process through which women in general and poor women in particular get the opportunity to join the workforce and contribute to family income and interfere on family as well as social affairs. In past women were segregated from out of home productive work. They were kept within the four walls. The hearth became the place for them. So cooking, cleaning, washing, giving birth and rearing children became their jobs. Men became the wage earners and all other activities became their responsibilities. In Bangladesh position of the women is very humiliating. Women are the worst suffers. There are many reasons of dis-empowerment of women in Bangladesh such as Economic reasons, socio-culture and religious reasons

Women are nowadays as important as men in society. They co constitute nearly half of our total population. So, there are can be no denying the fact that they too possess equal rights and duties as men. They have noble missions to fulfill as men. If they get opportunity, their genius and capacities will bloom fully. No nation can make the real progress keeping a full of its population in the dark. So women’s empowerment is essential.

Some practical measures should be taken for the empowerment of women. The women should be made conscious of the fact that they have got all the potentialities to participate in the socio-economic development of the country. They should be made self-sufficient by given them proper education and employment. It should also be endured that at workplace that women get their desirable and just wages against their contributions. The social prejudices that exist regarding the girls must be changed. The violence against women must also stop. Women need to gain a lot more power over their decision making process. They should not be seen as fertility machines that have only the goal of reproducing.

During the last few decades women’s status has been changed greatly. Today women are playing important role in all spheres of life. Many of them have come out of the kitchens. They are working hand in hand with men in all spheres of work i.e. from garments workers to pilots, doctors, engineers, teachers, administrators etc.

Now, it has come to the realization to all that if we want keep pace with the challenge of the millennium, both men and women should work side by side. In this regard, the government along with, with the people from all strata of life should come forward to extend their whole hearted cooperation.

Duties of a Student Or, Students and Social Service

Students are the greatest force as well as the future leaders of a Country. They can build or destroy a nation. The primary duty of students is to acquire knowledge and to make themselves worthy citizens. It is needless to say that they get much time for merry making, playing, amusements, touring etc. apart from their routine life of study.Then they should pay attention to the welfare of the society. Students have no worries about earning their livelihood. They have strength and capacity. Students should go to the villages and serve the villagers during vacation. They can make the illiterate masses aware of their rights and duties. Hence the students can guide the people of digging canals or constructing educational institutions. Sympathy and fellow feeling should be imparted the students to do some noble works for the people. Students can co-operate with people on matters of public interest such as education, sanitation, trade and commerce. Students can participate in cleaning drains, ponds during the leisure hours. They can help people during natural calamities such as earth quake, flood, drought, cyclone by collecting funds from different sources. Students have a spirit to work but the guardians and, teacher should guide them in the right way. Student must be the servants of humanity. The aim of all true education is to teach a man how to live and lot others live. A student can learn this though social service. He gains experience, courage and confidence. Thus social service makes him fit for the greater world.           

Short Composition Collection

MY VISIT TO A PLACE OF HISTORICAL IMPORTANCE

Bangladesh is a land that has made a lot of history. Every where in the country there are places of historical interest. Visits to such places bear a great educative value. So after the stress of the test examination, we visited Mahasthangarh.

On January 20, 1997 we started for our visit. We went to Bogra by bus and stayed there overnight. The following day after breakfast we set out for Mahasthangarh. It was only a few kilometers away from Bogra town. We went by rickshaw. When we reached Mahasthangarh was the site of Pudranagar. Pundranagar was the capital of the Mouryas, Guptas, Senas and other Hindu kings. The old city was about 2000 meters long and  was1500 meters wide and was surrounded by a wall. Once it was a very flourishing city.

Mahasthangarh stands on the western bank of the river Korotoa. There are some elevated places near Mahasthangarh. These places are known as vitas; ‘Kundas’ ‘Ghous’ and ‘Dhaps’, One part of the dried river is known as the ghat of Kankabati. There is a museum at Mahasthangarh. Some images, dice, ornaments and pots excavated from Mahasthangarh have been kept in the museum. We have seen all these relics of he past and learnt a lot of things about our past civilization.

We have sent the day at Mahasthangarh and started back for Bogra in the evening. We enjoyed the day. It was a great pleasure to be at Mahasthangarh. It was indeed a rewarding visit.

A Village Doctor

A village doctor is a very familiar person in the rural areas in Bangladesh. He is usually known as a quack. He earns much popularity by dint of his friendly behavior and benevolent services to the suffering village people at the time of their dire need. Rendering service to them is a noble mission of is life.

A village doctor is not a qualified doctor. He treats patients with his long experience gathered by working as a compounder of a qualified doctor. He generally sits in a small dispensary attached to his house in the morning and evening. He treats the patients taking small fees. He often does not take fees from the very poor patients. He attends the call outside with great interst without considering his own inconveniences. He does not have any compounder. He himself gives medicines to the patients. He takes great care of his patients. If necessary, he spends even a whole night by the bedside of a patient.

A village doctor is usually not a rich man. So he cannot equip his chamber with requisite furniture and cannot keep costly medicines in his pharmacy. As such he cannot supply costly and important medicines to the serious patients. As a result, many patients die. Sometimes he prescribes wrong medicines that may often cause to the patients.

Ours is a land of a vast population. In comparison to our population, the number of qualified doctors is very small, specially in the rural areas. Moreover, most of our rural people are ill-fed and ill –clad. They can’t afford to pay fees to the qualified doctor. In such a case, a village doctor is highly helpful and essential to the poor and helpless villagers. So a village doctor is a great friend to the village people.

The Happiest Day In My Life

Or

The Most Exciting Day In My Life

Life is indeed a drudgery of routine. Normally we are unable to distinguish one day from the other. There are however some days that have a special significance for us, for example our birthdays or that of our near and dear ones. We do not easily forget them but look forward to them. Besides this, there is day, which is the happiest day of our life. It marks a turning point in our life, which we can never forget.

Ii was just last year when I had appeared for my ICSE examination and after a brief vacation had competed for the National Science Talent Search Examination. I had not done the science paper of the ICSE exams up to my expectations and was feeling quite dejected on this account. As the day for the announcement of results drew nearer my nervousness increased giving me sleepless nights. At time I had terrible nightmares that made my hairs stand on end. I knew my parents had great expectations from me and the thought of letting them down made me paranoid.

It was the tenth of May at about 10 a.m. my friend Mohan, rang up to inform that I had topped in the school. He had just seen the results from the internet site and had rung up to congratulate me. i was speechless, for so numb was I with apprehension, that his words did not immediately register. I was barely able to say ‘Thank you’ and gentle put the phone down. By this time my parents and sister were crowding round me to know what the matter was. I jubilantly told them about my result. What followed was just indescribable. While my parents kissed and hugged me my friend came around to congratulate me.

I was indeed enjoying being the cynosure of all eyes and kept pincing myself to ascertain that I was not hallucination. Just then my eyes fell on the daily newspaper which had been lying on the table, completely ignored in the commotion. No sooner had I turned the cover page when my heart skipped a beat, for Lo and Behold! staring me staring in the face was the result of the National Science Talent Search Test. With shaking fingers, I scanned the roll numbers and to my surprise I found my number. I called out to my mother and within no time the news spread throughout the neighborhood. I had indeed become a star overnight. This was something I had just not anticipated, but it meant to me more than anything else. It was indeed a milestone towards my ambition to become a scientist.

Looking back I feel elated for what happened that fateful day which was the happiest day of my life. This day, which shall always be fresh in my memory for it was the turning point in my life.

CORRUPTION IN BANGLADESH

(Anti-Corruption Movement In Bangladesh)

Corruption has become a social cancer in Bangladesh. It has appeared to be a threat to our national image. Both our personal and public life are more on less affected by it and have lost peace and happiness for the prevalent corruption in our country. It is an evil which is exposed as an open secret.

Corruption is dishonesty done by people in position of power. Nowadays corruption is rampant in basic services like education, public service commission, healthcare, business, taxation, administration, power, judiciary, police, land, etc. No sphere of our daily life is out of this evil practice. The government, business community, political system- all are in the clutch of corruption. As social cutes, it threatens all our democratic and development process.

Corruption has reached such a position that we are known in the world as most corrupt country. We have been consecutively four times champion corrupt country in the world. Even the donation from multinational agencies has been misappropriated by corrupt means. Nothing can be done without bribe.

Fortunately, our government has realized the fact and started campaign against corruption. Anti-corruption Committee has been formed who filed cases against the corrupt big guns. But the work of the Commission was not beyond questions. Moreover, it has been blamed to be weak and irresponsible. Politicisation has already made the weak and inefficient bureaucracy almost non- functional. It is difficult for us to believe that the Commission can take any strong decision against the corrupt people. However, people are now more conscious about his evil practice and so they are always seen to raise their voice against corruption of any type.

This malpractice should be stopped immediately. But it is not easy to root out corruption. Corruption is ingrained in human nature which seeks power and pelf in pursuit of happiness. Only a true moral education, honest upbringing and sincere belief in a perfect philosophy of plain living and high thinking can reduce the magnitude of corruption.

Price Rise

Price Rise is the bane of modern world. Pries of essential commodities go on rising every day despite the professed and genuine efforts of the government.

The main reason for sky-rocketing of prices is the unabated rise in population at an alarming rate. As compared to China, India has failed miserably in controlling her population. Another reason for price-rise is the huge loss of man-days as a result of frequent strikes and lock-outs in the industrial units. This leads to short fall in production. Then India is still a developing country. A huge capital expenditure is still going on in the form of construction activities and in the form of establishment of new units. An average Indian has considerably awakened to the reality of raising his living standard in the matter of eating, housing, medical aid and providing education to his children. He is also fond of recreation through T.V., V.C.R cinema, transistor etc. All this expenditure pushes up the rate of living. Those who can afford, also purchase luxurious items like the refrigerator, air conditioner, desert cooler, geyser and other such gadgets. There is also a lot of wastage on parties, dinners, inauguration and other functions and on canvassing, publicity and propaganda during elections. The hoarders, stockiest and black marketers also push up prices by causing artificial scarcity in the market. Wars and arms race also lead to shortage and price rise.

It is a pity that even more than forty five years after independence, most of the Indians are still leading a dog’s life. Only some lucky ones roll in luxury. The government should take some drastic steps to keep prices under control.

A Journey by Train

Clues: time and place—description of the journey – sights seen – enjoyment of the journey – my feelings

My annual examination was over. I had recess for some days. During this time of the year the weather is good enough to make a journey. Incidentally, I with some of my friends took a sudden decision to go to my sister’s house in Chittagong y train. On the appointed day. I along with my three friends arrived at Kamalapur railway station before sunrise. We bought our tivkets and got into the train just at 7 a.m.

When the guard blew the whistle and waves his green flag, the train started moving. After a few minutes it began running at a full speed. I, keeping myself aloof, sat beside a window with a view to looking outside through the window. The sun was rising with all its splendid beauty. Soon leaving urban areas, the train was running through the green fields of the rural areas. I gazed and gazed at the houses, trees and meadows with a cheerful mind. Everything seemed to be running swiftly in the opposite direction. They came to my vision and disappeared in the twinkling of an eye. The beauty of the scenery on either side of the train charmed my eyes.

I also enjoyed the mild jerking of the train and rhythmic sounds of the wheels. Now and then it crossed bridge over a river or a canal with a chattering noise. As it was an express train, it stopped only at a few big stations. At about noon we arrives within the areas of Chittagong district, I felt great joy seeing the hills on either side of the line, as I had never seen a hill before. After eight hours journey, the train reached Chittagong railway station at about 3 p.m. We got down from the train and went to my sister’s house by a taxi. Our return journey was equally a pleasant one.

This pleasant and enjoyable lasted for a few hours. But the journey left permanent impression in my mind. I will never forget the romance, thrill and charm of my first train journey and my first visit to Chittagong. The scene of the memorable journey peeps into my mind when I become tired of the mechanical urban life.

THE GAME I LIKE MOST

Football is the most popular game of the world. People all over the world are mad for it. A huge amount of money is spent every year for this game. The standard of football in Europe and South America is very high.

Football is played on an open grassy field. The field is 110 to 120 yards long and 70 to 80 yards wide. There are two goal posts at each end to the field. A crossbar is attached to the goal posts. The crossbar is eight feet high from the ground.

The game is played between two teams. Each team has eleven players of which one is a goal-keeper. One referee and two linesmen conduct the game. Duration of the game is 90 minutes divided into two halves with a recess of 10/15 minutes. After the first half each team changes its side. The referee places the ball at the centre of the field. With the whistle of the referee a player of one team kicks the ball and the game starts.

Football makes a man strong and healthy as it requires hard labour and quick movement. Football uses all the skills and energy of the body and mind. It teaches the players to be obedient, punctual, and hard-working in a team spirit. Football tournaments create friendship among the nations of the world. For these reasons football is my favorite game.

I love football and it makes me happy. Football is played in all the countries of the world. So when the world cup tournament is held it creates sensation all over the world. Through satellite communication the matches of the tournament are telecast live and most people of the world enjoy them. Football brings the nations of the world closer and makes them friendly with one another.

My Hobby

A hobby is different from work. A hobby is pursued during leisure. It gives relief from boredom and refreshes the mind after tiring physical or mental work.

Hobbies differ from person to person. Manual workers may like to study books or magazines after hard physical work. Intel-lacteal workers may give rest to their minds by playing some light game like badminton or tennis. Many people take interest in gardening, photography, seeing movies etc. during their leisure time. My hobby, how- ever, is stamp-collecting.

I am aware that a hobby is pursued mainly neither for earning money non for adding to one’s knowledge nor for gaining popularity. There is absolutely no selfish motive involved in a hobby is just pleasure through recreation. Money, Knowledge, popularity and such other gains are only by-products f the bobby. Secondly, a hobby is not intended to take precedence over work. It is only complementary to work. It provides new energy to our mind and limbs to do more and better work.

I selected stamp collection as my hobby just by chance when I received letters from my pen-friends living in foreign countries. Very colourful and descriptive stamps of various various designs were fixed on those letters. I was so much enamored of those stamps that I decided to have stamp-collecting as my hobby. Now I exchange stamps with my fiends and make purchases

even in the market. I am a member of number of stamp-collecting national and international societies which help me in collecting stamps of different countries.

I have with me about two thousand stamps of various countries. Most of the stamps are of rare variety and my friends who see them are all praise for them. They are arranged in a number of albums in a very systematic manner. They tell us about different personages, flora and fauna, historical events, achievements in the scientific and other fields of various countries etc. Some of them denote some festivals or great or important days like the International Year of Women of Year of the Girl Child etc. I love to see them off and on.

WONDER OF MODERN SCIENCE

Man always wants to live a better life. He wants better food, clothing and dwelling. He also likes comfort and entertainment. Science helps man to attain these. As a result, science has developed greatly. Today we are living is an age of science. Day and night, we make use of innumerable discoveries and inventions of science.

Electricity is the great power behind many scientific inventions. The electric lamp lights up our houses. Radio, television, telegraph, telephone, cinema, tape-recorder, photocopier, VCR, computers and most of the mills and factories are run by electricity. There are also electric trains, printing presses, cookers, irons, fans, sewing machines etc. run by electricity.

Science has conquered space and time. We can go from one place to another in a very short time by train, steamer, plane or rocket. Previously people took years to go from one continent to another. But nowadays we take only hours. We have reached the moon. We can now send messages at a great distance in the fraction of a second. We can talk to anybody in any part of the world by telephone, Radio broadcasts songs music, news, discussion etc. Television telecasts a wide range of programmes of varies subjects. By FAX, any writing of picture can be sent over great distances very easily. We can do today in hours what was done in days or months before. E-mail has made the world communication quickest, easiest and cheapest.

Science has found out the causes of most of the diseases and has discovered many remedies. A deadly disease like TB has been conquered. Cholera has also been brought under control. Small pox has been eradicated. The X-Ray and the anti biotic have been very helpful to man. Cornea transplant, by-pass surgery etc. are marvels of medical science.

Science has increased food production greatly. If we can apply the scientific methods properly there will be no hunger in the world. Tractors, power-pumps, fertilizers, high yielding varieties of corps and irrigation techniques have revolutionized agriculture.

But science is not an unmixed blessing. Science has also invented guns, bombs, and missiles, battleships and war planes, chemical weapons and nuclear war heads. It has brought in environmental pollution. We should stop the misuse of science to get its real benefits.

THE COMPUTER

[1. The latest miracle.  2. Its functions.  3. Its uses.

  1. Computer in India.  5. What our government may do.]

The Computer is the latest miracle of modern science. The last part of the 20th century will be particularly remembered for this invention, especially as it seems to have a future of endless possibilities. The dictionary meaning of the word ‘Computer’ is ‘an electronic calculation machine’, and it is derived from the verb ‘Computer’ meaning to reckon the number or amount of something. It is indeed the most authentic machine, standing for artificial intelligence but that of a very high order. It is very strange but true that the manner of its operations would suggest that the intelligence and memory it possesses, for surpass those of a living human being.

The work done by the computer covers a very wide field, and its surprising activities are extending to newer shares day by day. Hundreds of calculations, and even of a very complex and difficult type, can be done by a computer in a minute. Again, it seems to possess a prodigious memory. Thousands of pieces of information, and facts and figures can be stored up by it in its memory for an indefinite period, when once these are entered into its ‘artificial brain’. It can recall all that out of its memory at once, whenever required. It is obvious that however extraordinary may be the mathematical genius of a person or however enormous may be the power of his memory, such facts are simply impossible for any human being.

Because of its inconceivable advantages as above noted, the compute is now being used to serve manifold purposes throughout the world, In the Western Countries and in Russia and Japan, its use started a pretty long time ago. India, however, has only just stepped into the computer age. In the advanced countries it is being used in government offices, firms, banks, railways and airlines, educational institutions, scientific laboratories and libraries, etc. Through its very quick and precise calculations the computer has been also playing an important role in the epoch-making ventures of sending cosmonauts to the upper space, and to the Moon.

In our country, too the government and various non-government concerns, institutions, and banks etc. are now using the computer. After the technique of its operations is mastered and its price is lowered down, in India, too as in the West, Russia and Japan, private parties will begin to use it at home. It will then save much domestic labour and much time of the family. Scientists are at work to make the computing machine more and more improved to make it capable of even more difficult and complex operations. It is envisaged that then it will be able to serve an individual by doing various things for him in his daily life from morning, till late at night. It will help in paying electric and telephone bills. it will receive telephone messages and information brought by messengers, record them properly and will deliver the same to persons concerned in time. The robot, or ‘artificial man’, is a recent miracle of science. A robot, already made in USA. And Japan etc. can do the work of many men. Now robot technology is closely allied to the technology of the computer. It appears that in near future, just like the typewriter, the computer will be an indispensable thing in every office and every institution and also in the houses of many advanced families.

In view of the fast growing importance of the computer, both the central and the state governments should do the needful to introduce in Universities and Colleges, courses in computer technology. Students should be taught there everything regarding the computer, its various functions and its future possibilities. As days will pass on, well- equipped persons in computer technology will be required in an ever increasing number by offices, firms, banks and different institutions. The government should also take concrete measures so that computers can be manufactured in our country and at a moderate cost.

Advantage of Reading Newspaper

The power of the press is really un-disputed. In this modern age, the press is so strong and effective that it is called the Fourth Estate. Newspapers live Times if India, States-man and magazines like outlook and India Today have wide circulation in India. They have the power to draw the attention of those who matter, to the shortcomings in their decisions and its results.

With the spread of education, the influence of the Press has also grown in our country and in advanced countries, it is capable of making or breaking governments. In U.K. Japan or U.S.A. there is hardly a person who does not subscribe to a newspaper and consequently they are better informed and more updated with the affairs of their nation and the world.

India with a comparatively lesser literacy populace, specially in rural areas of States live Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, etc. are at a disadvantage. Because of the lesser influence the Press has on the masses, the advantages of democracy and the power to elect their own representatives are lost on them.

We achieved independence through the basics of mass movements, organised by the political parties, through the medium of newspapers. It was only when a few Indians learnt the English language and got to know of the revolutions in other countries, that they got the idea of freeing themselves from the shackles of slavery. This knowledge was largely contributed by newspapers of the foreign Press which were fearless in depicting the truth.

The Press has the power thus to mould public opinion. It has become the medium of political agitations and movements in our country and the organ of political leaders and parties. It is also the voice of the public, forcing the Government to listen with respect, to its opinions and views.

he elections, after the Emergency imposed by Indira Gandhi, gave a negative vote against her, for suppression of the ‘Freedom of Press’. The downfall of President Richard Nixon of U.S.A. due to Watergate was actually fuelled by Press reports of the break-in.

Thus, we find the Press placed as one of the ‘Goliaths’ of present age and if utilizes for the good of the people, it can wield tremendous power. However, there is the other side of the coin too.

There are several owners and even Editors, controlling the Press, who try to take advantage of his extreme power. Power does corrupt if un-checked and those controlling the Press must be vigilant and always on guard lest they corrupt society and make it their im to solely earn money. It cannot be denied that there are those who hold be acting as sentinels for society but are actually in the profession to arm-twist, black-mail and, literally take advantage of their own position for selfish material gains.

A clean and independent Press, fearless as they should be, can be a blessing. It is the ‘great sentinel of the State’, ‘the ground detector of public imposture’.

It is an aid to social reform and educational advancement. All novel efforts at social reforms can first discussed and debated in the press before any decision is arrived at and final action launched. It can also reach those who do not indulge in extensive reading because of lack of means and even those with limited liesure.

Thus, it is a tool for the eradication of corruption of society depending on the persons manning it and because of this need to be in safe hands.

My Visit to a Place of Historical Interest

Man has an infinite thirst for knowledge. He always wants to know the unknown and see the unseen to satisfy his curiosity and quench this thirst. Visiting places is a wonderful experience and has lot of educative value. I am always fond of visiting a new place, particularly if it is a place of historical interest. I have visited most of the main historical places in Bangladesh like the Buddhist Vihara at Paharpur, Mahasthangarh at Bogra, Sonargaon and Bagerhat. last year I had an opportunity to visit the world famous Taj Mahal at Agra in India

There is hardly an educated person who has not heard or red about the Taj Mahal in India. In my higher secondary English textbook I read description of it. I came to know that it is one of the most beautiful buildings in the world. It was built in the seventeenth century by Emperor Shah Jahan as a tomb for his wife, Mumtaz mahal. I became very curious to visit this wonderful place and was looking for a chance to go there. In February last year some of my friends and I made a plan for touring India, specially to visit Agra.

It took us several days to complete our foreign tour formalities. We managed to procure passports and visas as quickly as possible.

Then we fixed a date for our journey. When the day arrived, we said good-bye to our parents and friends and started our journey to India via Benapal border. We caught a morning train from Rajshahi and got off at Jessore. Then we went to benapal by bus. We crossed the border at about 3 o’clock. We hired a taxi to go to Bonpara railway station. By the time reached Bonpar all the four of us got very hungry. We ate some food at a restaurant there and caught the Kolkata-bound train at 5 p.m. In Kolkata we put up in a small hotel for the night. As we had a long journey from Rajshahi to Kolkata, all of us had a sound sleep.

We spent the following day wandering here and there in Kolkata and visiting some important places. Next day we started for Delhi in the morning by train. The thirty-hour journey by train was extremely tiring but we somehow managed to keep ourselves fresh. After an overnight stay in New Delhi we started for Agra. The city of Agra is in Uttar Pradesh and to the southeast of New Delhi. From New Delhi it is five-hour journey by bus. We started our journey at 12 noon and reached there sate and sound at five in the evening.

The ment we reached the premises of the Taj Mahal, we were overwhelmed with joy and forgot all the exhaustion and hazards of the journey. We fell in love with the Taj at first sight. We felt that no words would be enough to describe its beauty. Immediately we understood why twenty thousand men worked for twenty-two years to complete the complex.

We saw that the mausoleum of pure white marble inlaid with semiprecious stones, is flanked by two red sandstone buildings, a mosque on one side and an identical building for aesthetic balance on the other. It stands on a high marble plinth with a minaret at each corner. It has four identical facades, each with a massive central arch, and is surmounted by a bulbous double dome and four domed kiosks. Just inside the outer walls, there is a corridor and from this corridor we looked through the carved marble screens to a central arch, and is surmounted by a bulbous double dome and four domed kiosks. Just inside the outer walls, there is a corridor and from this corridor we looked through the carved marble screens to a central room. ‘The bodies of Shah Jahan and his beloved wife lie in two graves below this room. No visitor is allowed to approach these original graves. There were thousands of people coming from different countries of the world to visit the Taj Mahal on that day and we also came to know that about eighty million people from all over the world visit the Taj Mahal every year.

We were really impressed by the matchless beauty of the Taj. It was as if a dream in marble. However, we were shocked to see one thing. The great mausoleum stands on the river Jamuna but there was no water in the river. The river rather looked drab and dry. We felt that the Taj Mahal would look many times more beautiful if the river were full of water.

We also visited the beautiful garden surrounding the Taj Mahal. The green trees of the garden made the white marble of the main building look even whiter.  We also walked round the long pool in front of the main entrance to the building. When we looked in this pool in the evening twilight, we saw all the beauty of the Taj Mahal in the reflection in the water. We could not resist our temptation to take photographs of all the beautiful scenes. We had read that Taj Mahal looks best at night in moonlight. Fortunately, it was the time of the full moon. Therefore, we waited until night and the rise of the moon. Our wait became significant when e observed the effect of the moonlight on the white marble of the Taj Mahal. The dazzling whiteness of the marble mingled with the soft whiteness of moonlight created a magic world.

We did not feel like leaving the site of the Taj Mahal which is known as one of the seven wonders of the would. But at one time we had to. We stayed overnight at Agra and made for New Delhi again the next mornign with a sweet memory of visiting a wonderful place of great historical interest. Even today I feel proud to say that I have visited the Taj Mahal. After visiting India in 2000 Bill Clinton said, “The world is divided into two parties those who have visited the Taj Mahal and those who have not. I am lucky I belong to the first party. “Before visiting the Taj Mahal I considered myself unfortunate to think that I was a member of the second party but today like Bill Clinton I can also proudly say that I belong to the first party of peole who have visited the Taj Mahal. The memory of the Taj mahal will remain ever fresh in my mind.

Your Ambition if Life

We are all familiar with the proverb ‘Hitch your wagon to a star.’ The logic behind it is simple. If we do not aspire for something great, we shall not strive for it and consequently lead a life of ignominy. The autobiographies of all great men revel, that each of them very early in childhood had a dream, a vision of what they intended to do or become. This is distinctively apart form daydreaming, for in the words of William Shakespeare “Ambition should be made of sterner stuff’. Thus it is not suffice to only dream, but one must relentlessly strive to achieve and realise this dream.

I too have a dream, an ambition of becoming a doctor. This is so because it is a noble profession that also commands a lot of respect in the society. The white coat and the stethoscope mesmerizes me, right since my childhood. The look of concern, sense of empathy and the feeling of confidence that the doctor inspires in a patient, mitigates his suffering. He is looked as a messiah by the sick and the infirm. No matter how big or powerful a man might be, he invariable does fall sick and has to seek the doctor’s help. There are many other professions that offer more money, power and glamour, but none commands the respect and the dignity of a doctor. All these are but transitory things, that are there today and gone tomorrow, but the status and service of a doctor does not diminish. On the other hand, if he practices his profession nobly, it increases and multiplies with the passage of time.

The road to realising my dream is not easy, nor do I expect it to be so. I would have to pass the competitive premedical examination, before I could gain entry to a medical college. I have begun preparation for the same in earnest and with God’s grace I do hope to clear the test. I would like specialise in Cardiac diseases after completing my MBBS. This is a fatal ailment that has afflicted us and is on the rise. It has now started afflicting even young people and this country would need many cardiologists to take care of them.

This is my dream which I do hope will come true. I shall leave no stone unturned to turn my ambition into reality, for I firmly believe that our triumphs and defeats are in us. H.W. Longfellow rightly echoes these sentiments when he says, “Not in the clamour of crowded streets not in the shouts of plaudits of the throng. But in ourselves are triumphs and defeats.”

The Television

Television is one of the latest inventions of science. It is an improvement over the radio. It presents both sight and sound. Thus the effect of its presentation is many times enhanced as compared to the radio. The invention of colour T.V is a great achievement of science. The emergence of cable T.V with dish antennae etc. is the latest addition to this achievement.

T.V. is no longer a luxury. It has become one of the necessities of life. It is a great source of entertainment. It blends education with entertainment. it is an audio- visual device, no less important in providing information on varied topics than a newspaper. The television gives news, views, reviews and interviews. It is a mini celluloid screen and much more.

Television is jeeringly termed as “the idiot box”. It is so because the typical T.V. fans remain glued to it like an idiot. The term also endeavors to scoff at the boring programmes which are sometimes presented.

The usefulness of television cannot be underestimated. One can witness the events of the world in their live form. One can hear speeches, debates and witty contests. One can see exciting matches and thrilling athletic competitions. Apart from old and new documentary and feature films, interesting and educative dramas, one-act plays and several historical and mythological serials are telecast over the television. Some serials aim at furthering national integration and communal harmony. Lessons for adult and children’s education are also given. Great scientific experiments and complicated surgical operations are telecast live. Television is a great boon to the housewives. They get entertainment after they get bored while doing household chores. They also learn new lessons in cookery, knitting, sewing, interior decoration etc. The children learn new physical exercises and the students get more information about their lessons.

During test and one-day matches and at the time of elections, T.V. provides the latest tally. We fell thrilled to get highlights of Olympic and other games. The telecast through the satellite has added a new dimension to the usefulness of T.V. As a result of it, Television has reached almost all parts of our country. The meteorological forecasts greatly help the farmers and fishermen. The farmers also get knowledge of new techniques of farming through T.V. The advertisements of various marketable products greatly help the producer as well as the consumer.

Television is also a bane in one sense. Many children, who are too much enamored of it, get their eyesight impaired. Many others neglect their lessons and games. Also erotic scenes from films have a degenerative effect on the young people.

Like all objects of science, television is a good servant but a bad master. One can develop one’s personality greatly through its proper use. The reverse can be the case in case of over- indulgence.

An Ideal Student

The very word: “Student” denotes a person fond of studies. But ‘studies’ do not mean just bookish knowledge, but a real knowledge of men, society, nature, mind etc. Such variegated knowledge can be obtained only by a person of strong mind and will, good heart and sound health. So, the very connotation of being an ideal student is one’s keen interest in developing an all round personality.

By going into details, we can say that an ideal student has a thirst for knowledge. He has the curiosity to learn and understand new and new things about man and nature. He has a regular routine for doing every thing. Thus he is regular and punctual. He gets up early in the morning, takes regular exercise, has his bath and goes to his school and college in time. He devotes his time to studies whole-heartedly and is in the good books of his teachers whom he respects sincerely, as he respects his parents. He helps the weak students in their students and never makes fun of them. If others out do him, he accepts their superiority with humility. He may have a healthy competition with them, but he is never jealous of them. Similarly, he plays one or the other game, but with a sportsman’s spirit.

An ideal student is very particular about his character and manners. He is truthful honest and frank. He does not find fault with others but tries to get rid of his own drawbacks, if any. he has no evil habits like drinking, smoking, gambling etc. He is a great patriot and is ready to die for his country. He knows that by making himself strong is body and mind, he is also serving the national cause, because as Emerson says,

“Not gold but only men can make

A national great and strong”

          An ideal student is very studious. He knows that an idle man’s brain is the devil’s workshop. He does the right thing at the right time. He believes in his own sincere effort. He does not believe in underhand methods. For instance, copying in the examination can never be his motto. He is not only a voracious reader and a good player but also a good speaker and write. He believes in bringing constant efficiency in his work. He has a positive and an optimistic attitude towards life. Failures do not depress him, nor do successes turn his head. He has a balanced mind and personality.

A VILLAGE FAIR I VISITED

Introduction        : A village fair is a gathering of village people. It is usually he annually or periodically at a certain place on the occasion of Bengali new year day or a religious festival. It lasts for a day of two. It is generally held in an open space or the bank of the river of the river or near a banyan tree.

 

Occasion    : I had the experience of visiting a village fair held in our neighbor’s village last month. It was the 30th Poush. The fair took place around a lard banyan tree. it was observed on the occasion of the harvest-home.

 

Visiting the fair: On the fixed day, I along with two of my cousins started for the fail 10.a.m. Entering into the fair, we found hundreds of booths, stalls and tents in the field around the big banyan tree. I came to know that the traders, craftsmen and other interred people came to the place the previous day. Various kinds of goods such as dolls, ear wares, toys, fluted, balloons, baskets, imitation ornaments etc. were dispel there in an attractive manner to draw the attention of the customers. Food of all kinds also available in the fair.

 

Activities in the fair: We began to walk along the lanes between rows of chores.  We atched that men, women and children gathered in the fair in a large number. They were busy in buying for themselves and for their dear and near ones. We came to a place where there was merry-go-round and looked at it for sometime. Then we enjoyed a circus now. Coming out of the circus, I drank the water of a green coconut. Next I proceeded to the front of a booth and bought some fancy things for my younger sister. For myself, I bough a mouth-organ and some sweetmeats.

 

Conclusion : I had been sweating profusely since I got into the crowd. To, we came out of the crowd and started for home in the afternoon. From my visit to the fair, I have learnt many things about rural life and culture. Really, the memory of this air will remain ever fresh in my mind.

DISCIPLINE

Discipline means going by law and system. In order to do anything successfully, discipline is a must. Discipline is the precondition to success in life. The more a society is disciplined, the more developed they are in different fields of life. So we can easily say that the most disciplined nation is the most developed nation of his world. We should first realise the value of discipline and make our young generation feel its essentiality in life. But discipline should be practiced right from early in life. Habit of discipline cannot be formulated in a day.

Discipline should start from early in the morning. We should practice getting up early in the morning. Getting up from bed early we should wash our teeth, say our prayer and take breakfast. We have also to take some physical exercise for keeping fine. Without discipline, we cannot have a good start in the day’s work. If one student doesn’t prepare his lessons well and attend his school in time he will cut a sorry figure in the exam. Again if there is no discipline in the family, the family will not run well. The office will be a scene of chaos. Likewise, a society will not function without the practice of discipline. So each and every, society has got to follow the laws, rules and regulations.

Lack of discipline results in the complete chaos and confusion. Even the animals in the forest go by some natural laws for their existence. Lack of discipline reminds us of the situation where he animals fight with each other till death. Without discipline the society will cease to exist. Lack of discipline hinders our onward movement and makes us stagnant. Without discipline, a student cannot complete his education successfully. Discipline will save unnecessary wastage of money, man power and time. Being a poor country, we cannot afford the wastage of time, money and other resources.

Discipline is the root of civilization. Every civilization has come through a long way of discipline. Strict adherence to discipline takes one to the summit of success. Again a society falls down into the abyss of darkness by indulging in indiscipline. Indiscipline is, in other word, lawlessness. Society and progress are synonymous and go together.

MEMORIES OF CHILDHOOD

When I think back about my childhood, many vivid memories spring to my mind. Some are painful. Regardless the quality I attach to these memories, they constitute the early experiences of my life and they help to make me the person that I am today.

The most vivid memory that I have is about the time fell from a coconut tree. Though I fell about three feet, I dislocated my elbow. I can still recall the process of falling and the immense pain and discomfort afterwards. I was about five at that time. That accident made me extra careful whenever I climb a tree. A repeat of the experience I definitely not welcome.

As I grew older I remember sitting side-saddle on the horizontal bar of my elder brother’s bicycle white he pedaled us toward a small farm nearby. There we would buy some fruits that cost only a few cents each. Then we would feed ourselves on the way back. I had to watch out for the police because my brother told me that if I were to be caught riding.

COMPUTER

There is nothing to wonder that science will try to replace human brain by machine. The machine which has come to help human brain is called computer which is of great use to us. It has lessened our work-load and made our life easy and comfortable.

In the modern world computer is greatly used in education. To prepare the study materials the students use computer. Many important things are learned by the students from computer within a short time. Computer can be used as a world library. Education and educational system have been developed with the help of computer.

Population Problem of Bangladesh

 

Bangladesh is the most densely populated country in the world. About 1000 people live per square kilometre. Every year more than two million people are being added to our population. The problem has now moved out of control and it has now come to the stage of explosion.

The area of Bangladesh is too small to support the vast population. As a result, it creates problems, such as, food shortage, communication disruption, educational problem, shelter shortage, health hazards, lack of medicine, environmental pollution and poverty. The present growth rate of population in our country is 21.6 per thousand. It is obviously a very high growth rate. Dogmatism, prejudice, early marriage and superstation are responsible for this high growth rate of population.

The population of Bangladesh is increasing by geometric progression. But the agricultural production is increasing by arithmetical progression. So the country’s production fails to feed the increasing number of people. Not only this, but also the job facilities are. Being unemployed, some people are becoming addicted to drugs and are being involved in terrorism. So the standard of living, political stability and cultural values are degrading day by day. There are crowds everywhere in buses, trains, bazars, schools and colleges. The prices of things are increasing by leaps and bounds. People can hardly make both ends meet. Over population is a hindrance to any kind of development. So necessary and constructive steps should be taken to reduce the high growth rate of population. Early marriage should be stopped. The introduction of family planning all over the country is essential. Newspaper, radio, television and other mass media can play an important role for educating and enlightening the common people about the disastrous effect of over population.

Over population is a serious threat to the development of our country. This situation will be aggravated if the present growth rate of population goes on unchecked. The people from all walks of life should come forward to co-operate with the government to solve this problem. Otherwise, all hopes and joys of the people of Bangladesh will be nipped in the bud.

Unemployment Problem of Bangladesh

 

Unemployment means not finding a job. The unemployment problem is acute in Bangladesh because of the lack of job opportunity. When all the development efforts stop, the unemployment problem keeps soaring up.

As to the size, Bangladesh is the smallest country in Asia but stands first being the most populous country. For about three decades political education, illiteracy, agro-based economy, industrial backwardness, closure or lay-off of industries, economic stagnancy in investment sectors and, above all, a large-scale corruption are responsible for the unemployment problem. After the liberation, no special care was given to the industrial sector. As a result, the employment opportunities are not created. Due to political unrest foreign investors feel repulsion to invest in Bangladesh. NGO programmes are insignificant. As a result, the unemployment problem is mounting up day by day.

Unemployment is a great social evil. It has a far-reaching effect on the economic, social and political affairs of the country. Unemployed people consume natural wealth but do not contribute to the economy of the country. A large number of unemployed youths involve themselves in various anti-social activities and crimes. Drug addiction, terrorism, trafficking etc. are breeding anarchy and disorder in society. Unemployment is the root of all evils.

To solve the unemployment problem, the government must take adequate and proper steps. This task is hard but not impossible. Of various remedies, the most potent is the industrialization of our country. A sound and helpful democratic atmosphere is to be ensured. Vocational education can come to aid in this regard.

So we should pay attention to vocational and technical education. Instead of looking for clerical jobs in offices, they should engage themselves in small business, dairy and poultry farming. The government should supply interest-free loans for this purpose.

The unemployment problem in Bangladesh is getting more and more acute day by day. It is high time we took proper steps to eradicate it. If we fail to solve this problem, our independence will be meaningless.

My Visit to a Place of Historical Interest

 

Historical place means a place which bears testimony to history. Bangladesh is a land of historical importance. Everywhere there are places of historical interest. Visiting a historical place is truly interesting and exciting. Visits to such places have a great educative value too. Besides, it helps us to remove the dullness of the mind which occurs from the monotonous classes. So, after the test examination is over, we visited Mahasthangarh, a place of historical interest.

On 20 October 2010, we started for our visit. We are four in number. On the appointed day, we all gathered at a pre-decided place named Gabtoli from where we went to Bogra by bus and stayed at night. The following day after breakfast we set out for Mahasthangarh. It was only a few kilometres away from the town. We went there by rickshaw. When we reached Mahasthangarh, a glorious chapter of old history opened up before our eyes. We all were enchanted seeing such a historical place with our own eyes.

Mahasthangarh was the site of Pundranagar. Pundranagar was the capital of the Mouryas, Guptas, Senas and other Hindu kings. The old city was about 2000 metres long and 1500 metres wide and was surrounded by a wall. Once it was a very flourishing city.

Mahasthangarh stands on the western bank of the river Korotoa. There are some elevated places near Mahasthangarh. These places are known as ‘Vitas’. ‘Kundus’, ‘Ghous’ and ‘Dhaps’. One part of the dried river is known as the ghat of Kankabati. There is a museum of Mahasthangarh. Some images, dice, ornaments and pots excavated from Mahasthangarh have been kept in the museum. We have seen all the relics of the past and learnt a lot of things about our past civilization.

We spent the day at Mahasthangarh and started back for Bogra in the evening. The following day after breakfast we set out for Dhaka.

A visit to a place of historical interest is always interesting to me. It was a great pleasure for me to be at Mahasthangarh. It was indeed a rewarding visit. It is still fresh in my memory.

A Journey by Train I have Recently Enjoyed

 

Journey is always fascinating. It charms our mind and makes us happy. Journey is a break in our monotonous everyday life. After a journey, we feel relaxed and fresh. Peace fills our heart after we have made a really wonderful journey.

I made a journey by train with my friends last year. I received a letter from my uncle at Chittagong to attend the marriage ceremony of his daughter. I took some of my friends with me. Early in the morning I reached Kamlapur Railway station where I found my other friends. The train came. We got into the train and found our seats beside the window. The guard blew his whistle and waved his green flag, the engine slowly began to move and we glided out of the station.

Everything that we were passing was pretty and so we amused ourselves by looking through the windows. As the train winded away eastwards, we could see a number of hills and mountains. We passed by the green fields, beautiful watery areas and wonderful hillocks. Everything seemed very bright and pleasant to us. From the train, we could see the clear, green waters and women and small boys and girls swimming happy and taking bath in the ponds and rivers.

At last at 4 p.m. we reached Chittagong. The journey seemed to me like a dream. However, when we reached Chittagong, we found my uncle waiting for us. He welcomed us and took to his residence. Thus our wonderful journey ended very beautifully.

Students and Social Service

 

Society is an association of all classes of people with common interest, aim and principle. Students are not isolated from society. So, as members of society, they are obliged to perform certain duties to society. There are many kinds of social services and students have a lot to do in this sector.

Student life is the period for education and training. It is not desirable that students should waste their time and energies in affairs other than education. But living in a developing country like ours students have to render certain services for the development and progress of the nation. Students are in the process of learning and they can share their acquired knowledge with the illiterate and deprived citizens of our country. They may run night schools and teach the poor and working children as well as the uneducated adult people. If that is not possible, they can at least teach servants in their own house. Besides teaching the tree R’s-Reading. The use of fertilizers and proper caring of crops. They can also provide advice on earning methods, for example, whether to dig a pond for fish cultivation or to make a farm. Students have duties towards society no doubt, but they should not remain always preoccupied with these. They should render social services during leisure time or during long vacations.

Students can take part in raising awareness regarding population problem. Population is growing in geometrical progression. If this growth remains unchecked the economic security of the country will be at a stake. The illiterate people of our country are full of prejudices and do not feel the necessity of family planning. Students may come forward to remove these evil conceptions of the people. They can teach people the problems of over population and should encourage them to adopt the measures of family planning.

Students can teach people the rules of health and sanitation. They can teach them how to reduce pollution and how to lead a healthy life by staying neat and clean. A large number of people suffer from various diseases. The students can teach these people some basic treatments for diseases like dysentery and small infections.

Students can prove to be worthy during natural calamities. In times of flood, famine, cyclone, earthquake and epidemic they can come forward to help the people in distress. They can collect food, clothes and medicine and distribute them amongst the people in need.

There are many other duties that students can perform as conscious citizens of a country. But not all students are aware of their duties. To save the country, every student should come forward with a helping hand. But in doing so, they should not forget that proper attention should be given to their education.

Tree plantation and Deforestation

 

Trees are the most important gift of nature. Since the dawn of civillization. Man has a close relationship with nature. They help us in maintaining the ecological balance which is essential for the preservation of life on earth. They are our friends. They play an important role in our life and economy.

Trees are useful to us in many ways. We get from trees different kinds of nutritious fruits which mae us healthy and protect us from diseases. By taking in carbon dioxide and giving off oxygen in the air, trees help us to exist on earth. Trees give shade and shelter to many people. Trees make the land fertile and save the soil from erosion. Trees attract rains. We get timber from trees. We use timbers in making houses, furniture etc. Trees are used as fuel. Trees are also our source of income. We can earn a lot of money by selling friuts and timber.

Bangladesh is mostly a flat and riverine country. Lands in the upper region of the river are highly suitable for the growth and development of trees. Sea-beaches, low-lying unused lands, sides of the highways and roads can be brought under the scheme of tree plantation. Again, in the hilly areas of Chittagong Hill Tracts and Sylhet there are many lands left unused. These lands can also be brought under the plantation programme.

Deforestation means cutting down trees in large number. It is very harmful for our existence. It causes ecological imbalance. It leads to soil erosion and deprives us of fruit and timber and causes economic loss. It is also responsible for climatic change, as well as global warming. In fact if deforestation goes on our country will be turned into a desert. So we should stop cutting down trees for the greater interest of our existence. We should create awareness among the general people in this regard. So every man and woman should plant tree to make the country green.

Trees and forests bear a great impact on climate. A country needs trees to ensure a cool and healthy climate for her people. If we destroy trees randomly, one day the country will turn into a desert. As a result the country will face a great crisis because our country is dependent upon agriculture.

Tree plandation is, by far, one of our most important duties. It is essential to prevent greenhouse effect. So tree-plantation is a must.

June and July are the most suitable period for planting trees in our country. Both government and private sectors should come forward to raise consciousness people about the importance of tree plantation.

The Season I like Best

 

In Bangladesh there appears a new season at a regula interval of every two months. Thus in a year we have six seasons in Bangladesh. They are the summer, the rainy season, the autumn, the late autumn, the winter and the spring. In the cycle of seasons, the spring covers the months of Falgun and Chitra. Of all the six seasons, I like the spring most. It is called ‘the king of seasons’.

My favourite season is the spring. The spring comes with ease and comfort. It has not the damp and humidity of the rainy season, nor the sweltering heat of the summer, nor the biting cold of the winter. The sky is blue. The south-west wind blows.

With the coming of this season, nature herself puts on a gay and lovely loo. The charming scenes of new leaves enchant the eyes. Various kinds of flowers bloom in abundance. Their fragrance change the atmosphere. Butterflies move from flower to flower. Their variegated wings make a sight for the eye. Bees come in swarms to gather honey. Their humming music fills the air. In fact, spring is the season of music and melody. The cuckoo hides in bushes. The ‘bou kotha kau’ draws the mind. Coming after the winter-harvest, the spring brings for the farmers plenty and happiness. During this season people are generally free from want. Our poets are very much fond of the spring. The infinite variety of its charms have made them fly ‘on the wings of poesy’.

Coming after the winter, the spring captivates the hearts of the people all at one. Though it consists of two months, its actual pleasure and spell last only for about three weeks in Falgun, So when summer follows, people bewail its hasty departure.

  Digital Bangladesh:

To cherish such a dream is easy, but it is too much difficult to materialize this dream. Land phone, mobile, computer, laptop, e-magazine and diary, e-book reader and many more tools of information technology will be available in every nook and corner of the country. People will no more have to stand in queue to collect tickets, results etc or to deposit and withdraw money or to buy and sell things. Broadly speaking, a digital society ensures an ICT driven knowledge-based society where information will be readily available online and where all possible tasks of the government, semi-government and also private spheres will be processed using the modern technology. So, “Digital Bangladesh” must guarantee efficient and effective use of modem ICT in all spheres of the society with a view to establishing good governance.

Why Digital Bangladesh: Due to globalization, Bangladesh has already been connected with the outside world. Yet In the field of ICT, our only grand success lies in Mobile telecommunication which has brought an abrupt change in telecommunication scenario of the country. However, in the other spheres of ICT, our achievement is very insignificant and we are still far away from transforming ourselves into a knowledge-based society. Building strong ICT infrastructure is the pre-requisite for making Bangladesh a digital one. For this, we need to focus on the following relevant issues:

(a) Power deficit: Latest statistics reveal that Bangladesh faces a power deficit of up to 2000 MW against a demand of 5000 MW daily. It may be noted that for proper ICT development an uninterrupted power supply is a must.

(b) Network infrastructure: Outside Dhaka, at present a few computer network infrastructures have been developed so far. Apart from some educational institutes outside Dhaka, observation finds that most of the LAN setups are Dhaka centric. This observation reveals the reality of the digital gap even within the country.

(c) Use of internet: For the ICT development internet users of the country must be increased. In this case our position is the worst one among the South Asian countries. Latest statistics (2007) revealed that internet penetration in our country is only 0.3 whereas in Pakistan and India it is 7.3% and 5.3% respectively.

(d) Use of open source software: Many countries (e.g. France and Malaysia) have started to use open source software in ICT development projects for cost effectiveness. Unfortunately in our ICT development domain, the culture of using open source has not yet been introduced.

(e) English-literacy rate: From different sources, it has been learnt that, English literacy rate in Bangladesh is less than one percent. In the arena of ICT English has become lingua-Franca. Unfortunately, in this case our position is the worst in the sub-continent. For making a digital Bangladesh by 2021, the government must address the above issues effectively and efficiently in transparent manners. Moreover, the journey towards a digital country needs the incorporation of the technologically solvent innovative young generation. If the leaders of our country objectively guide this generation, they can change the nation radically.

(f) Better agricultural production: The farmers will use all types of modern motorized tools instead of traditional equipments and their hand-driven tools to cultivate their lands. They will have to get ample online help about producing more and more crops.

(g) Modern treatment: Patients will have to get telemedicine and tele-surgery facilities with the use of audio and video conferencing based net. Besides, 24-hour online help will radically change the traditional medical services.

(h) E-learning and e-commerce: All the educational and commercial institutions will come under a good network system and the details of these institutions and their activities will be available on websites. E-paper, digitised pen, e-book, pen drive and screen-touch tools will replace the traditional tools for many different reasons.

Conclusion: Time has come for Bangladesh to develop her information technology and to turn her “Digital Bangladesh”. We need to bear in mind that to be away from enriched information technology means to live like a frog living in a well. We should look at the advanced countries of the world so that we can get modern ways and strategies from them to bring about a revolution for our ICT based society. Like Mahathir Muhammad’s Malaysia, we have to have our all-out efforts to materialise our desired Vision-2021 for our betterment and own existence.

 

Formal letter

Question: suppose, you are Munni of X high school in Dhaka. Your feel the necessity of a literary club in your school of want of which the students comet develop there literacy faculty properly. Now, write an application to your headmaster seeking permission to organize a literary club.

Answer:

18 February, 2014

The Headmaster

X High School, Dhaka.

Subject: Application for organizing a literary club.

Sir,

This it to inform you that our college is one of the most reputed colleges in our country. The performance of the students both in curricular and extracurricular is also very good. Every year our college team participates in different cultural and literary competitions arranged by different television channels and educational institutions. We know that literature is the mirror of life. The students of this school are very literary-minded. But it is a matter of great sorrow that there is no literary club in our college. If there had been a literary club, our college could obviously have done well. On the other hand, a literary club will help us to learn more about the great minds of the world and their works. This club can arrange literary meeting, debates, seminars and cultural activities. It will also help to bring all students together and give an opportunity to share their views and thoughts. Two of our teachers have kindly consented to guide us.

Under the above circumstances, we pray and hope that your honour would be kind enough to take necessary steps and to kindly permit us to organize a literary club in our school and oblige thereby.

Yours sincerely

Munni

On behalf of the students of your college

 

 

Write an application to the Headmaster of your School for re-admission

May 27, 2014

The Headmaster,

Shajuddin Sarker Model School,

Tongi, Gazipur

Subject: An application  for readmission

Dear Sir,

I beg most respectfully to state that I am a regular student of you school. My name has been struck off the register, as I could not pay up my school fees for the month of October. The cause of non-payment of my school fees is the hardship of my father.

May I, therefore, pray and hope that you would be gracious enough to pass orders for my re-admission of usual fees only.

I remain,

Sir,

Your most obedient pupil,

Avijit Majumder  Class-8  Roll-03

 

Write an application to your Headmaster for a testimonial

March 27, 2010

The Headmaster/Principal

Rotary School & College

Mirpur-14,Dhaka-1206

Subject: An application for   a testimonial.

Dear Sir,

I would like to inform you that I have passed the S.S.C examination from your school this year. I got GPA 4.5. Now I want to get myself admitted into a college and so I need a testimonial from you regarding my result and character.

Hence, I would like to request that you would be kind enough to issue me a testimonial and oblige thereby.

Sincerely yours

Nawsin Rahman

Class-                    Roll

Paragraph

Begum Rokeya

Begum Rokeya was a famous writer, a social worker, feminist and a social worker in undivided Bengal in the early 20th century. She is most famous for her efforts on behalf of gender equality and other social issues. She was born in 1880 in the village of Pairabondh, Rangpur. Her father, Jahiruddin Muhammad Abu Ali Haidar Saber, was a highly educated landlord. She had two sisters and three brothers. Rokeya’s eldest brother and elder sister had great influence on her life. She learnt Bangla and English from her eldest brother Ibrahim. She believed that women should have the same rights and opportunities as men have in the society. So she fought for their cause throughout her life. In 1896 she was married to Khan Bahadur Sakhawat Hussain who was the Deputy Magistrate. He was very cooperative, and always encouraged Rokeya to go on with her activities. Rokeya had great love for her mother tongue. She launched her literary career in 1902 with a Bangla story entitled Pipasa (Thirst). Her famous novels are Sultana’s Dream (1905), Motichur (1908), Padmaraga (1924) and Oborodhbashini (1928). Rokeya established Sakhawat Memorial Girls’ High School. It started in Bhagalpur, a traditionally Urdu-speaking area, with only five students. She also founded Islamic Women’s Association. In her life, she remained busy with the school, the association, and her writings for the rest of her life. She died of heart problems on December 9, 1932. The date of her death, 9 December, is now commemorated as ‘Rokeya Day’ in Bangladesh.

Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. It is a very good habit which is very much essential for sound health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. Once one gets into the habit of rising early, one is able to set a routine and that obviously leads to better productivity both at work and home. The man who rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air refreshes both body and mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning.  All these make them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works earlier. He had nothing to worry. He can earn more and become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. So, all of us should adopt a healthier way of living and reap those benefits.

Leisure/Leisure Pursuit/Pastime

Leisure is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. The monotonous working hours of a hectic and busy life load their brains with tiredness and stress. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized or recharged. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Most of the people of Bangladesh pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games, reading for exams, listening to music, visiting relatives on weekends, attending music lessons, going to movies occasionally, helping parents with housework, going on a picnic with family or friends, walking in the park on holidays are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.  

The Selfish Giant

Once there was a selfish giant who had a very beautiful garden in front of his place with soft green grass, beautiful flowers, fruit trees etc. He went to his friend in a distant land and stayed with them for seven years. In the meantime every afternoon children came back from school and used to go and play in the Giant’s garden. One day when the giant came back, he saw the children playing freely in his garden. This made him seriously angry and he drove them away. He built a huge wall round the garden to stop entrance into it. So the children could not play. Then the garden became lifeless without any flower or bird. Though it was the season of spring, winter prevailed in the garden. The giant found no trace of spring in his garden. Then one day he could hear the chirping of birds and looked out of the window. He saw that children were playing in the garden. It was full of flowers and birds. He come out of his castle into the garden and seeing him coming, the children ran away. At once the garden became lifeless again with cold. He could realize the matter and felt sad. Then he allowed them to enter into it and play freely. The garden immediately regained its life with flowers leave. From that time the giant and the children become close friends.

 

My First Day at School

The day a student goes to school for the first time in life is called first day at school. Human life is the collection of some forgettable as well as memorable events. My first day school is an event which will remain ever fresh in my heart. When my parents declared the news of my schooling, I became very much excited and started leaping and dancing in great joy. I was always thinking about the school, the teachers, and the students of the school. I couldn’t even sleep at night. The next morning my mother woke me up early in the morning. I had a bath and put on my best clothes. Having breakfast, my father and I started walking towards the school. After reaching school, I saw many students on the school campus playing and talking to each other. My father took me to the headmaster’s room. My heart beat fast. But his smiling face and gentle words put me at ease.  As I could answer all of his questions, he became pleased. He called in a teacher and sent me to my class with her. My classmates received me very cordially and made friendship with me within a short time. The school broke up at 2 pm. My father again came and took me home. I left the school with a cheerful mind. That day was very remarkable in my life.

 

 

A Good Teacher/An Ideal Teacher

A man or woman, who teaches the students to discover hidden treasures in any educational institutions, is called a teacher. He is a friend, philosopher and a guide to the students. Generally a teacher is judged whether he is good or bad according to the temperament of the students. But an ideal teacher must have some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. He who knows the art of teaching, is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. An ideal teacher treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistakes, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his students realise his mistake. An ideal teacher is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He influences young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school.

 

 

The Importance of Using Dictionary

A dictionary is a book or electronic resource that lists the words of a language alphabetically, gives their meaning, provides information about pronunciation, origin, and usage. Dictionaries are very important books in the life of a student as it can be both a teacher and a good friend. It lists the words in a language alphabetically so that the reader may find them easily. A dictionary entry gives us the accepted spelling of a word, its division into syllable, its pronunciation, its origins along with its meanings. It informs what part of speech does a certain word belong. Sometimes a dictionary also provides synonyms, or opposites of a word. In addition, if the word is a noun that describes a visible thing, the dictionary may provide a picture of it. In this connection, it guides us in writing words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs. Sometimes examples sentences are also provided. When one wants to use the word and does not know where to put the word, one can look example sentences. However, searching words by using a dictionary takes a lot of time. Using a talking dictionary, words can be searched immediately. We can find some words in a few minute. To sum up, a dictionary does a great help for everyone, especially students who are learning a language and who are interested in language learning to explore new words and enrich vocabulary.

 

 

My Best Friend

A good friend might be someone who’s there to provide support when times are tough, or someone you can rely on to celebrate a special moment. I have a very good friend who really has loyalty and with whom I can share all feelings. My best friend, X is very punctual, obedient, tolerant, leadership in nature, tall, fair in complexion, smart, broadminded, co-operative and respectful. He lives with me as my neighbour in the same colony. We met each other in the nursery class on the very first day. We sit together in the classroom and share everything very happily without any problem. He is very good in studies and behaves well with everyone. He does his class work and homework very attentively. We share our Tiffin in the lunch time. Many things of us like hobbies, likes, dislikes, etc are similar. We love to listen music, watching cartoons and playing carom at home. We take care of each other in the school and playground. We share school copies and help each other whenever one of us remain absent in the school. We love drawing sceneries and arts in our spare time. We go at tour and picnic with our parents together in every winter and summer vacation. I am really proud of him.

E – Learning

E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, streaming video, audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD or DVD-ROM and computer-based, as well as web-based learning. In e-learning every step such as, registration, admission, classroom entry and exit, class work, attendance, discussion with course mates, feedback, exams and finally certification must take place electronically through computer and the Internet technology in a virtual campus. It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education. Many people involved in e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a vehicle for reaching educational goals. Various technologies are used to facilitate e-learning. Most of the e-learning uses combinations of many techniques, including blogs, collaborative software, eportfolios, educational websites and virtual classrooms. E-Learning has become an important technique that educational as well as business institutions invest a great deal of money, time and effort in order to make use of it. E-Learning has proven to be the cheapest way to transmit knowledge to the largest number of people regardless of their location and their devices. Most of the existing e-Learning environments present some similarities and most educators need several tools to efficiently make use of e-Learning. In short, e-learning has helped people to learn about anything they want, anytime they want by using modern technologies and thus spreading knowledge all around the world.

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

 

A visit to the historical interest

Man is not satisfied with what he has seen and known. He wants to see more and know more. He wants to get flavor of the historical places, so whenever I get an opportunity, I visit a place of historical interest. I got such an opportunity to visit Bagerhat, a great historical place in Bangladesh. The Mazar of Khan Jahan Ali is a fine one storied building. It has a beautiful dome. Hazrat Khan Jahan Ali was buried there. The tomb is made of cut of stones. It can not be accurately said where from these were brought. It is said that Pir Khan Jahan Brought these fromchittagong by flotting on water, on the tomb there are inscription in Arabic. An inscription says that he died on 25th October 1459. There is a small mosque nearby. A close associate of Khan Jahan Ali was buried outside the tomb. On the night of the full moon of the Bangla Month Chaitra a big fair is held beside the Mazar. Many people attend the fair. There is a big tank in front of the Mazar, the local people call it the Dighi of Khan Jahan Ali. There are some crocodiles in the big tank. They come near fakirs call them and give them something to eat. I saw the Dighi with my own eyes and derived much pleasure. It is a big and beautiful building which is beautifully decorated. It is said that it was used both as a mosque and the court by Pir Khan Jahan. The mosque has great attraction for the tourists and visitors. Bageraht is really a place of historical interest. I shall never forget this visit. It is a wonderful experience that I have ever achieved.

 

 

A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

River gypsies

River gypsies, known as bedey to local people, are one of the ethnic groups in Bangladesh. The gypsies have their own lifestyle and culture. They are used to live a nomadic life travelling from one place to another in small country boats. These boats are their houses. They are an integral part of our waters. Throughout the monsoon, they remain busy with both fishing and diving for natural pearls in waters. Sometimes, they camp for a couple of weeks. Men catch snakes and entertain people with snake charming and sell herbal cures. Women go from door to door to sell bangles, cosmetics and other things. They also try to heal pains of old people often by sucking out blood from their body. When many water bodies dry up in winter season, they return to the mainland and live in make-shift tarpaulin tents on open river banks. Their men can be seen relaxing in the tents. Women often pick off lice in twos or threes sitting in a row. Gypsy people are losing their customers due to the rapid urbanization process. Voting rights, permanent housing, mobile boat-schools and bank loan facilities should be offered to them to survive in the mainstream population.

 

Bangladeshi Culture

Culture is made up of all of its ideas, ways of behaving, working and playing. We, the Bangali, have an age old and traditional culture of our own. We have our own Language, dress, food habit , games and sports, music, art, literature etc. Our culture is a close knit, family oriented. We have a rich history and collection of folk songs in Bangladesh. Of them Palligiti, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya, Jari, Sari, Gambhira, Lalongiti, Palagaan and songs of Hason Raja are very popular. The traditional musical instruments like dotara, sarinda, bamboo flute, tabla are usually played with these songs. Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangladesh, followed by football. Shalwar Kameez, Sharee, kurta, fatua, lungi are the main dresses. The ethnic people in Bangladesh hold a very important place in the culture of the country. They are mostly farmers. By religion they are Hindus, Christians or Buddhists. Nakshi kantha is a kind of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh. Our cuisine is rich and varied with the use of many spices. Panta ilish is a traditional platter of Panta bhat on the Pohela Boishakh. We have delicious and appetizing food, snacks, and sweets. The common ones are roshgulla, sandesh, rasamalai, gulap jamun, kal jamun and chom-chom. In a word, our culture is enriched in unique variety.

 

Nakshi Kantha

Nakshi kantha is a kind of embroidered quilt. The name ‘Nakshi kantha’ was derived from the Bengali word, ‘naksha’ which implies artistic pattern. It is a type of traditional craft and is said to be indigenous to Bangladesh and West Bengal in India. The art has been practiced in pastoral areas of Bengal for centuries. The name ‘Nakshi kantha’ gained popularity after the poet Jasimuddin’s poem ‘Nakshi kanthar Math’ which was published in 1929. Traditional kanthas are made especially by the women for family use. Old or new cloth and thread are used to make these quilts. Mymensingh, Jamalpur, Rajshahi, Faridpur, Bogra and Jessore are most famous for this craft. Now it is produced commercially. It can be found in many expensive handicraft shops in cities. Because of the colourful patterns and designs embroidered on them, the quilts are now in great demand. Finally, it goes without saying that “Nakshai Kantha” signifies a token of Bengali culture.

 

The wheel

A wheel is a circular object which can rotate around its axis and help easy movement of things across a surface. Although it is a very important invention, the history of its origin is unknown. Experts guess that the first wheel was developed from a circular object. The early man observed that a huge piece of stone could be rolled easily if it was circular in shape. Thus, early man took advantage of rolling objects and developed the first wheel. Apart from its mechanical advantage, a wheel’s mobility has contributed much to the civilisation.The wheels are, in fact, everywhere. They are on our cars, trains, planes, wagons and so on. Besides, they are on most factory and farm equipment. Fans, propellers, turbines are also other types of wheels. So the wheel is very important. They have brought great civilization to the world through this invention. Today we cannot imagine modern life without wheels.

 

 

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

 

A visit to the historical interest

Man is not satisfied with what he has seen and known. He wants to see more and know more. He wants to get flavor of the historical places, so whenever I get an opportunity, I visit a place of historical interest. I got such an opportunity to visit Bagerhat, a great historical place in Bangladesh. The Mazar of Khan Jahan Ali is a fine one storied building. It has a beautiful dome. Hazrat Khan Jahan Ali was buried there. The tomb is made of cut of stones. It can not be accurately said where from these were brought. It is said that Pir Khan Jahan Brought these fromchittagong by flotting on water, on the tomb there are inscription in Arabic. An inscription says that he died on 25th October 1459. There is a small mosque nearby. A close associate of Khan Jahan Ali was buried outside the tomb. On the night of the full moon of the Bangla Month Chaitra a big fair is held beside the Mazar. Many people attend the fair. There is a big tank in front of the Mazar, the local people call it the Dighi of Khan Jahan Ali. There are some crocodiles in the big tank. They come near fakirs call them and give them something to eat. I saw the Dighi with my own eyes and derived much pleasure. It is a big and beautiful building which is beautifully decorated. It is said that it was used both as a mosque and the court by Pir Khan Jahan. The mosque has great attraction for the tourists and visitors. Bageraht is really a place of historical interest. I shall never forget this visit. It is a wonderful experience that I have ever achieved.

 

 

A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

 

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

 

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

Information Technology

Information technology is that technology by which the information is processed, communicated, exhibited and retrieved in a fast, error-free and proper-way. It means the study or use of electronic equipment especially computers, telephone, television, fax, telex, internet, e-mail, photocopier, printer, scanner, cellular phones, pagers, videophone, digital camera, multimedia, etc. for storing and analyzing information. There is hardly any area which had not been affected by this. Television can not only send message but also telecast live moving events, cinemas, dramas, music, dance and many other entertaining programmes. Wireless or radio can transmit information in a second from one place to another. There is no information but is available in the internet. Various social networking services such as face book, twitter, LinkedIn etc are rendering their services only by means of the internet. The bond of brotherhood and friendship is being built up among the world people. In supermarkets it helps for faster processing of films. In the field of agriculture, a digital moisture meter records the moisture in the soil and tells when harvesting should start. For people, who are suffering from hearing loss, digits technology is of great help. It processes sounds that reduce noise, improves clarity of speech and controls unwanted loudness. The present concept of globalization is completely void and nothing without information technology. But it is not free from demerits. Social and anti-social movement, hijacking, fraudulence and many other crimes can take place for the misuse of it. So, all the world people irrespective of colour and creed should be aware of the demerits of information technology. The government of Bangladesh is very keen to achieve a great deal in the field of information technology. Now we can hope that we will become an information technology superpower in near future.

 

 

 

War criminals

War criminals are those persons who literally engaged in mass-murder and stood with wrong side.  In 1971, our freedom fight took place.  Some  people  who are  Bangladeshi  by  birth  supported Pakistan  and  butchered  our  innocent  people. They were known as Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams.  We got independence after 9 month’s long bloody war.  In  that  battle,  30  lacks  of  our  brother  sacrificed  their lives  and  2  lacks  of  our  sisters  are  raped.  But,  it  is  considered  excessive  if  we compare  the  time  length  and  victim  numbers.  It  was  happened  because  some unethical  countrymen  of  ours  thought  about  their  own  benefits  over  our  beloved country.  They helped Pakistani Army to brutalise our innocent people.  But, no punishment was given until 2013.  Some war criminals fled abroad.  Abdul Kalam Azad who was sentenced to death is thought to be in Pakistan. Another, however, Abdul  Quader  Mollah,  the  assistant  secretary  general  of  a  Muslim  party  which collaborated  with  the  genocidaires,  the  Jamaat  e-Islami,  was  given  life imprisonment. But, general public of Bangladesh is not happy about that. The want all of the Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams to be executed. For this, they have arranged a protest at “Shabagh Chattor”. Later, it was named “Shadinota Prjonmo Chattor”. It’s new movement for our country. Young people have come forward to eradicate all  injustice  by  taking  inspiration  from  the  freedom  fighters  of  1971.  If  they continue  their  good  work,  Bangladesh  will  be  Rajakars,  Al-Badr,  Al-Shams-Free one day.

 

 

 

A Railway/ Bus Station

 

 

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and depart from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. It has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, station master’s room and waiting rooms for passengers. The stationmaster, all in all in a station, is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. It generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. It is a thronged and noisy place; both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here. Some evil doers like beggars, thieves, swindlers and pickpockets often flock in the station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

A Road Accident

Among daily’s unfortunate occurrences, street accident is very common. Despite all efforts to prevent accident, it happens every day. Busy and narrow road, careless driving, it takes place very frequently. Day before yesterday a terrible accident took place just before my eyes. It occurred in front of Bangla College while I was going to the New Market. When I reached the college gate, suddenly I heard a scream of a boy who was trying to cross the Mirpur Road. He was run over by a speedy truck. When the truck was a few feet away from him, he got puzzled and ran backwards and forwards. The driver tried desperately to hold the break but failed. He was crushed under the wheels of the truck and his body was changed into a lump of flesh. The truck was stopped. The passers-by crowded there. The boy was taken up from the pool of blood. A gentleman offered his car to carry the boy to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In the evening I came to know that the boy had passed away on way to the hospital. I was greatly shocked at this incident. The truck along with the driver had been taken to police custody. But that horrible scene still haunts my mind. However, we all should always bear in mind that life is more valuable than time. Moreover, some proper steps should be taken and some strict rules should be introduced to stop street accidents. 

The life of a fisherman

A fisherman is a person who catches and sells fishes from various sources to maintain his life. Generally he lives in a village near a river or a sea. He is hard working and painstaking. He uses nets and boats in fishing. Some have nets but no boats. Some who have boats and nets, employ the boat less ones and work in a group. A fisherman is always at work. While at home, he repairs his boats or nets and paints his boats or dyes his nets. He catches fish in the seas, rivers, haors, beels and ponds. His women-folk make new nets; his children dry fishes in the sun and sell them in the market. The life of a fisherman is very risky and challenging because there may have storms and cyclones at any time. Some fishermen go to fish at night; some go to fish in the deep water or in the sea from home for many days. If he can not earn a day, his family is to starve. He feels happy when he earns the needful amount. After all a fisherman does much good to us by supplying fishes. In spite of being hard working, he can hardly make both ends meet. Government should take some pragmatic steps for the development of minimum standard of their livelihood.

A Tea Stall

A tea stall is a small shop where tea and other things are sold for the passers-by. It is a common place to all classes of people. It is usually found at the turn of the road, bus stands, railway stations, Bazar or even beside an office where the common people are available. It opens early in the morning and closes at late night. Biscuits, bread, banas, betal leaf and different kinds of handmade snacks are available there. A tea stall is furnished with some benches and tables. An ordinary tea stall is dirty. A boy is employed in a tea stall to serve the people. Sometimes, the owner himself serves as the boy and the cashier. People who come to a tea stall usually do not leave it immediately after taking a cup of tea. People refresh themselves with a cup of tea in a tea stall. It is also a place where social disputes are settled. They mainly talk about politics, local events and current affairs. This is why it is called a Mini Sangsad. Intact, tea stall is now –a-days an important place of social gathering and at the same time a place of charm for the common people. So a tea stall occupies an important place in our day-to-day life.

 

 

 

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic poisoning or arsenicosis is a condition caused by the ingestion and inhalation of dangerous levels of arsenic. Arsenic, a grey-appearing chemical element, can be found as a contaminant in food and water sources. It typically occurs as a result of industrial exposure, from contaminated wine or illegally distilled spirits, or in cases of malicious intent.  When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened and stained. One time he suffers from gangrene. It is such a poison that damages all the vital organs resulting in the subsequent death. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. They should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Our tube-wells are to be tested and those which are not free from arsenic should be identified. The water of pond and river can be drunk after purification. Rain water is safe and free from arsenic. If pure water is not found, it should be filtered through pitchers containing sand. The govt. as well as the common mass should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

 

A school library

A school library, a store house of knowledge, is usually housed in a suitable place according to the choice and scope within the school boundary. It satisfies eternal desire for knowledge of the unknown and the unseen. A school without a library is unthinkable these days. It has text books on various subjects, newspapers, journals , novels, travels, biographies, history, geography, short stories, essays, poetry and magazines etc. Students, especially who want to broaden their knowledge, go to the library in their vacant periods and study. On one side of the library hall there are long tables and benches. Students sit, read and take down notes there. The calm and quiet atmosphere of the library helps the students to work attentively. The school librarian, a trained and qualified person, gives advice to students on the choice of books. Students find no difficulty in the selection of the books. It is always open on all the days of the week. Nobody is allowed to keep a book after a certain period. A school library plays a vital role in the academic affairs of students. It is a good way to develop general knowledge. The students beget studious habits. It creates a taste for book among the weak boys even after school life. It gives opportunities to make best use of our leisure time. By studying in a library regularly, a student can do well in the examination which ultimately leads him to the pinnacle of success.

 

 

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

A historic site is an official location where pieces of political, military, cultural, or social history have been preserved due to its cultural value. Visiting a historical place is really interesting, educative and attractive. We can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation, I along with my family got such an opportunity to visit the National Memorial at Savar. Actually it is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. The entire complex covers an area of 126 acres. The plan of this complex includes a mosque, a library and a museum. The relics of the liberation war will be kept in the museum to remind the supreme sacrifices of freedom loving people. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters. Standing in front of the graves we bow down our heads in respect, as the towers soar up symbolizing the loftiness of their spirit. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and enjoyed many historical things. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. Through this visit we experienced a lot. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

 

 

 

EveTeasing

Bangladesh, a developing country, though holding quite a small area is flooded with uncountable problems. Among these, eve-teasing, recently has become the burning issue for the country because of its adverse effects on women, especially to the teenage girls. Eve teasing has remained a concern since many years. The practice of eve-teasing is a form of sexual assault that ranges in brutality from catcalls, sexually evocative remarks, brushing in public places and very recently teasing by mobile phone and mobile tracking. These teasers wait in front of girls’ schools and colleges and as soon as they cite the girls walk past them they start passing bad comments, dirty jokes, sly whistles, uncivilised laughter, and sometimes reaching the extreme of rude publicity. Due to the rise of eve-teasing in our country, parents and guardians are passing days in great anxiety for the safety of their children. The normal life of girls is being hampered due to its rapid increase. Strict enforcement of laws and motivational campaign can go a long way in reducing the incidence of the social menace. The government of Bangladesh has pursued a number of legal measures, both direct and indirect, to minimise the violence against women and uphold their rights. If we want to get rid of this practice we need to change our attitudes and engrave a self generated respect for women coming from our hearts.

 

 

 

 

E-mail

Electronic mail, popularly known as ‘e-mail’, is the communication of textual messages via electronic means. E-mail is delivered to individual electronic mail boxes based in computers. In order to operate an e-mail system we need a personal computer, a modem and a telephone connection. An important advantage of e-mail is its ability to reduce the consumption of paper in the office. Internal memos and reports can be exchanged electronically without using paper. Being a computer-based messaging system, files prepared on computers can be instantly copied and easily exchanged as e-mail. E-mail turns out to be a cheaper alternative to telephone conversation and eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. E-mail permits communication between two parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously. Privacy is ensured as the mail is delivered to an individual’s mail box which can be accessed or opened only by the intended recipient. E-mail has brought about a revolution in modem communication. Messages can be transmitted from one country to another within seconds. E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten tmes faster than telex. Trade and commerce has become greatly dependent on this speedy mode of communication. It has, however, not reached every one, especially in developing countries like ours, as most people cannot afford to have a personal computer. But even here people have started using commercially operated e-mail facilities for important purposes.

Cultural Assault

Cultural assault means bad influence of foreign cultures on any native culture. Some cultures have profound impact on other cultures that might be harmful and then it will be a cultural assault.  In the present global world it is quite tough to impede this cultural aggression. With the development of hi-tech media, it has been very easy for a society to be infiltrated by alien cultures. Many of the cultural elements may be influenced in this way. Our Bangladeshi culture is mostly affected because of cultural assault of other countries. Our dress pattern especially for teenagers and young generation has altered a lot. Now people like pop song and band music sung in the western style and with western musical instruments. Besides, our eating habits are also being changed. Today many of us like to take fast food outside home using chopstick, fork etc. Now our young generations prefer celebration of 31 December to that of Pahela Baishakh. They never mind celebrating the Valentine’s Day. However, to get rid of the invasion of alien culture, we should be very much strict to exercise our own culture and flourish our cultural elements. We can rightly boast of an affluent cultural heritage. We have our own cultural traits and its identity. In addition to that, we have to accept miscellaneous alien cultures selectively, which will make our traditional culture more affluent.

Child trafficking

Child trafficking is a crime against humanity. Trafficking in persons is nothing short of modern-day slavery. It is, therefore, not only a problem for Bangladesh but rather it is a global problem. The most common forms of human trafficking in Bangladesh are, among others: trafficking for sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour and other forms of exploitation. Child trafficking is now considered one of the major concerns for Bangladesh. However, various studies reveal that over 1 million women and children have been trafficked out of the country in the last 30 years. A UNICEF report says that approximately 400 women and children in Bangladesh are victims of trafficking each month.  Both internal and cross-border trafficking exist in Bangladesh. In the case of internal trafficking, women and children are often taken away from their homes on false promises of a better life with good employment or by using various other criminal acts and means by the traffickers who sell them to brothels. It is mainly people from rural areas with minimal survival options and those who suffer the worst from discriminatory sociocultural practices who are lured or deceived with promises of a better life and more lucrative job opportunities in cities. At the cross-border level, victims are transported and transferred to destinations further away such as India, Pakistan and Middle Eastern countries, by using illegal acts and processes which culminate in the most corrosive forms of human rights violations and a life of unspeakable agony and torture.

 

 

 

Campus Violence

Education in our country is passing through a stage of crisis. Along with political unrest in the country, campus violence has become almost a daily affair. It appears that the students are there in our colleges and universities only to be engaged in violence throwing their main duty of learning something to dust. The impact of such violence is too many to be described. It may simply be said that Bangladesh is already educationally backward. The teachers are growing unconcerned about the welfare of the students. The students are growing to be more concerned about politics endless about their studies. They are gradually forming the habit of intolerance. The basic principles of democracy for which they are shouting are going to be slaughtered at their hands. The innocent students and guardians are becoming the worst sufferers. Campus violence not only ruins the academic environment but also spoils the life of the students and takes away many valuable lives. They have become puppets in the hands of the so called narrow minded politicians. The self centered narrow minded politicians exploit the innocent students and encourage them terrorism by supplying them with weapons. As campus violence is a demon and no one like to see it again, the government is also keen to make campuses violence free and making student activism a process of leadership building for future, people concerned want to see immediate steps from the government and elder politicians in this regards.

 

Child-Labour-in-bangladesh

“Child labour” defines an extremely complex set of phenomena. It is undoubtedly one of the curses of new era. Poverty poses to be a great threat in Bangladesh. Their working in the hotels or in the garments, as a tempo helper or a tokai is really pathetic. Sometimes they are engaged in full time job from tender age like domestic servant, day-laborer. It may involve too much physical pressure such as brick clinker, railway porter. In many places, children are mentally and physically oppressed during their work. But a child has right to live and survive well. Being deprived of basic rights, a child cannot become a perfect man. We should ensure their good leaving. A child should be protected from all kinds of threats and oppressions. He has the right to get educated. We should encourage them to learn. We should also ensure a child’s health and hygiene. We should try to improve their physical and mental development. A child should not be forced into labor. We must not expect income from the children. The world community has to be more conscious about this. Child labor should be banned from the society as soon as possible for a better future of the country because one who is child today will be a perfect man tomorrow. All children should be given equal privileges to grow up in the interest of mankind itself.

Mobile/ Cell Phone

Mobile phone is such a cordless phone by which people can communicate with others immediately. It is a telephone system that works without any wire. Today, mobile phone has become popular to everybody since it is very convenient. For instance, one can contact easily to anyone by calling or sending messages everywhere. Specially, businessman and the service holders are much benefited through the use of mobile phone. But it is also useful for the people who are shopping and supplying valuable information sitting in their houses. Moreover, one can relax with mobile phone’s applications, for example, play games, listen to music, or chat with your friends. A mobile phone in one’s hand can solve many issues and hold most of information around the world. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages. Using a lot mobile phone can harm your brain. If you use mobile phones too much, you will get bad effects like dizzy, blood-brain barrier, or ears problems. Terrorists are using it to spread out terrorism all around the world. In addition, when you use mobile phones while you are driving, you will get an accident. Moreover, “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum”, has proved by many scientist. But in spite of all these disadvantages, it can be finalized here that the necessity of a mobile phone in exchanging messages, cannot be denied in the true sense of the term in our practical life.

 

 

 

 

Adopting unfair means in the examination

The adoption of unfair means in the examination means copying in the examination. It does not simply mean copying from books etc. Inside the hall, it includes any sort of malpractice in or outside the hall to succeed in the examination. It is one of the signs of other degenerating conditions existing in out society. Many students without preparing lessons waste their valuable time in gossiping, roaming, playing, travelling etc. As a result they are compelled to adopt unfair means in the hall. By adopting unfair means a student frustrates the very purpose of the examination. Merely committing to memory and vomiting it in the examination halls cannot determine the merit of a student. In order to solve copying in the examination the govt. has taken some preventive measures. First of all the govt. is trying to raise public awareness through mass media. Recently the government has enforced a law that if any student is found copying in the examination hall, she/he will be expelled from the examination hall. If any invigilator is found helping any examiner, legal action will be taken against her/him. Even if outsiders are found involved in helping any examiner in copying, they will also be punished. The government has interchanged the examination centers and formed invigilation teams to monitor the overall condition of the examination center. The very system of education should be changed. Above all the government, the teachers, the guardians, the students, the intellectuals, the politicians and all the conscious sections of the country should come forward to tackle the problem.

 

Eve-teasing

Eve teasing means molestation or exciting young girls sexually by making indecent remarks or vulgar comments on them. It usually starts with winking eyes and making obscene gestures and may go to the extent of physical assault and harassment. Generally school and college-going girls become victims of eve teasing. It is a matter where boys use bad language to the girls who silently hate them without taking any kind of revenge. In naturally his violations reach the girls to suicide. For removing it forever from the society everybody should careful about it. Everybody should behave each other like brother and sister. Here religion rules can contribute a lot. If anybody makes this again they should be punished for their deeds. And we should take immediate action to them if any body makes this violations. Boys who see their fathers treating their mothers with respect will automatically grow into men who think likewise. Boys and girls should be allowed to mingle freely so that they learn to respect each other’s individuality. Men need to realize that every woman is some mans wife, or daughter, or sister, or mother; and must be treated with the same respect, they would accord their own. Eve teasing is a social crime and it should be prevented at any cost. The law-enforcing authorities should deal severely with the eve teasers. People’s conscience and consciousness must also be aroused to stop this nuisance.

 

 

 

 

 

Victory Day of Bangladesh

Victory means the rebuilt of self-immolation of 30 lacs people. The 16th December is the victory Day of Bangladesh. This day reminds us of the supreme sacrifice of our freedom fighters who will ever shine in our hearts like the luminous stars in the sky. It is a red letter day in our national calendar of Bangladesh. In 1971, Bangladesh discloses herself as a new country and gets a place in the world map. The occupation forces surrendered unconditionally to the allied forces, and with their surrender we got our victory. It is a government holiday. The national flag is hosted in all important offices, buildings, institutions and shops. All important places are tastefully decorated. Meetings and seminars are held to explain the importance of the day. On this day we pay rich tributes to the memory of the day. People from all walks of life irrespective of ages, castes and creeds celebrate Victory Day with huge enthusiasm and inspiration. Different cultural organizations hold various programmes and bring out colourful rallies to mark the day. Radio and television broadcast special programmes, and newspapers publish special supplementary on this day. The parks, museums etc. remain crowded from dawn to dusk with lots of people enjoying their time. We pray to almighty Allah for the martyrs of our liberation war. The victory day symbolizes the triumph of justice over tyranny, of truth over falsehood. So the 16th December is a very important day in the history of Bangladesh.

 

Zahir Raihan

Zahir Raihan, one of the most talented film makers, was born on 19 August 1935 in Feni district of Bangladesh. He was an active worker of the Language Movement, took part in the mass movement in 1969, joined the Liberation War in 1971. All through his life, Zahir dreamt for a democratic society that will ensure freedom of speech and will. He had many dreams about our film industry too. He made a legendary film Jibon Theke Neya based on the Language Movement of 1952. It was a revolt against the then autocratic government. During the liberation war this film was shown outside Bangladesh and earned appreciation. Zahir gave all his money to the Freedom Fighters’ trust that he got from his film shows. Besides, his great documentary on Pakistani atrocities, Stop Genocide, helped create world sentiment in favour of our liberation war. His brother Shahidulla was captured and killed by the Pakistani army and the local collaborators during the last days of the war. On 30 December 1971, someone informed Zahir about an address somewhere at Mirpur, where he might find his brother. Accordingly Zahir left home to get his brother back and he never returned. Zahir’s dream was fulfilled. He could see the inception of a free independent Bangladesh though he did not get back his brother. And it’s a pity that this dreamer was missing at such a time when his dream came true.

Floral culture

Floral culture has widely been flourished in our country because of a rosy environment full of colour and fragrance. It is not only an interesting pastime but also a moneymaker if it can be handled professionally. A florist specializes in the selection and arrangement of flowers for a variety of events such as weddings, birthdays, anniversaries, marriage days, Valentine ’s Day, official receptions and even funerals. Although formal education or a diploma is not always essential, florists must have a good taste, good eye for colours, shapes and proportion. They have to have good sense for selecting flowers, ribbons and other accessories to make beautiful arrangements. Professional florists are knowledgeable about not only flowers but also designs and techniques. Most florists learn the trade mainly through apprenticeship in a previous flower farming job and also by attending formal floral schools and courses. Every flower is with its distinct colour, design, significance and meaning which flower designers have to know well. We know that conventionally roses are meant for romance and anniversaries and tulips for birthdays. However, a true passion for flowers and a bit of aesthetic sense are all that can make a florist’s career successful. Flower designers earn fairly handsome money. But the bonus is that they belong to a fresh fun job. They work in flowers all day long in a nice atmosphere with fresh air, pleasant smells and vivid colours around. But there is a disadvantage too, if you are inclined to see so. Florists deal with flowers, but miss their honey!

 

 

 

Zainul Abedin

Shilpacharya Zainul Abedin, the founding father of Bangladeshi art, is widely reputed for his Bengal ‘Famine Sketches’. Through a series of sketches, he depicted extremely shocking pictures with human compassion. He developed a knack for drawing and painting when he was a high school student. He graduated with the first position in first class in 1938. He was appointed teacher of the Art School while he was still a student there and later attended the Slade School of Arts, London. His 65-foot long scroll portraying heightened the non-cooperation movement against the Pakistan regime. He organized nabanna exhibition which is a milestone in demanding cultural and political freedom. His dynamic style of work is evident in a 30 foot long scroll painting of devastating cyclone of 1970 called Manpura. He designed the pages of Constitution of Bangladesh. He founded the Folk Art Museum at Sonargoan, and also Zainul Abedin Shangrahasala in Mymensingh in 1975. The river Brahmaputra has a significant role in his paintings and a source of inspiration all through his career. He was awarded by the Governor’s Gold Medal in an all-India exhibition in 1938. During his life time, he produced a series of brush and ink drawings, which later became iconic images of human sufferings.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa, the mother as well as the servant of humanity, was born in Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. At the age of twelve, she realised that what she wanted to do most of all, was to help the poor. She decided to train for missionary work and joined the Sisters of Loretto with a mission in Kolkata. In 1928 she took her initial vows as a nun. She taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata from 1929 to 1948. The suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls disturbed her. She left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poor in the slums of Kolkata. Soon she was joined by many voluntary helpers. This made it possible for her to start ‘The Missionaries of Charity’ for the dying destitute. She persuaded the people that leprosy is not contagious. She founded Nirmol Hridoy, Mahatma Gandhi Leprosy Ashram and many other organizations. Mother Teresa was awarded the Padma Shri and Bharat Ratna. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1979. She passed away in 1997. Though she is no more, she has left a message behind: ‘faith and compassion can heal the world’. She will always be remembered by the world for her selfless service to the poor and the sick.

The Shat Gambuj Masjid

The Shat Gambuj Masjid is one of the greatest tourist attractions and best architectural beauties of Bangladesh. Saint and warrior Ulugh Khan Jahan, the earliest torchbearer of Islam in the South, founded this multidomed mosque in Bagerhat district. The stately fabric of the monument stands on the eastern bank of a vast sweet water tank, clustered around by the heavy foliage of a low-lying countryside characteristic of a seacoast landscape. The mosque is roofed over with 77 squat domes, including 7 chauchala or four-sided domes in the middle row. The vast prayer hall is provided with 11 arched doorways on the east and 7 each on the north and the south for ventilation and light. It has 7 longitudinal aisles and 11 deep bays by a forest of slender stones columns. The arches are six feet in thickness, have slightly tapering hollow and round walls. The interior and the exterior of the mosque give a view of rather plain architecture but the interior western wall of the mosque is’ beautifully decorated with terracotta flowers and foliage. Besides being used as a prayer hall, the mosque was also used as the court of Khan Jahan Ali.

The Statue of Liberty

The Statue of Liberty, originally called Liberty Enlightening the World, is a statue on Liberty Island in the harbour of New York. It symbolises liberty in the form of a woman wearing flowing robes and a spiked crown. She holds a torch aloft in her right hand and carries in her left hand a book inscribed “July 4, 1776”. Broken chains, symbolizing the overthrow of tyranny, lie at her feet. The statue was designed by the French sculptor Frederic Bartholdi and was given by France to the USA to commemorate the centennial of US independence in 1876. France raised funds, by popular subscription to pay for the statue; US donors financed the pedestal and installation of the monument. President Grover Cleveland dedicated the work on October 28, 1886. The statue, the island, and nearby Ellis Island were declared a national monument in 1924. The statue formed of copper sheets riveted to an iron framework, is one of the largest in the world. It measures 93.5 m from the bottom of the pedestal to the tip of the torch.  Its head is reachable by staircase or emergency lift. The statue weighs 250 tons. Originally conceived as a gesture of international friendship, the statue has become a global symbol of freedom, marking the arrival of millions of immigrants to the United States.

Steven Paul Jobs

Steven Paul Jobs, the co-founder, chairman and CEO of Apple Inc, was the pioneer of the personal computer revolution. He is the foster son of a car mechanic Paul Jobs and Clara jobs. His mother taught him how to read and write before he went to the elementary school. He became famous through the marketing of Apple computers. In 1985, Jobs left Apple after losing a power battle. He then founded NeXT, a computer platform development company. After returning to Apple as an adviser, he brought back Apple to profitability from the verge of bankruptcy. He supervised the development of iMac, iTunes, iPod, iPhone and iPad. The success of these products and services helped Apple to become the world’s most valuable company. Jobs has changed people’s perspective computer, and how they use it and communicate with each other. Hence i-Books, i-Phones, i-Pods and i-Pads have become extremely popular. It is he who made Wi-Fi a standard feature of every laptop. So Jobs’ dream to be anywhere anytime became a reality. Jobs also co-founded and served as chief executive of Pixar Animation Studios. He became a member of the board of directors of The Walt Disney Company. In fact, he has been highly acclaimed as a visionary leader in the electronic field of computers and consumers.

 

 

 

 

 

My most favourits song
There are many songs that appeal to my mind. In fact, the list of my favourite songs is rather long. But if I am asked to choose my most favourite song, I have to mention just one that comes to my mind instantly. The song is known as ‘Dhana dhanyo pushpo bhora’. This song is written and composed by the great poet and lyricist Dwijendralal Roy, popularly known as D.L. Roy. This is a song of patriotism which reflects the glory of our motherland. This is one of the most beautiful patriotic songs I have ever heard. It is said in the song that our motherland is the queen of all the lands on this earth and it is made of dreams and enfolded with memories. The song is a tribute to the matchless natural richness of our motherland. Throughout the song we have vivid descriptions of the wonderful natural blessings, love and affection that we enjoy in this land. The song ends with the yarning that this land that nurtured us from our birth will be the place of our final breath on earth. A sense of pride fills me when I listen to this composition. I salute my motherland as I listen to this song. It depicts our love and respect for our own country and nation. There is one more reason why this song is so close to my heart. I grew up listening to this song. Every time I listen to this song, I go back to my mother’s lap and hear her melodious voice singing ‘Sokol desher rani she je amar jonmobhmi’.

 

 

Self-employment

Self-employment means to create job opportunity for oneself by one’s own effort rather than for another person or company. It is earning one’s livelihood directly from one’s own trade or business rather than as an employee of another. To be self- employed, an individual is normally highly skilled in a trade or has a niche product or service for his or her local community. With the creation of the Internet, the ability for an individual to become self- employed has increased dramatically. Self-employed people can also be referred to as a person who works for himself/herself instead of an employer, but drawing income from a trade or business that they operate personally. A business owner is not required to be hands-on with the day-to-day operations of his or her company, while a self- employed person has to utilize a very hands-on approach in order to survive. Policymakers increasingly view self-employment in the form of youth entrepreneurship as a possible solution to the youth unemployment crisis. In some countries, governments are cracking down on disguised employment, often described as the pretense of a contractual intra- business relationship to hide what is otherwise a simple employer-employee relationship. In Bangladesh, various government organizations are trying to creat a congenial atmosphere for self-employment. Different NGO’s have also rendered their help. Livestock rearing, agricultural farming, poultry raising are some of the sectors. There are many opportunities for self-employment in Bangladesh. One can easily engage oneself in these jobs and bring about revolutionary change in one’s life.

 

Deforestation

Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use. Deforestation means cutting down trees at random. According to the ecologists, for live able environment there should be forest on the 25% land of the total land area. In Bangladesh there is 16% forest of the total land. Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees are cut down to be used or sold as fuel or timber, while cleared land is used for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. Trees are useful to us in various ways. They are also a great source of food, vitamins and furniture and they help to prevent drought and floods. To draw quick profit from trees, men cut them down in large numbers. This destruction disturbs our ecological balance. It leads to soil erosion and deprives us of fruit and timber and causes economic loss. Trees play a pivotal role in maintaining ecological balance. Trees produce oxygen and receive carbon dioxide. In absence of trees carbon dioxide is increasing worldwide. As a result there is global warming. The sea level is rising. Any time in future the earth may be engulfed by seas. So, we have to realize the bad effects of deforestation. In fact, if deforestation goes on, our country will be changed into a desert. The quickest solution to deforestation would be to simply stop cutting down trees. So, we have to educate our common people and to persuade them to abstain from cutting down trees. We should create awareness among the general people about the evils of destroying forests and motivate them to plant more and more trees. Otherwise the forests of our country will slowly disappear and we will be in great miseries. So, I think every man and woman should plant at least a tree every year.

 

Physical exercise

Physical exercise is the performance of some activity in order to develop or maintain physical fitness and overall health. There are various forms of physical exercise such as – walking, swimming, and riding, running, as well as playing cricket, football, hockey, badminton, tennis and various forms of gymnastics. But all forms of exercise are not equally suitable to all of us for the young all kinds’ games such as cricket, football, hockey, badminton, tennis are quite good. For the women badminton, table tennis, are quite nice. On the other hand, walking is good for the weak and the old. Without physical exercise not any can take pleasure in good health. Physical exercise confers some other profit too. It keeps us free from diseases and makes us physically strong and healthy. We need a sound body and a sound mind in order to live to fine. It is physical exercise which permits us to have a sound mind in a sound mind body. “Build up your body if you want to build up your mind”, was the dialogue of the ancient Greeks. It takes our mind away from the drudgery of work and fills it with joy. It gives us fresh energy, refresher our mind and helps us to return to work with renewed vigor. It increases our longevity too. It ensures us healthy and happy life. It prolongs our life and keeps our body and mind fit for work. It also teaches us the code of discipline and reliability. We should take some sort of physical exercise regularly. We should also remember that morning and evening are the best time for talking physical exercise. And no exercise should be taken in empty stomach or immediately after talking meal.

 

 

Bangla New Year/ Pohela Boishakh

In Bengali, Pohela stands for ‘first’ and Boishakh is first month of Bengali calendar. The festival is celebrated according to the Bengali Calendar. Bangla New Year’s festivities are closely linked with rural life in Bengal. Usually on Pohela Boishakh, the home is thoroughly scrubbed and cleaned; people bathe early in the morning and dress in traditional clothes. They spend much time of the day visiting relatives, friends and neighbours. Boishakhi fairs are arranged in many parts of the country. Various agricultural products, traditional handicrafts, toys, cosmetics, as well as various kinds of food and sweets are sold at these fairs. The fairs also provide entertainment, with singers and dancers staging jatra, pala gan, kobigan, jarigan etc. They present folk songs as well as baul, marfati, murshidi and bhatiali songs. Among other attractions of these fairs are puppet shows and merry-go-rounds. Panta Ilish – a traditional platter of leftover rice soaked in water with fried Hilsa a popular dish for the Pohela Boishakh festival in Bangladesh. The most colourful New Year’s Day festival takes place in Dhaka. Large numbers of people gather early in the morning under the banyan tree at Ramna Park where Chhayanat artists open the day with Rabindranath Tagore‘s famous song. A similar ceremony welcoming the new year is also held at the Institute of Fine Arts, University of Dhaka. Students and teachers of the institute take out a colourful procession and parade round the campus. Social and cultural organisations celebrate the day with cultural programmes. Newspapers bring out special supplements. There are also special programmes on radio and television. Pohela Boishakh is really about celebrating the simpler, rural roots of the Bengal. As a result, more people can participate in the festivities together without the burden of having to reveal one’s class, religion, or financial capacity.

 

A Birthday Party

birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored. In our country rich people are seen to celebrate this day festively .In this day, the drawing room is beautifully decorated. Friends, relatives, well-wishers are invited on this occasion. A special cake is ordered for celebrating this day. My birthday cake was in the shape of a chess board and looked very tempting. Besides, different kinds of delicious dishes are prepared. At the appointed time the invited guests begin to come and are welcomed by the person for which the day is being celebrated. At the appointed time the time the person concerned merrily cuts the cake. A round of applause follows. Plates full of delicious food items are then handed round. Everybody falls to with a good deal of zest. The eating is accompanied by a lot of taking and giggling. Camera is clicked on. After the meal, jokes may be made. Then the presents given by the invited guests may be unpacked one by one. And the person concerned expresses his or her gratitude to the guests. And the party may be rounded off with a chorus “ Happy birthday to you”.

A trade fair

A trade fair is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities.  International trade fair is such a fair where goods of many countries of the world are displayed and sold within a fixed time. The event is expected to provide an immense opportunity both for buyers and sellers to establish new business contacts. A wide range of products including textile & garments, leather & leather goods including footwear, machinery equipment pharmaceuticals,carpets,chemical& allied products, cosmetics & beauty aids, dairy products, electrical and electronic items, food stuff, gift & novelty items,handicrafts, household appliances, furniture, building materials, sports goods, sanitary ware, toys and stationery and watches, clocks & jewellery will be displayed at the fair. International trade fair  of Bangladesh is held at Sher-e-Bangla Nagar just north side of Sngsad Bhaban. Many foreign countries come to participate in this trade fair. Specially China, Malaysia, India, Pakistan, Iran, Thailand, Japan, Korea and many other countries join in this fair with their varied commodities. I went their to observe and purchase some national an international commodities. Of course, I had also latent desire to com close contact with culture and things of foreign countries. I enjoyed my self well in Iternational Trade Fair. It will remain ever fresh in my mind.

Eve-teasing

Eve-teasing is normally meant as teasing a girl or woman illegally. “Eve-teasing” refers to public sexual harassment or street harassment  to a girl by a boy, when it turns into a serious issue. Eve-teasing is a very common term in SouthAsia, especially in Bangladesh. Almost every  young girl is a victim of teasing, especially by the local young teaser. The most of the people may avoid it as a common matter with young  generation. But when it crosses the line, it will raise as a problem to us.  These days, many girls have committed suicide only to safe themselves from eve-teasing. There happened many occurrences like this, which are not being published in the newspaper. In most of the cases, the victims shy to exposes these incidents.That means, eve-teasing in Bangladesh has reached its maximum range. This is against the women rights without any doubt. Those who are involved with this kind of embarrass stuff can be named as a terrorist. The teasers wait in schools, colleges or outside the house gate and as soon as girls walk passed by them they start teasing with bad comments, naughty  jokes, sly whistles and even indecent exposure.To control the diffusin of Eve Teasing, Education Ministry in Bangladesh has designated 13 June, 2010 as Eve Teasing Protection Day. This declaration reflects its result by decreasing both the number of women-suicide and also the extension of eve teasing all over the country.This great problem of our country can not be removed only by Government movements. Both the Government and the public of the country should come forward to eradicate this problem from our country. In this fact, public awareness and application of strict law is crying need against eve-teasers, so no eve-teasers get the chance to raise their head.

My Favourite person

A person or thing regarded with peculiar favor; one treated with partiality; one preferred above others; especially, one unduly loved, trusted, and enriched with favors by a person of high rank or authority.  I have a fourite person who is Mr. X, is highly qualified and has done double M.A. He who is a teacher is adjudged as good or bad according to the temperament of the students. He has some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. He knows the art of teaching. He is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. He treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistake, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his student realise his mistake. He is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He does not allow us to be lazy. He makes a simple living but his thinking is great. He influences our young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school. His picture is so deeply entranced in my heart that I think no matter where ever I go I will never forget him and neither will ever get another teacher like him. That’s why he is so much favourite to me.

 

 

 

Television

Television is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any live programme from the remotest part of the world. Television can display many programmes at a time. Satellite TV has added a new dimension in our oriented life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and articles. So we can easily collect educative information of agriculture, science and technology, politics, education, business, invention etc. Television helps us widespread the sight and outlook of the society. Coming to contact with the western societies, we are getting the opportunities to enrich our society and ourselves. But on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress-pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerns. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation. So, we all should be conscious of that.

Load Shedding

Load-shedding is the suspension of electricity supply on certain lines when demand is greater than the generation. It occurs when the generation of power is less than the demand. It has become a very common affair in our daily life these days. In the modern world electricity plays a very important role in regulating our life. Any interruption in the supply of this vital item of energy can put the whole system out of order. In our country there is hardly any area which is not affected by load shedding. It creates many problems of far-reaching consequences in the economic and social development of the country. Most of the mills and factories become idle and for this reason industrial production declines and workers are retrenched. Social works and activities cannot go in order. Students cannot study properly because of the failure of electricity. During load shedding they are to study in dim candlelight. The housewife gropes in the darkness in the kitchen. The shops are to close down before the closing time. Spectators in the cinema hall spend hours in stuffy suffocation for load shedding. All types of productions stop and the entire life comes to a standstill during the period of load shedding. So, proper steps should be taken to stop load shedding. By establishing more power plants, power houses and by stopping unplanned distribution of electricity, illegal connection and reducing system loss, we can solve this problem.

 

 

A street beggar

One who begs for alms from street to street is called a beggar. The beggar is a common sight in Bangladesh. Beggars are of different kinds and description. Some are old, some are young. Some can walk, some limp, a few move on push carts. There are singing beggars as well as whining beggars. Begging is regarded as a serious social problem because it encourages idleness and aversion to work. There are some beggars who are professionals. These are idlers. They find it easier to beg than work. But majority of the beggars are homeless and hungry. Nobody employs them. They suffer and ultimately become unfit for work. The first thing that begging creates in a beggar is the loss of his sense of honor. There is no certainty in a beggar’s life. The only certain thing in his life is that each day will be full of misery. He does not have any definite place to live in. His home is wherever he sleeps. There are no fixed hours for his work. If the weather is inclement he suffers most. The fortune of a beggar lies in his capacity to approach people. In fact, he is a man without fortune. He looks forward to the days of religious festivals when people are more charitable than other days. Reasons for begging are many. The unemployment problem and poverty are the two main reasons. Moreover, labour is not always viewed as dignified. Arrangement should be made to turn them into a working force.

 

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 

 

 

Sound pollution or Noise pollution

When the exposure of people or animals to levels of sound that are annoying, stressful, or damaging to the ears, it creates noise pollution. Today it is one of the talked topics of the day. It has reached an unbearable level. The unnecessary use of powerful vehicular horns is the main source of sound pollution in the City. The other sources are aircraft noise and rail noise. Besides transportation noise, other sources are office equipment, factory machinery, appliances, power tools, lighting and audio entertainment systems. Construction equipment also produces noise pollution. Besides, faulty vehicles, construction sites, loud speaker and thousand of workshops let out loud noises round the clock. This sound pollution damages millions of children’s power of hearing. Sound pollution is so much harmful that it can cause a wide range of malfunctions in the human body including heart attack, high-blood pressure, chronic depression, respiratory disorders etc. Noise leads to emotional disturbances, however, are difficult to measure. Irritating noise at work place reduces concentration efficiency and working capacity. We should take necessary measures to control sound pollution. By developing public awareness and careful awareness and careful town planning sound pollution can be controlled. Strict law should be enforced regarding sound pollution. Use of hydraulic horns should be banned strictly.

 

Air pollution

Air pollution is actually the addition of any harmful substances to the atmosphere, which causes the damaging of the environment, human health and the quality of life. Air is the most important element of human environment. Man cannot live a single moment without it but we do not think it is we who pollute this most vital element. Clean air is essential for life. Air is polluted in many ways. With the development in industry, came along the increase in air pollution, which occurs inside homes, schools, offices even in the countryside. Man makes fires to cook his food, to make bricks burns effuse, melts pitch for road construction and burns wood. All these things produce heavy smoke and this smoke pollutes air. Railway engines, power houses, mills and factories use coal and oil. Buses, trucks and cars use petrol and diesel oil. Again all these things create smoke and cause air pollution. The most serious air pollution occurs in big industrial areas where there are many mills and cars plying the street every day. Sometimes men in industrial area become so sick by inhaling polluted air that they cannot be cured. So proper measures and steps should be taken to prevent air pollution. Consequently there has been an increase in the death rates resulting from various diseases caused by air pollution varying from breathing problem to lung cancer. Air pollution does not only affect people but it also damages the whole ecological system in which plants and animals are harmed as well.

 

Water pollution

Water, an important element of human environment, is essential for human and plant life. It is next to air. Water can be polluted in many ways. Farmers use chemical fertilizers and insecticides in their fields to grow more food. The rain and floods wash away some of the chemicals. They get mixed with river water, canal water and pond water. Mills and factories pollute water by throwing the waste and even sail boats can pollute water by throwing oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers and canals. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside standing on the banks of the rivers and canals also pollute water. The unsafe drains running into the rivers and canals cause water pollution. water pollution from industrial discharge, the industrial disposal of toxic chemicals and the dumping of human waste into rivers and canals causes poisoning and water-borne disease such as cholera and diarrhea. Clean water is safe for use and polluted water is harmful for man. Water pollution can be prevented in many ways. First of all, we should make the people aware of the fact that water is next to air. It is called life. Mills and factories should not throw the waste materials and unsold products into rivers and canals. Steamer, motor launches and even sail boats should not throw oil, food waste and human waste into the rivers and canals. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside should not be built on the banks of the rivers and canals. In fine, awareness should be created in the public.

 

Environmental pollution

Nature, air, water, land and all other things around us in which we live are called environment. Any unexpected and abnormal change in chemical, physical and biological characteristics in environment is called the environmental pollution. Now our environment is getting polluted every moment in many ways. In major cities and towns motor vehicles, mills and factories are creating fume and smoke and they pollute air. Man makes fires to cook food, to make bricks, to melt tar for road construction and to do many other things. Fires create smoke and pollute the air. Railway engines and powerhouses create smoke by burning coal and oil and this smoke pollutes the air. Water, another vital element of the environment like air, is also polluted in many ways. Man pollutes water by throwing waste into it. Chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds, and thus pollute water. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers, canals and seas and water is polluted. Moreover, water vehicles, unsafe drains and unsanitary latrines are also responsible for water pollution. These days many rivers and lakes are getting filthy. Forests and trees are being cut down on a large scale. So, the ecosystem of the environment is now in great danger. The noise of motor vehicles, mills and factories, aeroplanes, domestic appliances, radios, cassette players, CDs, televisions etc pollutes sound and this polluted sound affects our hearing. The government must take effective steps to prevent the pollution. People of all classes should come forward to control this environmental pollution because it is necessary for our own existence.

 

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa is remembered by the world for her selfless service to the poor and the sick. Mother Teresa was born in Yugoslavia on August 27, 1910. Her original name was Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu. At the age of twelve, she realised that what she wanted to do most of all, was to help the poor. She decided to train for missionary work and came to India at the age of nineteen to join the Sisters of Loretto, an Irish community of nuns with a mission in Kolkata. In 1928 she took her initial vows as a nun. From 1929 to 1948 Mother Teresa taught at St. Mary’s High School in Kolkata, but the suffering and poverty she glimpsed outside the convent walls disturbed her. In 1948, Sister Teresa became Mother Teresa. In the same yea, she became an Indian citizen. She left the convent school and devoted herself to working among the poor in the slums of Kolkata. She had no money so she started an open-air school for homeless children. Soon she was joined by many voluntary helpers. Help flowed in from various authorities. This made it possible for her to start her own order ‘The Missionaries of Charity’ to love and take care for those persons whom nobody was prepared to look after. Now the Missionaries of Charity are working in 125 countries with more than 750 centers. She persuaded the people that leprosy is not contagious. She founded Nirmol Hridoy, Sishu Bhava, Mahatma Gandhi Leprosy Ashram and many other organizations. Mother Teresa was awarded the Padma Shri and Bharat Ratna. Mother Teresa was awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1979. She passed away in 1997. Though she is no more, she has left a message behind: ‘faith and compassion can heal the world’.

 

 

 

A Village fair

Village fair is an annual affair in Bangladesh and is a great event in the life of the villagers. It is generally held on the occasion of some religious festivals or some local important events. It is an occasion for show, sale of various goods and entertainments. It is held in some open place, either on the bank of river or in the yard of a temple. Some fair also sits in an open field under a big ancient tree or in the market place, or by the side of a big road. A village fair is an occasion of great joy and excitement among the villagers. Village fair is a kind of exhibition in miniature of hand made things. The rural artisans and craftsmen make various useful articles which are brought to the fair and offered for sale. It thus acts like a market for cottage industries. Small traders come from far and near to sell their goods. They bring clothes of various kind, ready-made garments, cheap fancy goods, dolls, utensils, sweets and other things. There are many forms of amusement in a village fair. Travelling jatra parties, Circus parties, magic shows, merry go rounds mockfights, jarigan (song) are additional attraction of a fair. Cinema parties also show picture to the people. But the largest crowd gathers around the place where jugglers show their feats. There are the dancing of dolls and feats of skill done on ropes and bamboos. Some of these are really wonderful. A village fair is a much looked-for occasion for all. Everybody waits for this fair with hope and attends it with profound pleasure.

 

 

 

Nuclear family

The nuclear family or elementary family is a term used to define a family group consisting of a pair of adults and their children. I live in a nuclear family. Our family consists of four members such as my father and mother, my sister and myself. Nuclear family is getting popular nowadays because in such a family one can live according to one’s own will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family one may have much facility. He can enjoy his own life. He has no binding to anyone. The advantages of a nuclear family are stability, legacy, moral coding, skill building, shared responsibility, mutual support. The disadvantages of a nuclear family are that here he has to live alone. He has no companion to share his joys and sorrows. He feels lonely. I do not like it because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. In recent decades, this traditional form of the family has undergone major changes, with increasing rates of divorce leading to single-parent families, remarriages, resulting in extended families. These trends and the resulting problems that they cause, especially for the children, has brought the advantages of traditional nuclear families back into focus. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. But above all nowadays nuclear family is getting more popular.

 

                       

                       

The Necessity of Learning English

We need to learn English because we live in a global village. There is no alternative to learning English to lead a decent life and to prepare ourselves for global challenges. Statistics show that 350 million people speak English as a first language and another 300 million use it as a second language. It is the official or semi-official language in more than 60 countries and of many international organizations.Today more than 80% of all information in the world’s computer is in English. For many reasons, English has achieved the prestige of being global language. English has become the only medium for international communication. Now- a- days not only for international purposes but also for national reasons English is a must. When we look for any good job, advertisements often ask for proficiency in English. The electronic transfer of information regarding banking, financial activities and transaction of business-all are done through English language. We can easily see how English is necessary in every sphere of our lives. Bangladesh is a nation with a bright future, but lack of proficiency in English often appears to be a key hurdle. So, a nation- wide awareness needs to be established by the government to emphasize the necessity of learning English. If proper awareness is created, Bangladesh will reach the optimum levels of their potentials and thus can overcome language barriers.                 

 

Annual Sports Day of our college

 Annual Sports Day is an important event in the life of every school or college. Sports in themselves are an indispensable part of study. The Annual Sports Day of our college was held last week. It was held in our spacious college grounds. We decorated the playground and the college building very gorgeously. The Deputy Commissioner was the chief guest. A huge “shaman” was pitched on one side of the ground to accommodate guests. The whole play-ground had been decorated with flags, buntings and balloons a day earlier. The chief guest arrived in time. He took the salute. The sportsmen and women and O.K. cadets and U.S.A volunteers participated in the march past. The first event was a hundred meter race and then started long and high jumps. Simultaneously there were other actions like the Javelin and the Discus throw. The events which evoked the greatest interest were the 400 meter race, bicycle race, ‘chat’ race and hurdle race by girls. The tug-of-war between the science and arts faculty members was very interest­ing. The last item the musical chairs race in which the guests participated was vied amusing. The dope read out the achievements of the school in sports during the year. The chief guest gave away prizes to the winners. He highlighted the importance of sports in life and hinted at India’s dismal performance at the Olympics. He promised all help to the school in the matter of sports. The Principal then thanked him and other guests. The chief guest declared the sports meet closed and it was over.

 

 

 

 

Greenhouse Effect

Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of the air surrounding the earth as a result of heat being trapped by environment pollution. Most climatologists believe that the greenhouse effect is the likely cause of this global warming. This is exemplified by the destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, by traffic that clogs up city streets, by the rapid growth of industry, the use of chlorofluorocarbons in packing and manufacturing commercial products, the use of detergents such as washing powder and washing-up liquid and so on. The oceans are also said to be affected both because of human waste and because of pollution caused by industrial waste products, oil seeping from damaged supertankers and from other maritime disasters. However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century, temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should be taken to put on end to the causes and sources emitting carbon dioxide. These are the measures we can take with a view to preventing global warming.

 

Pastime or Leisure pursuit

 

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.  

 

 

 

Early Rising

Early rising is the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. It is a very good habit which is very much essential for sound health. This habit is of special use to a man in various ways. Once you get into the habit of rising early, you are able to set a routine and that obviously leads to better productivity both at work and home. The man who rises early in the morning can take some exercises or a walk in the morning fresh air by the river side or in the open field. The morning air refreshes both body and mind. Then the air is full of oxygen. There is a calm and serene atmosphere everywhere. One can enjoy the beauty of nature in the early morning. Nature smiles in the morning with colourful flowers and green leaves and the chirping of birds is also heard in the morning.  All these make them cheerful and healthy. The beautiful gifts and colourful nature in the morning remind everybody of the Creator. One feels like to pray to God. An early riser gets enough time to do his work either in study on in other work, which will bring him success. Finally he must follow the instructions to rise early. An early riser has many advantages. He can start his daily works earlier. He had nothing to worry. He can earn more and become wealthy. So the habit of early rising is the source of health, wealth and wisdom. So, all of us should adopt a healthier way of living and reap those benefits.

 

 

Arsenic Pollution

Arsenic is a kind of metallic as well as fatal poison. Arsenic pollution means arsenic contaminated water. It is found in the ground water level of the earth. When a man drinks arsenic contaminated water for a long term, his skin is coarsened, stained, granulated and one time he suffers from gangrene. Our ignorant people are drinking arsenic polluted water from tube wells and are human being affected by arsenicosis. Those who do not eat fish and vegetables are easily affected. Arsenic is such a poison that is damages all the vital organs ore after another resulting in the subsequent death o the sufferer. The specialists should be sent to different parts of the country which are affected by Arsenic. They should identify the Arsenic contaminated tube-wells. The tube-wells which are polluted by Arsenic should be marked as red sign and the tube-wells of pure water should also be marked as greed sign. They should suggest another alternative easy way to find out pure drinking water. The arsenic affected patients should be properly treated. People should be made very conscious of the problems of arsenic and arsenic diseases. Recently the World Bank authority has taken some effective steps to identify the arsenic affected countries of the world. An affected person should drink arsenic free water and take vitamins A, C, E to come round. The govt. should take some effective steps to solve this kind of problem.

 

 

 

The Postman

Postman is a person who delivers letters, money orders, post cards, parcels and other postal articles to the proper addressees. He is a familiar figure both in the towns and in the village. He usually wears a khaki dress and carries on his soldiers a bag. Though a postman is a low-great employee of the postal department, he performs a responsible job. His daily work begins with the sorting out of letters, parcels, money orders etc. in the post office. After having finished this job in the post office, he goes out on his beat to deliver them to their addressees. A town postman often drops letters into letterboxes or pushes them through some opening of the door. A village postman generally goes on his beat twice or thrice a week. A postman is really good man and a good friend to us. The postman is a very important person in our society, though he does not enjoy a good social status. When he brings letters of good news, we become happy. He renders and great service to the society. He is such a great friend to us that everybody we expect his nock on the door. He behaves amiably with all. The economic condition of a postman is very miserable. Though he works very hard he gets a very small salary. With it, he cannot maintain his family decently. So he leads a miserable life. No doubt he serves the society as well as the country greatly in the field of postal communication. He should be given good salary so that he can lead a better life and serve us well.

 

 

 

 

 

Cultural Assault

 

Cultural assault means bad influence of foreign cultures on any native culture. Some cultures have profound impact on other cultures that might be harmful and then it will be a cultural assault.  In the present global world it is quite tough to impede this cultural aggression. With the development of hi-tech media, it has been very easy for a society to be infiltrated by alien cultures. Many of the cultural elements may be influenced in this way. Our Bangladeshi culture is mostly affected because of cultural assault of other countries. Our dress pattern especially for teenagers and young generation has altered a lot. Now people like pop song and band music sung in the western style and with western musical instruments. Besides, our eating habits are also being changed. Today many of us like to take fast food outside home using chopstick, fork etc. Now our young generations prefer celebration of 31 December to that of Pahela Baishakh. They never mind celebrating the Valentine’s Day. However, to get rid of the invasion of alien culture, we should be very much strict to exercise our own culture and flourish our cultural elements. We can rightly boast of an affluent cultural heritage. We have our own cultural traits and its identity. In addition to that, we have to accept miscellaneous alien cultures selectively, which will make our traditional culture more affluent.

 

 

 

 

The 21st February

International mother language day

 

21st February of the year is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day. The 21st of February, a red letter day, is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. This day reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. They protected our mother tongue in exchange of their blood. This day has given us the freedom to speak in our mother tongue. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. It is also observed as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. The put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

 

 

 

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A Railway Station

A railway station is such a place where different kinds of rails come, stand and start from to facilitate the passengers to get in and to get down from them. It is one of the cheapest and most comfortable of all the transport systems. In every station there is at least a building that usually made of red bricks which is called station house. The building has several rooms which are used as a booking office, ticket counters, and waiting rooms for passengers. Besides, there are rooms for stationmaster rooms for officer on duty and so on. The stationmaster is all in all in a station. He is assisted by number of other staffs, railway police and guards. The passengers willing to travel by train collect their tickets from the ticket counter. The ticket counter generally opens half an hour before the arrival of the train. A railway station is a crowded and noisy place, both passengers and coolies remain busy to push one after another to get into it. There may be waiting room for the passengers. When a rail comes up, the passengers fall in a long line to get into it. After some time, the guard blows the whistle and waves the green flag, the train moves.  As soon as the train leaves, the station sinks into silence and turns into a deserted place. Hawkers are seen to sell bettle leaf, cigarettes, newspapers, fancy items etc. Book stalls, fruit shops and tea-stall are also found here, Some evil doers often flock in the railway station and try to harm the passengers. A railway station however, plays an important role in communication sector of the country.

 

 

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. I have a fascination for visiting historical places. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. A visit to a place of historical interest is really interesting and attractive. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar and decided to go to savar to see the National Memorial. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint him. Nothing can daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. ‘Excelsior’ is his motto in life.

 

 

A World Heritage Site

A World Heritage Site is a place of either cultural or physical significance. A place becomes a World Heritage Site when the international community recognizes it as possessing universal value. Then the responsibility for its preservation comes under an international collective body. The country possessing the site nominates it to the World Heritage Convention. And a 21-member international committee decides whether it has universal value. Some World Heritage Sites of the Bangladesh are the Mosque City of Bagerhat, the Sundarbans and Sompura Bihar at Paharpur. The Sundarbans mangrove forest, one of the largest such forests in the world, lies on the delta (দ্বীপ) of the Ganges (গঙ্গা), Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers on the Bay of Bengal. It is adjacent to the border of India. It is inscribed as World Heritage site in 1987. The site is intersected by a complex network of tidal waterways, mudflats and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests, and presents an excellent example of ongoing ecological processes. Forest areas are dominated by a few species mostly Sundri and Gewu and patches of Nypa palm and several other of the 27 species of mangrove that are found in the Sundarbans. The area is known for its wide range of fauna (প্রাণিকুল), including 260 bird species, the Bengal tiger and other threatened species such as the estuarine crocodile and the Indian python. Each World Heritage Site is the property of the state on whose territory the site is located. But it is considered in the interest of international community to preserve each site.            

Good Health

Good health means the soundness of body and mind. The body which is free from all sorts of diseases is considered to be healthy. It is the result of living in accordance with the natural laws, pertaining to the body, mind and environment. These laws relate to fresh air, sunlight, balanced diet, regular exercise, rest, relaxation and sleep, cleanliness internal and external, right attitudes of mind, good habits and good patterns of living. One can keep good health by way of observing the rules of health, eating a balanced diet and living a disciplined life. But unfortunately, many people of our country do not get the food they need for good health. While the rich and educated people of our country are conscious of the rules of health, the bulk majority of the common people are ignorant of them. They seem to have no sense of hygiene and sanitation. As a result, they suffer terribly because of their ill-health. Moreover, life has become complicated in this age of technology. And the complexities of life have an adverse impact on our health. Frozen and artificial rather than fresh and natural food make us fall prey to various serious ailments (অস্বাস্থ্য) causing great damage to our health and happiness.  So, to keep in good health we need an environment which is free from air pollution, water pollution, noise pollution and menus pollution. I thoroughly believe in the fact that simple and carefree life is conducive to good health. Preservation of health should be the primary duty of mankind.

The necessity of education

Education is the process by which we can develop our mind through formal learning at an institution like school, college or university. It is one of the basic needs of human being. It is also essential for any kind of development. The purpose of education is to enlighten the individual and develop one’s capacity to the limit. It helps one to distinguish between right and wrong. It enables us to make the right choices in life and to perform our duties properly. It ennobles our mind and refines our sensibility. In this way education can certainly remove the darkness of ignorance. Besides, education broadens our outlook. It promotes humanity and universal brotherhood. Thus education promotes understanding among people of all climes. Education can be used as catalyst for a change for the better. Education provides us with the knowledge of health, sanitation and population control. It also enhances our ability to raise crops, increase industrial production, store food, protect the environment and carry out our social responsibilities. Thus education contributes enough towards a change for the better and its necessity can more be felt than described. It goes without saying that No Education, No Life! Just like food, water and air, education has become a basic necessity for everyone to survive in today’s world.

Women’s Contribution to Society

From the beginning of the world women have been contributing a lot to build the nation more strong and fruitful beside the male. Maledominated Bangladesh society undervalues women’s work by paying them less honour than men. It is not possible for any nation to get to goal without allowing women to play an active role. They were mere instruments to serve the family affairs. By working in the factory, a number of women in our country earn their livelihood and maintain not only their family but also contribute to the whole development of our country. There are also many women who are working in government and non-government offices with their professionals nowadays. In the field of education, medical science, culture, the government takes special care of women. At present in Bangladesh the Prime Minister and the main opposition party leader are women. They are now more conscious, serious and professional. They are getting educated as well as preparing themselves for competing with the male. The women are now enjoying their fundamental rights. But it is a matter of great regret that a number of women in both villages and towns in our country have to face a lot of social and religious bindings. But according to Islam both men and women should be given equal rights. Thinking women’s contribution to society, our national and rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam uttered, “What are great in this world, half has been done by woman half by man.”  So, we should change our notion and the government, the educated circle and NGO should come forward to establish the rights of the women so that they can actively take part in nation building.

Gender Disparity/ Discrimination

Gender disparity means gender discrimination or difference between male and female in the field of observing rights as a human being. It pervades severely both rural and urban communities in our country. Only boys are allowed to go to school, college and university to complete higher education and to do any job anywhere outside the home. Many girl students are deprived of getting educated both in towns and villages. Many parents love their sons more and always give them more facilities than their daughters. They usually think that educating a daughter is nothing but waste of time and money. After class seven or eight they think that they should marry their daughters off. Even many of the modern and educated families of our country do not think higher education for their daughters or sisters. They do not allow their daughters, sisters and wives to do a job outside the home. They are kept busy with maintaining different household chores and bringing up children. However, both males and females should be considered equal, should be given equal rights and facilities and should be exploited equally so that women can play a vital role in the development of the country like men. For this, we have to educate all females and have to change the mentality. We have to make them aware that women can do the same thing of men. Like men, women can change their lives by working with men and earning a lot of money. After all, government should take effective measures to diminish gender disparity for the development of the country. So, if we want our own betterment, we, both males and females, have to work together.

Microcredit finance

Microcredit, also called micro banking or microfinance, a means of extending credit, usually in the form of small loans with no collateral, to nontraditional borrowers such as the poor in rural areas. This approach was institutionalized in 1976 by Muhammad Yunus, an American-educated Bangladeshi economist who had observed that a significant percentage of the world’s population has been barred from acquiring the capital necessary to rise out of poverty. There are about 800 micro finance institutions in Bangladesh with a total membership of 7 million. The cumulative disbursement by these institutions since there is estimated at Tk. 44 billion. It is estimated that they have made employment of 54000 people. It has many positive effects on socio economic variables. Apart from providing loan to the rural woman it creates employment opportunities, eradicates poverty, and raises consciousness. It also emphasizes children’s schooling, nutrition and family planning. Borrowing by women particularly improved the nutritional status both male and female children. Consumption by 5 percent of the programme participants increased to the point that their households rose above the poverty line. These findings about the importance of micro credit in poverty reduction have been substantiated by other studies both in Bangladesh and in other countries. 

Globalization

Globalization is, basically, a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a borderless market. The idea of Globalization came into practice only in the last decade thought the idea was age old. It has also a far-reaching effect on many aspects of life. The world has come closer with the development of hi-tech communication media and rapid transport facilities. We can learn instantly what is happening in the remotest corner of the world. We are also able to go to any country in the shortest possible time. This is how countries of the world are like families in a village. We can share our joys and sorrows like next door neighbors. Globalization also brings all types of different customs and behavior into our homes through satellite television channels and the Internet. Now, we can enrich our local culture through constant interaction of different cultures. But, along with this, the cultural assault can also be resisted by the strength of our own traditional social values, beliefs and attitudes. However, as a result of Globalization, capitalist countries are enjoying more opportunities by exploiting the poor countries. Globalization integrates global economy in a way which exerts influence on both economic and social relations among the countries of the world. If Globalization is imposed upon a properly educated and properly trained labour force in an appropriate system it will lead to development and progress. If the developed and developing nations work together on terms of solidarity, equity and justice the process of Globalization will make our world a better place to live in.

Social value

Social value refers to norms or forms of behavior that are widely acceptable and admirable in the society. It refers also to the life style that people think that they should adopt. In the past, honesty, sincerity, truthfulness, piety, fellow-feeling etc. were considered to be social values. Adopting unfair means in any walk of life for any reason whatsoever was regarded as evil. People tried to keep themselves away from all sorts of malpractices and misdeeds. Honesty is the best policy – This was the motto of people in general. The miscreants were in great disrepute in the society. They were hated by all and sundry. But it is a pity those social values are interpreted now the other way round. Now, the criminals are honored as heroes of the society. People feel frightened to speak against their evil deeds. The causes of the present social values are materialistic attitude of people in general. With a few exceptions, people now run after name, fame and fortune without giving any thought to right or wrong, good or evil, moral or immoral. The effects of social values in the present age are deplorable. The noble qualities are now in exile. Honest people are now pushed to the wall. The wrong doers are now held in high esteem because of their post, power and position. Social values which were honored and harbored by people in the past should be preserved by way of raising awareness in people by inculcating the habit of doing good deeds, maintaining moral scruples, detesting vices and corrupt practices.

 

 

A hartal day

Hartal mainly refers the act of total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience particularly in political protest. In modern strife torn state hartal has become a common affair. It is observed at the call of a political party to press their demand to the ruling political party. The opposition political parties observe hartal to protest against the corruption, misuse of power and the evil deeds of the ruling party. Sometimes students and people of a locality call hartal to express their demands. On a hartal day normal course of life is stopped. All means of transport and vehicles do not move on the roads. People are to take a lot of troubles to attend their offices. They go on foot as vehicles are not available. As a result the attendance is very negligible in the offices, factories, industries and shops. The economy of the country suffers a heavy loss. Mills, factories and industries stop their work. All the business centers, markets and shops remain closed. The supporters in favour of hartal bring out procession. Often clashes occur between the police and the picketers. Sometime clashes take place between the supporters of the opposition and the ruling political partical parties which result in some deaths. On a hartal day the suffering of the people know no bounds. Actually, it is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular or unacceptable decision.

 

 

 

Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day is celebrated to honor all mothers, thank them for their efforts in giving them life, raising them and being their constant support. Mothers Day came into being due to the efforts made by Ms Julia Ward Howe and Ms Anna Jarvis. In our country Mother’s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May with joy and devotion. In observance of the day discussion programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs and cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the capital city. Television channels air special programs, and newspapers publish special features and columns to mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers and gifts featuring mothers are in high demand at the shops and markets.Young children get especially excited about Mother’s Day and put a lot of effort into making cards and presents for their Mums. For mothers, it is like having a second birthday. It is common for children to cook for their mother so she can have breakfast in bed. She also receives presents, flowers and cards. Mother is a creative and caring woman. She takes time to teach us things like how to read and how to write.  My mother cooked special dishes for us. Actually the celebration of Mother’s Day is the external expression of gratitude of a child to its loving mother.

Book Fair

A fair is the display of different items of necessary things for the consumers and buyers. Therefore, it does the same purpose as it looks for the reader’s interest. It spreads the message vie books are our best friend and it makes our life glorious. The largest book fair in our country is the book fair held in February to observe the Language Movement Day in the Bangla Academy premises. More than hundred of pavilions were set up. The stalls were decorated beautifully to draw the attention of the readers. All sorts of books, text books, fictions, children books, religious books, story books, novels, books on various dramas, books on poems, autobiographical books, books on science and technology, books on raising social awareness, etc. are usually available in a book fair. A book fair becomes crowded specially in the evening. The renowned artists, poets and intellectuals gather there and take part in the seminars and cultural programmes. A book fair promotes the publication of books to spread education and widen the sphere of our knowledge.  It also inspires the young readers for reading books. Some writers are also seen sitting in the stalls and their fans gather there for autographs. Even some stalls are found in a book fair to sell snacks, cigarettes and trifling items of daily necessities. Sometimes in a book fair some unpleasant incidents take place for the evil motive of the miscreants. In fact, a book fair is considered to be an occasion of great festivity to the book-lovers.

An ideal teacher/A good teacher

Generally a teacher is judged whether he is good or bad according to the temperament of the students. But an ideal teacher must have some basic qualities that will inspire the pupils to pay their attention towards him. A good teacher is one who knows the art of teaching. He is the master of his subject. He makes his lessons interesting. His method of teaching is convincing and inspiring. An ideal teacher treats his students like his own children. He praises the good work done by them. If a student does some mistakes, he is not very harsh to him. He tactfully makes his student realise his mistake. An ideal teacher is never angry with his students. He believes in simple living and high thinking. He has a high moral character. He is sincere in teaching and is hard working. He does not allow us to be lazy. He makes a simple living but his thinking is great. He influences our young minds with his fatherly care. He does not encourage the students to flee the time carelessly in idle chat, in idle thought rather he encourages us to be perseverant. He is a true friend and a sincere guide to the students. The skill in teaching will make him a lovable teacher for us in the school.

 

  

My Leisure pursuit or Pastime

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time.  Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. I need to work to live but at the same time I cannot work continuously. I need leisure to be recharged. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. I pass my leisure either playing in the field or gossiping with friends. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor games are the types that I usually do in my leisure. Occasionally, I select walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as my leisure activities. I also like to sing and dance. In the holidays, I usually sleep a lot and pass my free time visiting friends, neighbor, relatives etc. Spending time with family and friends strengthens relationships and thereby strengthens the society as a whole. Inspite of getting a bit time to spare, I want to use it effectively. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. It revives and gives me a new life. However, like others one activity that is common is watching television at night. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.

How to become a good citizen

A good citizen is one who properly fulfills his or her role as a citizen. Human beings are used to living under laws and patterns that are dictated to us by society, but following those patterns does not make us good citizens. To be a good citizen, firstly one has to prepare oneself to do good work in society.To become so, in addition to food shelter, company, etc, one needs knowledge, skills and to change attitudes. Being knowledge based society, we should have knowledge about our country, government, history, tradition, culture and religion. Besides, one must be able to apply one’s knowledge to do good things practically. Finally, knowing and doing things will bring about a change in one’s outlook towards others. Through regular group work it can be highly expected that there will be noticeable changes like freely mixing, disappearance of shyness, behaving in a democratic way.  It develops the attitude of helping and cooperating with others.Most importantly, these behavioural changes taking place in one inside the classroom will be carried over outside the classroom, in real-life situations.Values and ethics should be inculcated to people as they mature, as that kind of information will built them for being good citizens.  

 

A visit to a palace of historical interest

I am always curious by nature to know the places of historical interest. It has a great educative as well as cultural value. By visiting historical places; we can learn much about the past, past culture, tradition etc. During the last summer vacation I, along with some of my friends, got such an opportunity to visit the Natiotal Memorial at Savar. Accordingly we fixed a date and started our journey from Gabtali to savar at 10 p.m. by bus. We reached savar, near National Memorial just after 45 minute. Actually the National Memorial at savar is the symbol of the nation’s respect for the martyrs of the war of liberation. It contains the history of our independence. It is built with concrete, but made of blood. It stands 150 feet tall, but every martyr it stands for stands so much taller. There is actually a series of 7 towers that rise by stages to a height of 150 feet. The foundation was laid on the first anniversary of the victory day. Reaching there we felt a great respect to the freedom fighters who sacrificed their valuable lives for us. We took some snaps taking the view of the memorial. However, we visited the place and the surrounding area for about an hour and saw many historical things and enjoyed myself. The most moving sight of the complex is the several graves of the martyred freedom fighters just close to the tower. However, we left the place paying our glowing tribute to the freedom fighters. Through this visit we experienced a lot. The monument richly deserves all the honour and distinction that it has been showered with. I left it but the memory is still vivid in my memory. 

 

 

May DayInternational Worker’s Day

May 1st, International Workers’ Day, commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world, and is recognized in most countries. It is the day of establishing the legal right to the workers of the world. This day is memorable to the owners of the world for their defeat against the working class people. All  the  privileges  workers  enjoy  today came  about  due  to  the  sacrifice  of  the  workers  in 1886. The history behind it is very sorrowful. On May 3, 1886, some workers gathered in demand of a minimum wage, safety laws and eight hours work day. Police fired in the crowd of strikers at the Mc Comick Harvest Machine, Chicago. Here at least one person was killed and some others were seriously wounded. At the beginning of Industrial revolution people had to work long hours both by day and at night. It was simply inhuman. It stopped when all labourers stood up. The event of May Day 1886 is a  reminder  that  workers  will  continue  to  be  exploited  until  they  stand  up  and  speak  out  to  gain better  working  conditions,  better  pay  and  better  lives.  In fact, May Day is a milestone of snatching away the rights from the blood-sucking owners by the exploited workers of the cosmos. The sacrifices of so many people cannot be forgotten or we’ll end up fighting for those same gains all over again. This is why we should celebrate May Day with profound respect.

 

 

Pastime or Leisure pursuit

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.

 

 

A School Magazine

A school magazine is an annual publication containing the literary works and other information of a school mostly written and contributed by the students. It is published once a year. In order to conduct the work of publication of the school magazine, at first a magazine committee is formed with the Head master as the Chairman and chief patron. The editor, business editors and the assistant proofreaders are selected from the students. A magazine fund is also made up of the school ‘Magazine Fee’. The editor invites writings both in Bangla and English. The students of the school submit their articles to the notified persons at the notified time.Then, after proper scrutiny, the best ones are selected for publishing. Generally, the magazine has two sections-Bangla and English. There are messages from the Head teacher and the secretary of the school, annual reports, essays, short stories, short plays etc in it. It also contains jokes, quizzes and puzzles. The young writers get immense pleasure and confidence when they can see their writings in print. So, they feel encouraged to build themselves as poets, play-wrights, essayists and artists. It plays an important role in one’s school life. It is a forum through which our Juvenile learners can express the green ideas and imagination of their mind. Besides, it promotes team-spirit, fosters to express the dormant power of thinking as well as writing of the young learners. The sight of a magazine reminds the old boys of their sweet bygone school days. The school magazine of the school In fact, the school magazine is the first stepping stone to flourish themselves as future writers and poets.

 

Pahela Baishakh

In our Bengali year we celebrate Pahela Baishakh on the first Baishakh every year. As it is one of our festival days, it is celebrated with traditional festivities across the country. On this day different types of people of different social classes come out from their respective residence and enjoy the carnival enthusiastically and publicly because it is a public holiday. Traders and shopkeepers open halkhata and offer sweets to their customers and clients with a view to satisfying them keeping the age-old tradition. At the very dawn they go outside to celebrate Pahela Baishakh eating panta vath and hilsha fish. Most of the girls adorn themselves wearing fresh dress and flowers in their locks. Young and adult boys like to sing with the traditional musical instruments like ektara, dotara, bamboo-flute, sarinda etc. and somebody likes to wear mask of different things. Different socio-cultural organisations draw up elaborate programmes to celebrate Pahela Baishakh. The day’s first programme begins at dawn at Ramna Batamul where Chhayanat, a leading cultural organisation, organises it. Bangla Academy, Shilpakala Academy, Bulbul Lalitakala Academy, Jatiya Press Club, Liberation War Museum, Bangladesh National Museum, Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University and many other organisations bring out colourful processions with festoons, placards, posters, banners, masks etc. Bangladesh Betar, BTV, ETV telecast different lively programmes describing and showing the festival activities of Pahela Baishakh. We can’t but memorise this day with great pleasure.

 

Landing on the moon

In the history of human civilization, landing on the moon is an epoch making achievement. Before landing on the moon, most of the people of the world thought that nobody could go to the moon. On July 16, 1969 Armstrong along with Buzz Aldrin and Mike Collins departed for the moon in Apollo 11, the space craft which was used to reach the moon. On July 20, 1969, the Lunar Module, Eagle, landed on the moon, in a place called the Sea of Tranquillity. Commander Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon. As he stepped off the ladder and put his foot on the moon’s surface, he said, ‘One small step for man, one giant leap for mankind.’ Armstrong was joined on the moon by Buzz Aldrin, and together they spent two and a half hours on the moon’s surface. They performed a number of experiments and collected rocks and soil to bring back to Earth. They left an American flag on the moon. This historic visit was broadcast live on TV to the world, watched by approximately 600 million people.The top part of the Lunar Module Eagle took them back to the Command Module Columbia, which had remained in orbit around the moon, piloted by Michael Collins, while they explored. These three astronauts have become world famous heroes because of their great achievements. It proves that man can conquer anything if he wishes and the impossible task of today would become possible by tomorrow. History will always remember them.Their names are written with golden letters in the history of space technology.

Women’s Contribution to Society

From the beginning of the world, women have been contributing a lot to build the nation more strong and fruitful beside the male. Maledominated Bangladesh society undervalues women’s work by paying them less honour than men. It is not possible for any nation to get to goal without allowing women to play an active role. They were mere instruments to serve the family affairs. By working in the factory, a number of women in our country earn their livelihood and maintain not only their family but also contribute to the whole development of our country. There are also many women who are working in government and non-government offices with their professionals nowadays. In the field of education, medical science, culture, the government takes special care of women. At present in Bangladesh the Prime Minister and the main opposition party leader are women. They are now more conscious, serious and professional. They are getting educated as well as preparing themselves for competing with the male. The women are now enjoying their fundamental rights. But it is a matter of great regret that a number of women in both villages and towns in our country have to face a lot of social and religious bindings. But according to Islam both men and women should be given equal rights. Thinking women’s contribution to society, our national and rebel poet Kazi Nazrul Islam uttered, “What are great in this world, half has been done by woman half by man.”  So, we should change our notion and the government, the educated circle and NGO should come forward to establish the rights of the women so that they can actively take part in nation building.

 

 

Traffic Jam

When the road is blocked with so many vehicles and we cannot move forward, we call it traffic jam. Generally in capital city and other divisional cities traffic jam is a common phenomenon. There are various causes of traffic jam. In proportion to our population roads have not increased. The drivers are not willing to obey the traffic rules. Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. The people of our country often park their vehicles on improper places. Many persons set shops both sides of the road. So vehicles cannot move freely and cause traffic jam. When we fall in a traffic jam, we feel bored. We lose many working hours of our life. As a result we are lagging behind. We feel much helpless and frustrated when we get stuck in a traffic jam. Many people fail to attend their office duty in time. The worst victims are the patients carried in the ambulances to hospitals and clinics. The transportation of the daily commodities gets delayed. To stop traffic jam, we must make more wide roads and flyovers. Widening the streets, making flyovers at the main crossings, reducing the number of rickshaws are mentionable. Well planned spacious roads should be constructed. One way movement of vehicles should be introduced. Traffic rules should be followed properly. Above all growing public awareness is necessary for removing traffic jam. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. After doing all these things we can hope to have a good traffic system for our easy and comfortable movement. 

 

The 21st February/ International mother language day

21st February, a red letter day, is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day. It is also observed as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. It is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. This day reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. They protected our mother tongue in exchange of their blood. This day has given us the freedom to speak in our mother tongue. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. They put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

 

A village market

A village market is a temporary center for buying and selling goods to fulfill the need of the locality. It which may be either daily or weekly, is generally situated on the bank of a river or by the side of a highway or under a big tree. It begins in the afternoon and ends almost after the sunset. Most of the shops here are temporary but a few permanent shops also may be found here. Temporary sheds are made with straw and bamboo to protect the sellers from heat and rain. It is a place where they go to buy or sell the goods which are needed for their everyday life. Food grains such as rice, dal, wheat, etc. are sold in one row. Vegetables are sold in another row. Fish, meat and dried fish are sold in a different row. Domestic materials, utensils, bangles, cloths and stationeries are sold in different stalls which stand in a special row. There are a few tea stalls. There are tailors who temporarily set up the tailoring machines to make new bags and to repair old bags. The villagers come not only to buy and to sell goods but also to meet with others. So, it can also be regarded as the biggest gathering place for the villagers. A village market with its economic value also bears social value. A village market has some disadvantages too. It is a noisy and unhealthy place. The pickpockets gather there. Besides due to lack of cleanliness, it often turns into an unhygienic place. Infact it is the backbone of the rural economy. Through this village market, people can certainly save their time and money and get their desired goods in this village market.

 

Our National Flag

The flag which denotes the freedom and sovereignty of a nation is known as a national flag. The national flag of Bangladesh is bottle green in color and rectangular in size with the length to width ratio of 10:6. It bears a red circle on the background of green. The color in the background represents the vitality, youthfulness and greenery of Bangladesh while the red circle symbolizes the rising sun and the sacrifice of lives in our freedom fight in the Liberation War of 1971. The national flag was designed by painter Kamrul Hasan. Its size is confined to10:6. It was first hoisted on the March 3, 1971 by ASM Abdur Rab at the historic ‘Bat tala’ in Dhaka University  campus. It is hoisted at govt. offices, semi-government, self-autonomous buildings, educational institutes etc everyday. But it is kept at half-mast on any national or international mourning days. Our glorious national flag was purchased at too great a price at the cost of a sea of blood. The national flag of Bangladesh is our pride. Our feeling about the flag is very sensational and respectful. When we see our national flag, our heart is fulfilled with joy and respect. We bow down our heads towards it. Our duty towards it should be responsible and sacrificial. We should take an oath that we must save the honor and dignity of this flag even instead of our lives. The flag is the source of spirit, hope and inspiration.

 

  

A Village Doctor

The man who deals with village people and gives medicine to the rural people without any knowledge about medicine is called a village doctor. He takes slight training from an experienced doctor. Though he is a quack but he saves the poor villagers from immature death. The village people like him very much and he is a favorite person to the villagers. He may not a good or an efficient doctor but he goes if anybody calls him to their house. He renders great service to the villagers when they fall ill. He selects medicine depending on his general idea. He also has an own dispensary which offers a poor show two benches. The village doctor leads a very hard and busy life. Every day he gets up early in the morning and takes his bath and takes his meal and goes to his dispensary. He begins to attend the patients present at his dispensary just at 8.00 am and finishes at late hours of night. Though he sometimes worsens the disease of a patient; he is the most trusted person to the villagers. Sometimes he takes an assistant. When people fell in danger he helps them and gives them necessary medicine. He looks after his patients from his own heart. He is a beneficial person of the society and does great services to the rural people. He shares their weal and woe. He consoles them and hears those words of hope. He treats his patients with sympathy.

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 

 

Traffic Jam

 

When the road is blocked with so many vehicles and we cannot move forward, we call it traffic jam. Generally in capital city and other divisional cities traffic jam is a common phenomenon. Most often it occurs at office time and also at the time when the officer break. Sometimes it is so heavy that it blocks half a kilometre.  It kills our valuable time and our works are hampered. It causes great sufferings to the ambulance carrying dying patients and the fire brigade vehicles. There are various causes of traffic jam. The number of vehicles is greater than roads. The roads are also narrow and traffic control system is so poor. The drivers are not willing to obey the traffic rules. They often park their vehicles on improper places. Overtaking tendency also causes traffic ham. Many persons set shops both sides of the road. In big cities there are processions, agitations and demonstrations also. So vehicles cannot move freely and cause traffic jam. When we fall in a traffic jam, we feel bored. We lose money, petrol, diesel and many working hours of our life. As a result we are lagging behind. However, this problem can be solved by adopting some measures. To stop traffic jam, well planned spacious roads should be constructed. One way movement of vehicles should be introduced. Traffic rules should be impost strictly so that the drivers are bound to obey them. Sufficient traffic police should be posted on important points. Unlicensed vehicles should be removed. Traffic rules should be followed properly. Above all our people should be made more conscious.

 

 

 

                                                   A School Magazine

 

The school magazine is an annual or periodical publication of the school mostly written and contributed by the students and teachers. Almost every well established school publishes a magazine every year. It plays an important role in one’s school life as it highlights the various aspects of the school development programme. It is a forum through which our Juvenile learners can express the green ideas and imagination of their mind. In order to conduct the work of publication of the school magazine, at first a magazine committee is formed with the Headmaster as the Chairman and chief patron. The Headmaster selects the editor from among the teachers. Both teachers and students write in it. There are messages from the Headmaster and the secretary of the school, annual reports, essays, short stories, short plays, jokes, quizzes and puzzles and other writings relating to school affairs are published in the magazine. The editor at first invites writings from the teachers and the students for the magazine. After proper scrutiny and correction the best ones are selected and sent to the press for printing. The school magazine helps the young learners and writers to develop their latent faculties. It helps them develop their power of thinking and writing. One cannot write something without a clear judgment, imagination and good knowledge of the thing. School magazine provides a scope for writing independently. The young writers get immense pleasure and confidence when they can see their writings in print that can inspire one a lot to become a writer and a poet in later life. In fact, the school magazine is the first stepping stone for the future writers.

 

 

Female Education

Female education is very essential for the overall development of a nation. More or less half of the population of a country is female. Leaving the female uneducated and unemployed, no nation can prosper. That’s why female education has been a crying need of the day. Once women were confined within the four walls of the house and were used to doing only household chores. At that time, they were deprived of the light of education because of the prejudice, unconsciousness, superstition, social backwardness, prejudiced outlook, social barrier, obstacle by the fundamentalists and so on. But now it has changed a lot and women are getting educated gradually. But most of the women are lagging far behind in education. The rate of female literacy is alarming because without their education, our satisfactory development is impossible. Napoleon Bonaparte said, “Give me an educated mother and I will give you an educated nation”. From this line we can easily realize the importance of female education. Women need to be educated for different reasons. To be a conscious citizen of the country, to be an active member of the family and society, to be a good mother or wife and to lead a self-reliant better life, a woman should be educated properly. Besides, educated women have higher income potential than those who have had no schooling. Many people consider women inferior to men. But it is their wrong concept. Except the biological difference, a girl has every capacity to work and to achieve high position in life as a man can. An educated woman is conscious of her duties, rights and responsibilities. So, we should take every necessary step to ensure an environment to educate our female force. Parents ought to be encouraged to send their daughters to school. The govt. and NGO’s should patronize the education for girls in order that they can be educated and can play a vital role in the development of our country.

 

A street child/ Tokai

A street child is he who moves along the roads and has no definite place or house to live in. Sometimes he may not have mother or father or both. He lives beside the street or in a temporary hut either in a slum or in any deserted place of a town or city. Actually there is none to look after him. There is none to think of his education and future. Even if he has parents, they cannot afford to send him to schools and ensure his food and clothes. So, he is left on the mercy of others. This is a cruel joke of the society. The children of affluent families or some well-to-do families go to schools. They play in the school field and watch television for recreation or for learning. But a child living in the street does not have any definite future. He is deprived of all the basic needs of human life. He grows and matures with a sense of anger and revenge towards the society. This mentality leads him to take the path of crime and creates insecurity in the society. If the affluent people don’t take care of him, the ultimate results of the negligence they cannot avoid. So, it is the responsibility of all to give a serious importance to the fact. The social and welfare ministry of the state tries to arrange some education for the street children. But it is a gigantic task which calls for united efforts. When people belonging to all strata of society come forward, a street child will have a secure future.

 

 

 

Independence Day of Bangladesh

March 26, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the West Pakistan rulers started to exploit শোষণ, cheat, and oppress জুলুম Bangladeshi people. After the massive attack beginning from the early hours of 26 March, 1971, the undisputed অবিসংবাদী leader of East Pakistan declared independence and told the countrymen to fight against the barbarian Pak Army. The day is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervour. As it is a national holiday, all offices, educational institutions, shops and factories remain closed on this day. People get up early morning by hearing the bombing sounds of gun. Coming with rallies and processions মিছিল, people of all walks of life place floral wreaths at the National Musolium at Savar to pay rich tributes শ্রোদ্ধাঞ্জলি to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. The country also witness a smartly dressed parade of defence forces, border guards, police, ansars and the VDP at the National Parade Ground. School children, scouts and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. Besides, various cultural programmes throughout the day highlighting the heroic struggle and sacrifice in 1971, tournaments including the exciting boat race are organised throughout the country on the day. Milad Mahfil was organized by the different mosque especially in the National Mosque Baitul Mukarram. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated আলোকিত to give the capital city a dazzling উজ্জ্বল look. This day certainly makes bridges between the spirit of Independence Day and the future generations. May Independence Day always be the spirit of prosperity of our nation.

Environmental pollution

Environmental pollution refers to any unexpected and abnormal change in chemical, physical and biological জীববিদ্যাসংক্রান্ত characteristicsবৈশিষ্ট্য in the environment. Now our environment is getting polluted every moment in many ways. Man makes fires to cook food, to make bricks, to melt tar for road construction and to do many other things. In major cities and towns motor vehicles, mills and factories are creating fume and smoke and they pollute air. Railway engines and powerhouses create smoke by burning coal and oil. Man pollutes water another vital element of the environment by throwing waste into it. Chemicals, fertilizers and insecticides get mixed with water in rivers, canals and ponds, and thus pollute water. Mills and factories also throw their poisonous chemicals and waste products into rivers, canals and seas and water is polluted. Moreover, water vehicles, unsafe drains and unsanitary latrines are also responsible for water pollution. The noise of motor vehicles, mills and factories, aeroplanes, domestic appliances যন্ত্রপাতি, radios, cassette players, CDs, televisions etc pollutes sound and this polluted sound affects our hearing. Forests and trees are being cut down on a large scale. So, the ecosystem of the environment is now in great danger. It gives rise to ecological imbalance and brings about natural disasters in this world. This could horribly reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy wildlife, raise sea level and thereby may cause floods. We should plant more trees and work for forestation. Cutting down trees and hill should be restricted. To prevent pollution, government as well as all the conscious people should come forward to develop civic sense to reduce all kinds of pollution.

Climate Change

Climate change refers to an increase in average global temperatures due to the consequence of unchecked pollution. Most climatologists opine that boh natural events and human activities are contributing to the increase in average temperatures surrounding the earth. This is caused primarily by the increases in “greenhouse” gases such as Carbon Dioxide (CO2). However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. The destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, traffic that clogs up city streets, the rapid growth of industry, the use of CFCs, detergents, maritime disaster, human and industrial waste products etc are highly responsible for this change. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century; temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Pragmatic as well as drastic steps should be taken to create awareness to stop the causes and sources of emitting carbon dioxide. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. These are the measures the whole world needs to be concerned with a view to preventing global warming.

 

 

 

Basic Human Rights

In the present civilized world everybody has some fundamental rights that are to get food, shelter, education, medical treatment etc. The basic human rights are divided into different categories like social rights, civil rights, political rights, economic rights, religious rights and cultural rights. Social rights mean the rights to move freely, to arrange and attend any social function. Civil rights refer to the rights to be free from the interference, attack and disturbance of others. Political rights mean the rights to join trade union, to take part in the administration, to give vote and to have the freedom of speech including freedom of expression of opinions. An inhabitant will also exercise the cultural rights, religious rights and economic rights. Moreover, people of different religions can independently say their respective prayers going to mosque, church, temple or pagoda, and perform other religious activities. Every person can possess properties, establish organizations, support others financially etc. all these are some examples of economic rights. All citizens are equal in the eye of law and justice. But in many countries of the world including Bangladesh basic human rights are being violated brutally. And this type of crime is usually committed by the law-enforcing agencies, miscreants and politicians. Definitely they should be punished for violating fundamental human rights. So, some pragmatic measures should be adopted by the govt. as well as by all leading NGO’s to raise consciousness among all people through different mass media like radio, television, cinema, newspaper, poster, internet etc. for the overall betterment of all.

Email

Electronic mail or simply E-mail is very much popular now-a-days for its speedy transmission of information’s and cost effectiveness. Hence information provided by a sender is delivered asynchronously to a point where it can be retrieved and processed later on by one or more recipients of the sender’s choice. In an E-Mail system, there is a number and the sender keeps on dialing the desired number till he/she is successful. Once it is connected, the PC terminal of the sender sends the message to the PC terminal of the recipient at a very high speed. There is no need of any physical presence of both the sender and the receiver. The sender can enter the message and the receiver can retrieve it whenever he/she is free. The message will remain in PC’s memory. The transmission of messages is usually done through landlines or satellite communications or through marine cables. E-mail has lot of advantages to its credit. It is cost effective. Very less money is required In comparison to other transmission device. It is time saver. Within very short time messages can be sent. There is no need of presence of either the sender or the receiver. Once the message is entered into PC’s it will remain in the receiver PC’s memory.  E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten tmes faster than telex. There is the system of using password which each subscriber can choose to use. Hence E-mail gives security of message.

Fax

Facsimile, popularly known as fax, is a device that can send or receive a document, pictures and text over a telephone line. It is really a very wonderful machine which can transmit any document to another day machine located with in home or abroad in a very short time.  It looks like a calculator-cum telephone set. Almost all modems manufactured today are capable of sending and receiving fax data. Fax/modem software generates fax signals directly from disk files or the screen. Even if a document is text only, it is treated by the computer as a scanned image and is transmitted to the receiver as a bitmap. Faxing a message online works well if the recipient wants only to read the message. However, if the document requires editing, it must be converted into text by an OCR program, or it must be retyped manually into the computer. A more efficient method of sending documents that require modification is through the e-mail system. E-mail files are already ASCII text so they can be edited immediately in any text editor or word processing program. The Internet now provides a new and cheaper way to send faxes in some cases. A number of free and commercial companies provide arrangements for using the Internet rather than the public telephone system for most or part of the path to the fax point. Some services also provide the ability to broadcast a fax to multiple addresses. Nowadays being practically a time saving device, it has taken the place of teleprinter and is playing a vital role in international communication system.

Nuclear Family

A nuclear family or elementary family is a small group of people usually consisting of a pair of adults and their children. This type of family lives on its own, separate from other relatives. In fact, a nuclear family is based on the husband-wife relationship. Nowadays nuclear family is getting popularity because in such a family one can live according to one’s will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family, one may have much facility. One can enjoy his own life. One has no bindings to anyone. In short, the advantages of a nuclear family are stability, legacy, moral coding, skill building, shared responsibility, mutual support.The disadvantage of a nuclear family is that here one has to live alone. One has no companion to share one’s joy and sorrows. One feels lonely in such a family. Besides, it is difficult to take any crucial decision in a nuclear family and many of the decisions taken in a nuclear family may prove unwise afterwards. Personally, I do not like nuclear family because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. However, I live in an extended family that consists of six members-my grandfather and grandmother, my father and mother, my sister and myself. I am happy with living in an extended family.

 

Nuclear family

The nuclear family is a term used to define a family group consisting of and their children. I live in a nuclear family. Our family consists of four members such as my father and mother, my sister and myself. Nuclear family is getting popular nowadays because in such a family one can live according to one’s own will. The expenditure here is less than that of an extended family. In a nuclear family one may have much facility. He can enjoy his own life. He has no binding to anyone. The disadvantages of a nuclear family are that here he has to live alone. He has no companion to share his joys and sorrows. He feels lonely. I do not like it because here one has no friend or companion to share one’s feelings. In recent decades, this traditional form of the family has undergone major changes, with increasing rates of divorce leading to single-parent families, remarriages, resulting in extended families. These trends and the resulting problems that they cause, especially for the children, has brought the advantages of traditional nuclear families back into focus. There is none here to console one in distress or depression. But above all nowadays nuclear family is getting more popular.

 

   

Your favourite personality

My best personality of the world, Hazrat Muhammad (s.m), is the last prophet of Allah and the leader of all prophets. He is the greatest of man and teachers ever born of earths. He is the embodiment of all that is noble, pure and good. The prophet hazrat Muhammad (s.m) was born in the famous quraish tribe of mecca in 570 A.D. Before his birth, his father abdullah died and his mother amina died when he was only six. So in his infancy he became an orphan who was brought up by a nurse named Halima. He was handsome, of medium height, very active, walked rapidly which forced his companions to race to keep up with him. People reported seeing light around his body and in his face, which they compared to the sun or the full moon. His skin was white and turned rosy from exposure to the sun. He had black eyes and a thick beard. Everybody believed him and called Al-Amen or the trusty one. The prophet taught the people the virtue of forgiveness. He advised them to do well to others and worship Allah.the Qur’an was revealed to him by Allah and the Hadith which contains his sayings taught the Muslims many noble virtues. He always thought about the evils of Arab life which was dirty and barbering killing, robbery, injustice and barbarism prevailed everywhere in Arab. This great and novel soul passed away in 632 A.D. at the age of 63. But his work and teachings remain and will be followed as long as the world lasts. He made Muslims brothers of one another, built a great nation and powerful state. At present one fifth of the people of the world are the followers of this great and noble prophet.

 

 

 

 

A Road Accident

Among daily’s unfortunate occurrences, street accident is very common. Despite all efforts to prevent accident, it happens every day. Ours is a very over-populated country. Here roads are very busy and narrow. That is why street accidents take place very frequently. Careless driving is also responsible for this. Day before yesterday a terrible accident took place just before my eyes. It occurred in front of Dhaka College. I was going to the New Market. When I reached the college gate, suddenly I heard a scream of a boy. I found that a boy, who was crossing the Mirpur Road, was run over by a speedy truck. When the truck was a few feet away from him, the boy got puzzled and ran backwards and forwards. The driver tried desperately to hold the break but failed. The truck ran over the boy. He was crushed under the wheels of the truck and his body was changed into a lump of flesh. The truck was stopped. The passers-by crowded there. The boy was taken up from the pool of blood. A gentleman offered his car to carry the boy to the Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In the evening I came to know that the boy had breathed his last on way to the hospital, and I was greatly shocked at this. The truck along with the driver had been taken to police custody. But that horrible scene still haunts my mind. However, we all should always bear in mind that life is more valuable than time. Moreover, some proper steps should be taken and some strict rules should be introduced to stop street accidents. 

 

 

 

An ideal student

The student life is a period of training for the practical duties of manhood. It is the seed time of one’s life. An ideal student makes the best use of student life. His aim is not confined to studies and passing of university examination only. He is courteous to one and all. He cultivates good manners and habits. He is industrious, honest and sympathetic. He possesses a keen sense of duty and responsibility. He is regular and punctual. He never cherishes an evil thought. He is obedient to his teachers and elders. He shuns bad company. He is diligent. Diligence is a great virtue. He is a great lover of truth. He has a thirst for knowledge and learning. He gathers knowledge from every possible source as a bee flits from flower to flower and gathers honey. He attains exactness of mind is consistent in action. Dignity, discipline, self-control, constructive organization and self-restraint are his watchwords. He is virtuous and mentally and bodily firm and strong. He acts like a brave and fearless soldier in a national cause. He is tolerant and free from prejudices, narrow-mindedness and selfish motive. He rushes in where others fear to tread. He is optimistic. Nothing can disappoint or daunt him. He thinks, decides and dashes. He is self assertive. He presses on and on to attain perfection, getting over all the difficulties in his way. So, all of us have to try to be an ideal student to reach the highest peak of the desired success.

  

A Winter Morning

Of the six seasons, winter is undoubtedly the coldest season of the year in Bangladesh. A morning in winter is misty and cold because of dense fog everywhere. Sometimes it is so dense that the sun rays can’t be seen.Things even at a little distance can hardly be seen. Everything looks hazy. This causes disruption to the communication system. Few drops fall on leaves and blades of grass at night. They look like glittering pearls when the rays of the morning run falls on it. Sometimes shivering cold causes serious sufferings to people and animals. The poor have hardly warm clothes. They gather straw and dry leaves to make fire to warm them. The old and the children bask in the sun. Usually people get up late. In a winter morning people in Bangladesh enjoy different kinds of ‘pithas’. Delicious sweetmeats are also prepared with date juice. But a winter morning is a curse for the poor. They suffer much for want of warm clothes. The scene of a winter morning disappears as the day advances. The best time to visit Bangladesh is in winter when the weather is dry and fresh. It’s possible to observe and photograph a large number of migratory bird species. The Bengali month of Kartik, that is early winter, is celebrated by Jibanananda Das as a period that reveals the inner beauty and soul of Bengal. A winter morning has both advantage and disadvantage. My personal feeling about a winter morning is that it is a bane for the poor but a boon for the rich.

 

A Winter Morning

Of the six seasons, winter is undoubtedly the coldest season of the year in Bangladesh. A morning in winter is misty and cold because of dense fog everywhere. Sometimes it is so dense that the sun rays can’t be seen.Things even at a little distance can hardly be seen. It causes disruption to the communication system. Few drops fall on leaves and blades of grass at night. They look like glittering pearls when the rays of the morning run falls on it. Sometimes shivering cold causes serious sufferings to people and animals. The poor have hardly warm clothes. They gather straw and dry leaves to make fire to warm them. The old and the children bask in the sun. Usually people get up late. In a winter morning people in Bangladesh enjoy different kinds of ‘pithas’. Delicious sweetmeats are also prepared with date juice. But a winter morning is a curse for the poor. They suffer much for want of warm clothes. The scene of a winter morning disappears as the day advances. The best time to visit Bangladesh is in winter when the weather is dry and fresh. It’s possible to observe and photograph a large number of migratory bird species. The Bengali month of Kartik, that is early winter, is celebrated by Jibanananda Das as a period that reveals the inner beauty and soul of Bengal. A winter morning has both advantage and disadvantage. My personal feeling about a winter morning is that it is a bane for the poor but a boon for the rich.

 

A Rickshaw Puller

One who pulls rickshaw for one’s livelihood is commonly called a rickshaw-puller. Rickshaw is a common vehicle in Bangladesh. It is paddled by human being. A rickshaw-puller generally lives in the slum area of the city. He supports his family through great hardship. He lives from hand to mouth.  His family lives in great poverty. What he earns is spent to maintain his family somehow. He passes his days in great troubles. There is severe poverty in his family for which his family members suffer a lot. He is to undergo hard labour. His sorrows know no bounds. There is no time table of his work. He works long hours on a day. He usually pulls his rickshaw from morning to midnight. He earns very scanty to meet up the demands of his family. Usually he lives a poor life, which is under poverty level. Sometime he along with his family is to starve due to his illness or rough weather. In the rainy season his miseries go beyond limit as water enters into his slum. We can do better his condition if we evaluate his hard labour. It is our holly duty to sympathetic towards him. Our kind behavior and attitude towards them may lead him to a happy and prosperous direction.

 

 

 

Dowry System

Dowry means property or money brought by a bride to her husband when they get married. Nowadays the system of giving and taking dowry in marriage is more prevalent in Bangladesh. To eradicate this social evil, we should remain satisfied with mere laws and by-laws or enactment of some rules. Total change in the outlook of the society is the crying need at this moment. Young men and women must come forward to put an end to this disgraceful system. The political parties and government must match word with action. General inequality is a major cause of dowry. Improving women’s position in society would be an effective measure against dowry. The girl’s guardians must also be conscious about the issue. A girl should be brought up to be self-dependent. There is a tendency for the girl and the girl’s family to simply tolerate the oppression because of risk the marriage’s breaking up. The families must resort to legal action rather than encourage the girl to bear the oppression due to social shame and honour. Educated girls are also asked for dowry, but the poor illiterate girls have no alternative if abandoned by their husbands for dowry. Unfortunately in the rural areas, the daughters of poor farmers often study and work in order to earn enough money to pay dowry. The activists of all spheres against dowry must keep these factors in mind to eradicate dowry effectively.

 

 

 

 

Greenhouse Effect

 Greenhouse effect is the gradual warming of the air surrounding the earth as a result of heat being trapped by environment pollution. Most climatologists believe that the greenhouse effect is the likely cause of this global warming. This is exemplified by the destruction and burning down of tropical rain forests, by traffic that clogs up city streets, by the rapid growth of industry, the use of CFCs in packing and manufacturing commercial products, the use of detergents and so on. The oceans are also said to be affected both because of human waste and because of pollution caused by industrial waste products, oil seeping from damaged supertankers and from other maritime disasters. However, the main culprits for global warming are carbon di-oxide gas, produced by the burning of fossil fuels and forests, and pollutants such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons. Now a days global warming has made the environmentalists think about the dreadful consequences. Climatologists predict that midway through the next century; temperatures may have risen by as much as 4 C. This could catastrophically reduce mankind’s ability to grow food, destroy or severely damage wildlife and wilderness, raise sea levels and thereby flood coastal areas and farmland. The alarming news about Bangladesh is that as a result of the rise of the sea level, the lower southern part of the country may one day go under water. Tree plantation program should be adopted soon. Steps should be taken to put on end to the causes and sources emitting carbon dioxide. These are the measures we can take with a view to preventing global warming.

Cultural Assault

Cultural assault means bad influence of foreign cultures on any native culture. Some cultures have profound impact on other cultures that might be harmful and then it will be a cultural assault.  In the present global world it is quite tough to impede this cultural aggression. With the development of hi-tech media, it has been very easy for a society to be infiltrated by alien cultures. Many of the cultural elements may be influenced in this way. Our Bangladeshi culture is mostly affected because of cultural assault of other countries. Our dress pattern especially for teenagers and young generation has altered a lot. Now people like pop song and band music sung in the western style and with western musical instruments. Besides, our eating habits are also being changed. Today many of us like to take fast food outside home using chopstick, fork etc. Now our young generations prefer celebration of 31 December to that of Pahela Baishakh. They never mind celebrating the Valentine’s Day. However, to get rid of the invasion of alien culture, we should be very much strict to exercise our own culture and flourish our cultural elements. We can rightly boast of an affluent cultural heritage. We have our own cultural traits and its identity. In addition to that, we have to accept miscellaneous alien cultures selectively, which will make our traditional culture more affluent.

A street child/ Tokai

A street child is he who moves along the roads and has no definite place or house to live in. Sometimes he may not have mother or father or both. He lives beside the street or in a temporary hut either in a slum or in any deserted place of a town or city. Actually there is none to look after him, to think of his education and future. Even if he has parents, they cannot afford to send him to schools and ensure his food and clothes. So, he is left on the mercy of others. This is a cruel joke of the society. The children of affluent families or some well-to-do families go to schools. They play in the school field and watch television for recreation or for learning. But a child living in the street does not have any definite future. He is deprived of all the basic needs of human life. He grows and matures with a sense of anger and revenge towards the society. This mentality leads him to take the path of crime and creates insecurity in the society. If the affluent people don’t take care of him, the ultimate results of the negligence they cannot avoid. So, it is the responsibility of all to give a serious importance to the fact. The social and welfare ministry of the state tries to arrange some education for the street children. But it is a gigantic task which calls for united efforts. When people belonging to all strata of society come forward, a street child will have a secure future.

 

 

 

 

Your favourite personality

My best personality of the world, Hazrat Muhammad (s.m), is the last prophet of Allah and the leader of all prophets. He is the greatest of man and teachers ever born of earths. He is the embodiment of all that is noble, pure and good. He was born in the famous quraish tribe of mecca in 570 A.D. Before his birth, his father abdullah died and his mother amina died when he was only six. So in his infancy he became an orphan who was brought up by a nurse named Halima. He was handsome, of medium height, very active, walked rapidly which forced his companions to race to keep up with him. People reported seeing light around his body and in his face. He had black eyes and a thick beard. Everybody believed him and called Al-Amen or the trusty one. The prophet taught the people the virtue of forgiveness. He advised them to do well to others and worship Allah. The Qur’an was revealed to him by Allah and the Hadith which contains his sayings taught the Muslims many noble virtues. He always thought about the evils of Arab life which was dirty and barbering killing. This great and novel soul passed away in 632 A.D. at the age of 63. But his work and teachings remain and will be followed as long as the world lasts. He made Muslims brothers of one another, built a great nation and powerful state. At present one fifth of the people of the world are the followers of this great and noble prophet.

Earthquake

Earthquake is the tremor caused either by volcanic eruptions or by sudden dislocation in the rock structure underneath. That Bangladesh lies in the active earthquake zone is not unknown to Bangladeshis. There are two schools of experts regarding earthquakes. One school comprising of engineers and geologists is of the view that the recurrence of quakes in recent years should be taken as a signal for a major earthquake. Another school comprising of similar categories of experts, however, believes that the concern should not be amplified, because although there arc a number of fault lines in the geographical area comprising Bangladesh, none of them is active enough to pose a major threat. Yet none of the schools rules out the possibility of a major quake and the dangers that might be associated with it. An earthquake causes unaccountable damage, and sometimes heavy destruction of life and property. During an earthquake, it is unsafe to remain inside a multi-storied house. It is better for the inmates of houses to come out in the open at the time of an earthquake. In Japan, an earthquake is a common phenomenon. It takes place frequently than in other coun­tries in the world. In Bangladesh, earthquake is, however, felt from time to time in mild form in different parts of the country. Alarmed by the recurrence of quakes during recent years, experts have called for the development of an earthquake resistant building code that all buildings should follow as mandatory to reduce the losses.

Significance of the Shaheed Minar

Hamidur Rahman was the man who gave shape to the concept and design of the Shaheed Minar, by combining all the aspirations of Bengali identity and nationalism. When he was assigned to make the design, he was full of enthusiasm focussing on the language movement as the central concept. He experimented with basic horizontal and vertical forms to bring out the concept of Bengali solidarity and unity for their national identity. The vertical lines of his design provided the manifestations of inner strength. The four columns on both sides of the central structure reflect the balance and harmony of a united stand. The original design had included stained glass, with hundreds of eyes, through which the sunlight could pass. The marble floor was to reflect the moving shadows of the column in an unending process of revolt from dawn to dusk. In the basement of the Minar he had designed a grand fresco work of 1500 square feet, depicting the language movement. This was to be his masterpiece, again reflecting the theme of geometric horizontal and vertical motifs of unity and strength. Rahman was fully conscious of the tropical damp climate of Bangladesh and therefore worked out such materials for the Minar that would withstand the climate. He ensured that the columns be made of such mixture of iron rods and cement as to stand for centuries. Today the Shaheed Minar is a symbol of freedom, strength and unity. He is no more with us but we remember him with great admiration and pride for his remarkable design of the Central Shaheed Minar.

 

 

E-mail

Electronic mail, popularly known as ‘e-mail’, is the communication of textual messages via electronic means. E-mail is delivered to individual electronic mail boxes based in computers. In order to operate an e-mail system we need a personal computer, a modem and a telephone connection. An important advantage of e-mail is its ability to reduce the consumption of paper in the office. Internal memos and reports can be exchanged electronically without using paper. Being a computer-based messaging system, files prepared on computers can be instantly copied and easily exchanged as e-mail. E-mail turns out to be a cheaper alternative to telephone conversation and eliminates the time spent in establishing phone calls. E-mail permits communication between two parties without the parties actually being present simultaneously. Privacy is ensured as the mail is delivered to an individual’s mail box which can be accessed or opened only by the intended recipient. E-mail has brought about a revolution in modem communication. Messages can be transmitted from one country to another within seconds. E-mail transmission is very speedy. It is four times faster than FAX and ten tmes faster than telex. Trade and commerce has become greatly dependent on this speedy mode of communication. It has, however, not reached every one, especially in developing countries like ours, as most people cannot afford to have a personal computer. But even here people have started using commercially operated e-mail facilities for important purposes.

Cultural Assault

Cultural assault means bad influence of foreign cultures on any native culture. Some cultures have profound impact on other cultures that might be harmful and then it will be a cultural assault.  In the present global world it is quite tough to impede this cultural aggression. With the development of hi-tech media, it has been very easy for a society to be infiltrated by alien cultures. Many of the cultural elements may be influenced in this way. Our Bangladeshi culture is mostly affected because of cultural assault of other countries. Our dress pattern especially for teenagers and young generation has altered a lot. Now people like pop song and band music sung in the western style and with western musical instruments. Besides, our eating habits are also being changed. Today many of us like to take fast food outside home using chopstick, fork etc. Now our young generations prefer celebration of 31 December to that of Pahela Baishakh. They never mind celebrating the Valentine’s Day. However, to get rid of the invasion of alien culture, we should be very much strict to exercise our own culture and flourish our cultural elements. We can rightly boast of an affluent cultural heritage. We have our own cultural traits and its identity. In addition to that, we have to accept miscellaneous alien cultures selectively, which will make our traditional culture more affluent.

Child trafficking

Child trafficking is a crime against humanity. Trafficking in persons is nothing short of modern-day slavery. It is, therefore, not only a problem for Bangladesh but rather it is a global problem. The most common forms of human trafficking in Bangladesh are, among others: trafficking for sexual exploitation, forced prostitution, domestic servitude, forced labour and other forms of exploitation. Child trafficking is now considered one of the major concerns for Bangladesh. However, various studies reveal that over 1 million women and children have been trafficked out of the country in the last 30 years. A UNICEF report says that approximately 400 women and children in Bangladesh are victims of trafficking each month.  Both internal and cross-border trafficking exist in Bangladesh. In the case of internal trafficking, women and children are often taken away from their homes on false promises of a better life with good employment or by using various other criminal acts and means by the traffickers who sell them to brothels. It is mainly people from rural areas with minimal survival options and those who suffer the worst from discriminatory sociocultural practices who are lured or deceived with promises of a better life and more lucrative job opportunities in cities. At the cross-border level, victims are transported and transferred to destinations further away such as India, Pakistan and Middle Eastern countries, by using illegal acts and processes which culminate in the most corrosive forms of human rights violations and a life of unspeakable agony and torture.

 

 

 

Campus Violence

Education in our country is passing through a stage of crisis. Along with political unrest in the country, campus violence has become almost a daily affair. It appears that the students are there in our colleges and universities only to be engaged in violence throwing their main duty of learning something to dust. The impact of such violence is too many to be described. It may simply be said that Bangladesh is already educationally backward. The teachers are growing unconcerned about the welfare of the students. The students are growing to be more concerned about politics endless about their studies. They are gradually forming the habit of intolerance. The basic principles of democracy for which they are shouting are going to be slaughtered at their hands. The innocent students and guardians are becoming the worst sufferers. Campus violence not only ruins the academic environment but also spoils the life of the students and takes away many valuable lives.They have become puppets in the hands of the so called narrow minded politicians. The self centered narrow minded politicians exploit the innocent students and encourage them terrorism by supplying them with weapons. As campus violence is a demon and no one like to see it again, the government is also keen to make campuses violence free and making student activism a process of leadership building for future, people concerned want to see immediate steps from the government and elder politicians in this regards.

 

Child-Labour-in-bangladesh

“Child labour” defines an extremely complex set of phenomena. It is undoubtedly one of the curses of new era. Poverty poses to be a great threat in Bangladesh. Their working in the hotels or in the garments, as a tempo helper or a tokai is really pathetic. Sometimes they are engaged in full time job from tender age like domestic servant, day-laborer. It may involve too much physical pressure such as brick clinker, railway porter. In many places, children are mentally and physically oppressed during their work. But a child has right to live and survive well. Being deprived of basic rights, a child cannot become a perfect man. We should ensure their good leaving. A child should be protected from all kinds of threats and oppressions. He has the right to get educated. We should encourage them to learn. We should also ensure a child’s health and hygiene. We should try to improve their physical and mental development. A child should not be forced into labor. We must not expect income from the children. The world community has to be more conscious about this. Child labor should be banned from the society as soon as possible for a better future of the country because one who is child today will be a perfect man tomorrow. All children should be given equal privileges to grow up in the interest of mankind itself.

Mobile/ Cell Phone

Mobile phone is such a cordless phone by which people can communicate with others immediately. It is a telephone system that works without any wire. Today, mobile phone has become popular to everybody since it is very convenient. For instance, one can contact easily to anyone by calling or sending messages everywhere. Specially, businessman and the service holders are much benefited through the use of mobile phone. But it is also useful for the people who are shopping and supplying valuable information sitting in their houses. Moreover, one can relax with mobile phone’s applications, for example, play games, listen to music, or chat with your friends. A mobile phone in one’s hand can solve many issues and hold most of information around the world. On the other hand, there are also disadvantages. Using a lot mobile phone can harm your brain. If you use mobile phones too much, you will get bad effects like dizzy, blood-brain barrier, or ears problems. Terrorists are using it to spread out terrorism all around the world. In addition, when you use mobile phones while you are driving, you will get an accident. Moreover, “radiations emitted from the phone are dead harmful for the eardrum”, has proved by many scientist. But in spite of all these disadvantages, it can be finalized here that the necessity of a mobile phone in exchanging messages, cannot be denied in the true sense of the term in our practical life.

 

 

 

 

Adopting unfair means in the examination

The adoption of unfair means in the examination means copying in the examination. It does not simply mean copying from books etc. Inside the hall, it includes any sort of malpractice in or outside the hall to succeed in the examination. It is one of the signs of other degenerating conditions existing in out society. Many students without preparing lessons waste their valuable time in gossiping, roaming, playing, travelling etc. As a result they are compelled to adopt unfair means in the hall. By adopting unfair means a student frustrates the very purpose of the examination. Merely committing to memory and vomiting it in the examination halls cannot determine the merit of a student. In order to solve copying in the examination the govt. has taken some preventive measures. First of all the govt. is trying to raise public awareness through mass media. Recently the government has enforced a law that if any student is found copying in the examination hall, she/he will be expelled from the examination hall. If any invigilator is found helping any examiner, legal action will be taken against her/him. Even if outsiders are found involved in helping any examiner in copying, they will also be punished. The government has interchanged the examination centers and formed invigilation teams to monitor the overall condition of the examination center. The very system of education should be changed. Above all the government, the teachers, the guardians, the students, the intellectuals, the politicians and all the conscious sections of the country should come forward to tackle the problem.

 

Eve-teasing

Eve teasing means molestation or exciting young girls sexually by making indecent remarks or vulgar comments on them. It usually starts with winking eyes and making obscene gestures and may go to the extent of physical assault and harassment. Generally school and college-going girls become victims of eve teasing. It is a matter where boys use bad language to the girls who silently hate them without taking any kind of revenge. In naturally his violations reach the girls to suicide. For removing it forever from the society everybody should careful about it. Everybody should behave each other like brother and sister. Here religion rules can contribute a lot. If anybody makes this again they should be punished for their deeds. And we should take immediate action to them if any body makes this violations. Boys who see their fathers treating their mothers with respect will automatically grow into men who think likewise. Boys and girls should be allowed to mingle freely so that they learn to respect each other’s individuality. Men need to realize that every woman is some mans wife, or daughter, or sister, or mother; and must be treated with the same respect, they would accord their own. Eve teasing is a social crime and it should be prevented at any cost. The law-enforcing authorities should deal severely with the eve teasers. People’s conscience and consciousness must also be aroused to stop this nuisance.

Duties of a Student Or, Students and Social Service

Students are the greatest force as well as the future leaders of a Country. They can build or destroy a nation. The primary duty of students is to acquire knowledge and to make themselves worthy citizens. It is needless to say that they get much time for merry making, playing, amusements, touring etc. apart from their routine life of study.Then they should pay attention to the welfare of the society. Students have no worries about earning their livelihood. They have strength and capacity. Students should go to the villages and serve the villagers during vacation. They can make the illiterate masses aware of their rights and duties. Hence the students can guide the people of digging canals or constructing educational institutions. Sympathy and fellow feeling should be imparted the students to do some noble works for the people. Students can co-operate with people on matters of public interest such as education, sanitation, trade and commerce. Students can participate in cleaning drains, ponds during the leisure hours. They can help people during natural calamities such as earth quake, flood, drought, cyclone by collecting funds from different sources. Students have a spirit to work but the guardians and, teacher should guide them in the right way. Student must be the servants of humanity. The aim of all true education is to teach a man how to live and lot others live. A student can learn this though social service. He gains experience, courage and confidence. Thus social service makes him fit for the greater world.    

Importance of games and sports

The ideal of a good and perfect life is to have a sound mind in a sound body. This is recognized by all as the best means of performing our duties. Body and mind should work at their best, and they cannot do so unless both are in good order. The best way to keep the limbs fit is to exercise them in sports and games of physical skill and strength. This indeed is the importance of games, there is no society, which has not its own special kinds of games. Sports and games supposed to be looked upon as a means of building up the body beautiful. Sports and games have now come to stay in our civilization as an essential feature of human activity, and their object is not merely fun, they also instill the sprit of discipline and team-work. Game like cricket, hockey and foot ball are popular because of the sprit of team work which they inspire. The discipline that gained in playing up games is invaluable in later life. It makes for a life of co-operation and team work which could be used for building up a great society and a nation. Our young man and woman should take active part in sports and games. It is good that our educational institution encourage sports and games by organizing matches and awarding prizes and trophies. The habit of taking part in games and sports is good in several ways. Apart from making us strong, healthy and fit, it teaches us how to use our energy in the right way. But all good things sometimes become bad. This is a strange but the true fact about human activities. Sports and games should be so organized that they will not interfere with studies of our youth. Life is not all sports. They are only a part, though a very important part.

The ways of keeping good health

Health is the condition of our body and mind. Good health means healthy body free from diseases. It is essential for everyone to lead a happy life. If we are not in good health, we cannot concentrate on any activity in our life. A proverb goes, ‘Health is Wealth’ It means health is equally valuable as gold or any other personal possessions. We may have vast wealth and property, but if we are not healthy we cannot enjoy them. To keep ourselves healthy, we have to do certain things. We have to eat a balanced diet.We must exercise regularly to keep our body fit for work. We should go to bed early at night and rise early in the morning. Peace of mind is another condition for good health. So we must not worry over small things of life. Hygiene is important for our good health because we cannot achieve anything physically, mentally or spiritually if we are unclean in our body, mind and soul. We must keep our body clean. We should have a bath every day and wash our hair regularly. This will keep the body and hair free from dirt and bacteria. Secondly, we should wash our clothes regularly. Dirty clothes give off bad smell and invite germs. We should wear socks and shoes when we go out to protect our feet from dust and germs. It is also important to wash our hands before meals and after using the toilet. We should brush our teeth twice a day, after breakfast and supper. We must also cut our nails regularly. Our drinking water must be pure. We can get pure water by boiling and filtering. Finally, we should keep our surroundings and environment clean. If we do and follow all the above things properly, we will be able to lead a happy, healthy, wealthy, comfortable and diseases free life.

 

 

Social value

Social values are the customs, belief, tastes, social, practices and norms, and attitudes of a particular social community. It refers to the attitude or code of conduct that an individual in certain society has to conform to. Social values determine course of social life of a person and regulate his of her life to a great extent. It is one’s commitment to social values that one cannot get involved in anti-social and criminal or notorious activities. Social values direct an individual to maintain social harmony, to conform to what is accepted majority of the society, and refrain him or her from doing such things those are destructive to social peace and order. In the past social values were very compact and rigid and every individual tried best to maintain or conform to that values. But now people are unconscious and sometimes callous to social values. Lust, greed for money and power, injustice and discrimination in society, excessive desire to achieve something illegally and unfairly, and desire for material gain are the causes of present degradation of social values. Violation and degradation of social values have adverse effects in the society. As we see around us that Younger don’t show any respect to their superiors, family ties breakdown, often a family disintegrates, children go astray, young people become drug addicted, or get involved in various anti-social and immoral activities. These are all signs of people’s loss of the sense of morality of ethics resulting from social degradation. We should be alert to preserve social values. To do so , we can develop social relationship among its members, keep an eye on our younger so that that they are not derailed , and not allow any such things to happen that destroy people’s morality and goad them to do unsocial and anti-social things.

 

Satellite Television Channels

Television channels broadcast by the use of satellite is called satellite TV channels. Television is one of the greatest achievements of modern science. Now it is regarded as the medium of information, entertainment, telecast, education and many others. It can telecast any live programme from the remotest part of the world. Television can display many programmes at a time. Satellite TV has added a new dimension in our oriented life providing many programmes through different channels. It’s not only a good medium of recreation but also a source educational knowledge. Different channels telecast various educative dramas, movies, sports, cultural functions, news and articles. So we can easily collect educative information of agriculture, science and technology, politics, education, business, invention etc. Television helps us widespread the sight and outlook of the society. Coming to contact with the western societies, we are getting the opportunities to enrich our society and ourselves. But on the other hand, many people especially young generations are getting hampered and we all are now forgetting our own customs, traditions, music and culture. Very often obscene pictures and vulgar movies and programmes are shown in various satellite channels. Young generations are becoming more and more addicted to them. Moreover, most of us want to follow the dress-pattern, hairstyle, behaviour, music and nudity of the westerns. This mentality is leading our young generations to moral degradation. So, we all should be conscious of that.

 

 

 

E – Learning

E-learning refers to the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies (ICT) in education. E-learning includes numerous types of media that deliver text, audio, images, animation, streaming video, audio or video tape, satellite TV, CD or DVD-ROM and computer-based, as well as web-based learning. In e-learning every step such as, registration, admission, classroom entry and exit, class work, attendance, discussion with course mates, feedback, exams and finally certification must take place electronically through computer and the Internet technology in a virtual campus. It is commonly thought that new technologies make a big difference in education. Many people involved in e-learning believe that everyone must be equipped with basic knowledge of technology, as well as use it as a vehicle for reaching educational goals. Various technologies are used to facilitate e-learning. Most of the e-learning uses combinations of many techniques, including blogs, collaborative software, ePortfolios, educational websites and virtual classrooms. E-Learning has become an important technique that educational as well as business institutions invest a great deal of money, time and effort in order to make use of it. E-Learning has proven to be the cheapest way to transmit knowledge to the largest number of people regardless of their location and their devices. Most of the existing e-Learning environments present some similarities and most educators need several tools to efficiently make use of e-Learning. In short, e-learning has helped people to learn about anything they want, anytime they want by using modern technologies and thus spreading knowledge all around the world.

Role of media

In general, “media” refers to various means of communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data, or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrowcasting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax, and internet. In the world of today, media has become as necessary as food and clothing. It has played significant as well as influential role in strengthening the society and making the world a global village. Media is considered as “mirror” of the modern society. The purpose of the media is to inform people about current, new affairs and to tell about the latest gossip and fashion. It also helps to form opinions and make judgements regarding various issues. It has become one way of trading and marketing of products and prejudices. It keeps people updated and informed about what is happening around them and the world. Media can be considered as “watch dog” of political democracy. It serves to reduce the communication gap between the audience, viewers and the media world. For the sake of publicity and selling, important figures, their lifestyles are usually targeted. But unfortunately, media these days has become a commercialized sector. Media has had a bad effect on a generation, mainly because, teenagers and children are strongly influenced by media. The media affects people’s perspective. I believe, if the media identifies its responsibility and work sincerely and honestly, and then it can serve as a great force in building the nation.

Michael Madhusudan Dutt

Michael Madhusudan Dutt, a popular Bengali poet and dramatist in the 19th-century, was born in Sagordari on the bank of the Kopotaksho River under Jessore district. From an early age, Dutt aspired to be an Englishman in form and manner. Though he was born in a sophisticated Hindu family, he took Christianity as a young man and adopted the first name Michael. In his childhood, he was recognised by his teachers as a precious child with a gift of literary talent. Since his adolescence he started believing that he was born on the wrong side of the planet, and that his society was unable to appreciate his intellect. He also believed that the West would be more receptive to his creative genius. Michael was an ardent follower of the famous English poet Lord Byron. So after adopting Christianity, he went to Europe and started composing poetry and drama almost entirely in English. They proved his higher level of intellectual ability. However, he failed to gain the right appreciation. With his utter frustrations he saw that he was not regarded as a native writer of English literature. Out of his frustration he composed a sonnet in Bangla “Kopotaksha Nad”, which earned him huge reputation in Bangla. Gradually he could realise that his true identity lies here in this Bengal and he was a sojourner in Europe. Afterwards he regretted his attraction for England and the Occident. He came to Bengal and devoted himself to Bangla literature from this period. He is the poet to write the first Bangla epic Meghand Badh Kabya. His lavish lifestyle, which included drinking, added to his financial difficulties and his health also began to fail. Sadly he died in 1873, and was given a Christian burial service.

 

 

 

Pastime or Leisure pursuit

Pastime is an interest or activity that somebody pursues in his or her spare time. Man is born to work. He needs to work to live. But at the same time he cannot work continuously. He needs leisure to be recharged. Human beings cannot be compared to machines. In order to earn their living, people all over the world lead a hectic and busy life. So, they need something else besides their work to be energized. The monotonous working hours load their brains with tiredness and stress. That is why they need pastimes. It refreshes them, at the same time it gives them a new life. There may be thousands types of pastimes all over the world. Many pastimes around the world are common to people no matter what their nationality or race. But some are not. However, whatever the country, one activity that is common to all is watching television. Bangladesh is a rural based country. So, most people pass their leisure either playing in the field or gossiping in the rural areas. But in the urban sites there are a number of pastimes. Reading story books, collecting stamps, gardening, playing some indoor and outdoor games are the types that teenagers usually do in their leisure. Now a days going to different clubs or hotels has become teenage craze. Some people have selected walking, sightseeing, fishing, cooking etc as their leisure activities. The types of pastimes may vary from person to person according to their taste and culture. But the reason behind leisure is the same. The only reason is to have relaxation and pleasure.

 

International Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day is celebrated to honor all mothers, thank them for their efforts in giving them life, raising them and being their constant support. Mothers Day came into being due to the efforts made by Ms Julia Ward Howe and Ms Anna Jarvis. In our country Mother’s Day is celebrated on the second Sunday of May with joy and devotion. In observance of the day discussion programs are organized by government and non-governmental organizations. Reception programs and cultural programs are organized to mark the day in the capital city. Television channels air special programs, and newspapers publish special features and columns to mark the day. Greeting cards, flowers and gifts featuring mothers are in high demand at the shops and markets.Young children get especially excited about Mother’s Day and put a lot of effort into making cards and presents for their Mums. For mothers, it is like having a second birthday. It is common for children to cook for their mother so she can have breakfast in bed. She also receives presents, flowers and cards. Mother is a creative and caring woman. She takes time to teach us things like how to read and how to write.  My mother cooked special dishes for us. Actually the celebration of Mother’s Day is the external expression of gratitude of a child to its loving mother.

 

May Day/ International Worker’s Day

May 1st, International Workers’ Day, commemorates the historic struggle of working people throughout the world, and is recognized in most countries. It is the day of establishing the legal right to the workers of the world. This day is memorable to the owners of the world for their defeat against the working class people. All  the  privileges  workers  enjoy  today came  about  due  to  the  sacrifice  of  the  workers  in 1886. The history behind it is very sorrowful. On May 3, 1886, some workers gathered in demand of a minimum wage, safety laws and eight hours work day. Police fired in the crowd of strikers at the Mc Comick Harvest Machine, Chicago. Here at least one person was killed and some others were seriously wounded. At the beginning of Industrial revolution people had to work long hours both by day and at night. It was simply inhuman. It stopped when all labourers stood up. The event of May Day 1886 is a  reminder  that  workers  will  continue  to  be  exploited  until  they  stand  up  and  speak  out  to  gain better  working  conditions,  better  pay  and  better  lives.  In fact, May Day is a milestone of snatching away the rights from the blood-sucking owners by the exploited workers of the cosmos. The sacrifices of so many people cannot be forgotten or we’ll end up fighting for those same gains all over again. This is why we should celebrate May Day with profound respect.

 

 

The 21st February/ International mother language day

21st February, a red letter day, is observed throughout the world as the international Mother Language Day as well as a Language Martyred Day or Shaheed Day. It is of special significance to the people of Bangladesh. On this day of 1952, our great Language Movement took place. It reminds us the struggle and sacrifice of the heroic sons Salam, Rafique, Jabber and many unanimous sacrificed their lives with a view to establishing our mother tongue as a state language. Since then we, the Bangladeshi observe this day with great admiration and solemnity. On this day, people wake up early in the morning. They put on a black badge to mark the day as a national mourning day. The day is declared as the Govt. holiday and on this day the National Flag remains half-mast. They walk to the Shahed Minar on the barefooted with flowers and wreaths in the hands. The offer flowers and wreaths on the foot of the Shahed Minar to show love and respect to the martyred heroes. They remain standing silently for some time. Many meetings and seminars are held. People also pray for the salvation of the souls of the martyrs throughout the country in the different religious institutions. Considering the sacrifice made by the martyrs, the UNESCO declared the day as an International Mother Language Day. It started in 1999 with the purpose of promoting linguistic and cultural diversity and multilingualism. Since then this day is observed throughout the world as recognition of every one’s language sovereignty. This day has a great impact on our national history as well. It paved the way of our national sovereignty.

Independence Day of Bangladesh

March 26, our Independence Day, is the biggest state festival. After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the West Pakistan rulers started to exploit শোষণ, cheat, and oppress জুলুম Bangladeshi people. After the massive attack beginning from the early hours of 26 March, 1971, the undisputed অবিসংবাদী leader of East Pakistan declared independence and told the countrymen to fight against the barbarian Pak Army. The day is celebrated every year in the country with great enthusiasm and fervour. As it is a national holiday, all offices, educational institutions, shops and factories remain closed on this day. People get up early morning by hearing the bombing sounds of gun. Coming with rallies and processions মিছিল, people of all walks of life place floral wreaths at the National Musolium at Savar to pay rich tributes শ্রোদ্ধাঞ্জলি to the martyrs who laid down their lives for the sake of our independence. The country also witness a smartly dressed parade of defence forces, border guards, police, ansars and the VDP at the National Parade Ground. School children, scouts and girl guides take part in various displays to entertain thousands of spectators. Besides, various cultural programmes throughout the day highlighting the heroic struggle and sacrifice in 1971, tournaments including the exciting boat race are organised throughout the country on the day. Milad Mahfil was organized by the different mosque especially in the National Mosque Baitul Mukarram. At night the main public buildings are tastefully illuminated আলোকিত to give the capital city a dazzling উজ্জ্বল look. This day certainly makes bridges between the spirit of Independence Day and the future generations. May Independence Day always be the spirit of prosperity of our nation.

My roots

 

Human beings have roots but unlike the roots of the trees. They are invisible and lie in our minds. Our families, land of birth, relatives, our culture, traditions, or surroundings are our roots. It’s these roots that make a bond between us and family members, inlaws, friends, neighbours or even between us and the land where we were born and grew up. It’s our roots that develop our identity making us what we are. And whereever we stay, we have a continuous pull of our roots. Eveyone wants to share happiness on different festivals with their near and dear ones. So most of the people, who are living outside their home for different reasons have a strong desire to get back home during the vacations. As a result, there is a mad rush in the buses, trains, or launches for the home-bound people. This often causes transport accidents that take away many lives. However, it cannot stop people’s desire to meet their family, in-laws, or friends. Due to this pull of the roots, people rush for their homes in spite of serious hazards. When we lose that bond, we become rootless. Human beings, who do not have any root or contexts, do not have their own identity. Such persons are devoid of values, humanity, and social responsibilities. They don’t know where they are from, and/or where they are heading towards. This often makes them feel empty and lost. So in spite of forgetting our roots, we should cherish it in our core of heart for our own existence.

 

Social network services

A social networking service is an online service provided to the public for social interaction between families, friends, and also for gaining new friends over the internet. The advantages of the Internet technology have made it possible to emerge a good number of web sites like Facebook, Google+, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. These services make it possible to connect people sharing interests and activities across the borders. They have made a lot for the users to feel that they really live in a global village. Social networks are expanding so fast because one can make use of them free, paying a very little to one’s Internet service provider. Secondly, one can make one’s personal profile public before the entire online community. It is like presenting oneself before the entire world. One can also look into other people’s profile if one is interested. It is simple and easy. Thirdly, social networks allow users to upload pictures, multimedia contents and modify the profile. Some like Facebook allow users to update their profiles. Fourthly, networks allow users to post blog entries. User profiles have a section dedicated to comments from friends and other users. Finally, there are privacy protection measures too. A user himself or herself decides over the number of visitors/ viewers, and what information should be shared with others. In short, the social network connects people with each other over the internet, along with businesses, educational institutions, health, and religious organizations all over the world.

 

 

War criminals

War criminals are those persons who literally engaged in mass-murder and stood with wrong side.  In 1971, our freedom fight took place.  Some  people  who are  Bangladeshi  by  birth  supported  Pakistan  and  butchered  our  innocent  people. They were known as Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams.  We got independence after 9 month’s long bloody war.  In  that  battle,  30  lacks  of  our  brother  sacrificed  their lives  and  2  lacks  of  our  sisters  are  raped.  But,  it  is  considered  excessive  if  we compare  the  time  length  and  victim  numbers.  It  was  happened  because  some unethical  countrymen  of  ours  thought  about  their  own  benefits  over  our  beloved country.  They helped Pakistani Army to brutalise our innocent people.  But, no punishment was given until 2013.  Some war criminals fled abroad.  Abdul Kalam Azad who was sentenced to death is thought to be in Pakistan. Another, however, Abdul  Quader  Mollah,  the  assistant  secretary  general  of  a  Muslim  party  which collaborated  with  the  genocidaires,  the  Jamaat  e-Islami,  was  given  life imprisonment. But, general public of Bangladesh is not happy about that. The want all of the Rajakars, Al-Badr, Al-Shams to be executed. For this, they have arranged a protest at “Shabagh Chattor”. Later, it was named “Shadinota Prjonmo Chattor”. It’s new movement for our country. Young people have come forward to eradicate all  injustice  by  taking  inspiration  from  the  freedom  fighters  of  1971.  If  they continue  their  good  work,  Bangladesh  will  be  Rajakars,  Al-Badr,  Al-Shams-Free one day.

 

 

Female Education

Female education is very essential for the overall development of a nation. More or less half of the population of a country is female. Leaving the female uneducated and unemployed, no nation can prosper. Once women were confined within the four walls of the house and were deprived of the light of education because of the prejudice, unconsciousness, superstition, obstacle by the fundamentalists and so on. But now it has changed a lot and women are getting educated gradually. The rate of female literacy is alarming because without their education, our satisfactory development is impossible. Napoleon Bonaparte said, “Give me an educated mother and I will give you an educated nation”. From this line we can easily realize the importance of female education. To be a conscious citizen of the country, to be an active member of the family and society, to be a good mother or wife and to lead a self-reliant better life, a woman should be educated properly. Besides, educated women have higher income potential than those who have had no schooling. Except the biological difference, a girl has every capacity to work and to achieve high position in life as a man can. An educated woman is conscious of her duties, rights and responsibilities. So, we should take every necessary step to ensure an environment to educate our female force. Parents ought to be encouraged to send their daughters to school. The govt. and NGO’s should patronize the education for girls in order that they can be educated and can play a vital role in the development of our country.

 

 

Digital Bangladesh

Digital Bangladesh means digitalizing Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line. Here all the possible tasks of government or semi-government will be performed using digital technology. The motto of digital Bangladesh is to establish technology based digital governance, e-commerce, e-agriculture, e-production, e-education etc. The benefits of digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a digital Bangladesh, corruption will be reduced radically.  It will make people think globally and connect them with the whole world economically, socially, politically, academically and even culturally.  It will improve our banking and financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce – all these sections will be highly benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. To make our country digital first of all, uninterrupted power supply has to be ensured and we have to develop computer network skill and ensure equitable access. Finally, our education should be computer based and in primary and secondary schools students should get easy access to the computer.   Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital transmission. We will be able to buy and sell goods through the electronic screen if we can make a Digital Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, encouraging development towards digitalization of Bangladesh by 2021 can be possible. The ambitious dream for a Digital Bangladesh will remain a dream if the government can not equip the people with the technology needed for establishing the digital era.     

Dialogue

A dialogue between you and the manager of a bank about opening a bank account.

 Myself : May I come in sir?

Manager             : Yes, of course.

Myself                   : Can I have a seat sir?

Manager             : Sure.

Myself                   : Thank you.

Manager             : Welcome. What can I do for you?

Myself                   : I want to open an account with your bank.

Manager             : Ok, it’s very good.

Myself                   : But I don’t know how to open an account sir.

Manager             : Will you tell me what kind of account you want to open?

Myself                   : Actually I have got a handsome amount of money as scholarship.

Manager             : And now you want to save it, OK?

Myself                   : Yes, you are right sir.

Manager             : I am giving you a form to fill it up. Just fill it up with the information required   in different serial. After filling up the form, come to me with two passport size photographs of you and another copy of photograph of your beneficiary.

Myself                   : What type of account am I going to open sir?

Manager             : It is a saving account.

Myself                   : Would you explain what is saving account?

Manager             : It means you can save any amount of money at any time and you can  withdraw any  amount        from your account at any time.

Myself                   : O, I see. Do I need to do anything more?

Manager             : Yes. You have to deposit an amount of initial money to open the account.

Myself                   : What is the amount sir?

Manager             : It may be at least one hundred or more than one hundred.

Myself                   : Thank you sir for your kind cooperation.

Manager             : You are most welcome.

 

Dialogue between two students about the last prize-giving ceremony in their school
Fuad – Sajid, what’s the matter? We were so sorry to miss you in the prize-giving ceremony.
Sajid- I am no less sorry. But mother met with an accident. It was necessary to take her to the hospital.
Fuad – I am very sorry to hear this. How is she now?
Sajid- A little better. No cause for anxiety now. Please tell me all about the function.
Fuad -Our school auditorium and its dais were brightly decorated. Prizes were also neatly displayed on a separate table on the dais.

Sajid-When did the function start?

Fuad – Oh, it started on time—just at 4 pm

Sajid-Who were present on the function?

Fuad- All the students, the guardians and some eminent persons of the locality

attended the function.

Sajid- What did our Head teacher do?

Fuad- Our Head teacher first read out the annual report.

Sajid-Who was the chief guest and what did he do?

Fuad- The principal of our College was the chief guest.

Sajid- How did you like the Chief Guest’s speech?
Fuad – It was short but very impressive speech. He spoke highly of the all- round progress of our school.
Sajid-Then what happened?

Fuad – Then the Chief Guest gave away the prizes among the students for their outstanding activities.

Sajid- Did you get any prize?

Fuad -Yes, I’ve got two prizes—one for regular attendance and the other for good results in the last year-ending exams.

Sajid-Is that all?

Fuad – It was really a grand success. Recitation, dance and drama were all excellent. These kept this audience almost spellbound.
Sajid- I’m really sorry that I missed such an important function of our school life. Now, good-bye.
Fuad – Good-bye, Sajid.

 

 

A dialogue between two friends about importance of games and sports

 

Abrar: Where are you going, Kushaf?

Kushaf: I am going to the club, Abrar.

A: What do you do there?

K: I play tennis there with my friend, Saba.

A: Do you play tennis every day?

K: Yes, It keeps my body and mind fit. Do you play any game Abrar?

A: Yes, Kushaf.

K: Which games do you play?

A: I play cricket and football to keep my body fit and healthy.

K: I think games are essential for good health.

A: You are right, Kushaf. Games are essential for everybody.

K: But some people do not play any game. They do not realize the importance of games.

A: But such people always suffer from one or the other ailment.

K: You are absolutely right, Abrar.

A: I think Kushaf, games should be made compulsory for the students.

K: I agree. Games will keep the students healthy and teach them discipline.

A: Discipline is very essential for the progress of an individual as well as the nation as a whole.

K: It is right said that all work and no play makes jack a dull boy.

A: According to a saying, only a healthy mind can realize God.

K: But a healthy mind can live only in a healthy body. For keeping a healthy body, games are very important.

A: Games also teach us the spirit of sportsmanship.

K: I agree with you. Games also develop the quality of leadership among the students.

A: Health is wealth, is an old saying. Therefore, to maintain our health we must play games.

K: Yes. You are right. May I take leave of you now? I am getting late for my tennis game.

A: With great pleasure. I don’t want to detain you.

K: See you again.

A: good bye.

K: Bye, bye.

 

Dialogue Between Two Friends on Food Adulteration

Raha: Hello Zarif! How are you?

Nitu: I am fine. What about you?

Raha: I am fine too. Have you seen the recent raid of mobile courts on food production houses?

Nitu: Yes, I think the mobile court is doing the right task to stop food adulteration.

Raha: Exactly! The adulteration of food is increasing beyond any limit. They are using chemicals to preserve food.

Nitu: Yes, and these chemicals are mainly used for industrial purposes. These chemicals can cause kidney damage, heart failure and various other diseases.

Raha: Yes, and it seems to me that the unscrupulous traders of our country don’t care even to kill innocent people to earn extra profit.

Nitu: You are right. However, this is not the only case of food adulteration of adult people. They are also mixing chemicals with baby foods.

Raha: Oh, my God! I see the situation is very terrible! They have become so heartless that they don’t even care about babies.

Nitu: Yes, nowadays fishes are adulterated with formalin, fruits are adulterated with carbide and edible oils are adulterated with cyanide.

Raha: But why these traders are adopting such malpractices in spite of knowing the worst consequences of massive food adulteration?

Nitu: It is very simple. They are dishonest and they can do everything for money.

Raha: They are very nasty and they have no moral character. They are enemies to humanity. However, this crime must be stopped at any cost.

Nitu: And we are helpless at the point of their clutch.

Raha: You’re mostly right. Our government is taking steps time to time but they are producing no result. Isn’t there any light of hope?

Nitu: Yes, there is. It is we who should be careful to choosing right foods as far as possible. The criminals have to be punished by law.

Raha: Your valuable words may make me wise.

Nitu: Absolutely! You are most welcome. See you again.

 

 

Dialogue between two friends on how to make good result in examination

 

Raha: Why do you look so dejected? Anything wrong?

Nusa: Nothing wrong, friend. When my examination approaches, my tension rises.

Raha: Oh, it’s a great wrong. Aren’t you well-prepared?

Nusa: I’m not happy about my results. I must do better.

Raha: Why are you so nervous? Please let me know your problem. It will be my pleasure if I can help you in any way.

Nusa: You can certainly help me. I want to make a good result as you made last year. Now I need to know the strategies you followed to make your brilliant result.

Raha: It is very simple. I think it is not unknown to you how to make a good result. There is no secret strategy at all, but you must follow certain rules.

Nusa: Okay! Please tell me about the rules I should follow.   

Raha: Firstly, you should study regularly. You must not cram anything without understanding. Then you should make your own notes and revise them frequently.

Nusa: Nice! What is your suggestion for English and Mathematics?

Raha: For English and Mathematics your proficiency will depend on constant practice. Every day you will have to take practice-test in writing. 

Nusa: Excellent! Is there anything more?

Raha: Yes, you should develop a habit of writing. Whatever you read, you must write it. It will give you manifolds benefits.

Nusa: Okay. Do you have any advice for examination?

Raha: Yes, you should budget your time for exams, makes your handwriting legible, and writes all answers. Avoid unnecessary topics in the answer scripts. 

Nusa: Thank you for your precious suggestions. I will surely follow these strategies.  

Raha: You are most welcome. Remember that there is no secret to make a good result but to study regularly.

 

 

A dialogue between you and the manager of a bank  about opening a bank account.

 Myself : Assalamu Alaikum

Manager : Walaikum Assalam

Myself : May I come in sir?

Manager : Yes, of course.

Myself : Can I have a seat sir?

Manager : Sure.

Myself : Thank you.

Manager : Welcome. What can I do for you?

Myself : I want to open an account with your bank.

Manager : Ok, it’s very good.

Myself : But I don’t know how to open an account sir.

Manager : Will you tell me what kind of account you want to open?

Myself : Actually I have got a handsome amount of money as scholarship.

Manager : And now you want to save it, OK?

Myself : Yes, you are right sir.

Manager : I am giving you a form to fill it up. Just fill it up with the information required   in different serial. After filling up the form, come to me with two passport size photographs of you and another copy of photograph of your beneficiary.

Myself : What type of account am I going to open sir?

Manager : It is a saving account.

Myself : Would you explain what is saving account?

Manager : It means you can save any amount of money at any time and you can  withdraw any  amount from your account at any time.

Myself : O, I see. Do I need to do anything more?

Manager : Yes. You have to deposit an amount of initial money to open the account.

Myself : What is the amount sir?

Manager : It may be at least one hundred or more than one hundred.

Myself : Thank you sir for your kind cooperation.

Manager : You are most welcome.

 

 

A dialogue between Evan and Daniel about the bad effect of smoking—

Rana: Hi, Let’s go to playground.

Rumi: Yes, I’m also waiting for you.

Rana: What about you? You aren’t going to school for a few days.

Rumi:Daniel: Just wait. Let me buy a cigarette from that shop.

Rana: What! Cigarette! Oh, yes. I’ve heard you have become a chain smoker nowadays.

Rumi: No brother. Not just so. I smoke now and then.

Rana: Why do you smoke? Don’t you know smoking is harmful for health?

Rumi: Oh, you don’t know. When you smoke, you look smart and full of personality. Smoking also removes tiredness.

Rana: But there are many bad effects of smoking. Don’t you know that? Smoking is like taking poison!

Rumi: What bad effect! Many a man is smoking everyday here and there.

Rana: It’s a false notion. People hate smokers. Besides, smoking the beginning of drug addiction.

Rumi: I didn’t think like you.

Rana : But it may cause you serious diseases like cancer, heart attack, bronchitis etc. It also damages your lung and causes lung cancer.

Rumi:I tried to give it up, but I could not. I cannot even concentrate on my study without smoking.
Rana : It you had thought seriously about its bad effect. You would not have study without anymore.
Rumi: That’s are heard, friend but nobody dies from smoking.

Rana: What! Nobody dies! According to World Health Organization (WHO) 5 million people die every year from tobacco related illness. That is about one person is dying in every 6 second. Smokers are likely to die at least 10 years earlier than the non-smokers.

Rumi: Really! In true sense, I never thought so much. Moreover I never knew such a dangerous effect of smoking. I just started to smoke out of curiosity.

Rana: And this curiosity is spoiling your character and gradually leading you to death.

Rumi: Sure, Evan. I promise I’ll give up smoking from this very day. You have saved me from a great danger.

Rana:  Never indulge such a bad habit rather you should persuade people not to smoke.

Rumi: Thank you very much for you valuable advice.

Rana:You are most welcome. I have go now.

Rumi: Ok bye. See you later.

 

A dialogue between Sujan and Ashik about importance of English:

Opu: Hello Jack,

Sam: Eating apple.

Opu:  Tell me about your exam result in detail.

Sam: Sorry friend; I think if there were no subject named English in the school syllabus.

Opu:  What! You failed in English? Listen, you may be promoted to next class failing in English but how will you pass the test of life without English?

Sam: What do you mean by this?

Opu:  I mean you cannot expect to build up a better life with a better career without the knowledge of English?

Sam: Why?

Opu: Nice! Actually English is essential in our every walk of life.

Sam: Of course. It is an international language. In this age of globalization, it plays an important role for communication in the present world. So, learning English is a must.

Opu: But it is unfortunate that we are neglecting it. For that we are lagging behind than our neighbours.

Sam: Oh! It is really disgraceful. This situation must be changed if we want to keep pace with the modern world.

Opu: Right you are. Our international relations and trade would be affected much if we do not learn English well.

Sam: Exactly. Besides, without efficiency in English none can expect to receive higher studies as all the books on higher education are written in English.

Opu: Yes, it is only English that can help us to enter the storehouse of knowledge. 

Sam: Absolutely. But it is a matter of shame that most of the university graduates lack proper knowledge on English.

Opu: Exactly, and as a result they are being deprived of getting good job and receiving handsome salary.

Sam: Right you are. A sound command over English is a prerequisite for good job and good salary.

Opu: Undoubtedly. In fact, the importance of learning this language cannot be described in words. We must study and practice English seriously. Thank you.

Sam: You are most welcome. Good bye.

 

 

 

 

1. Dialogue between two students about their hobbies

       Nuri                 : Hello, Rahi, why do you collect stamps of different countries?

       Rahi                 : Oh! Hi, Nuri. I’m collecting them to enrich my collection.

       Nuri                 : What do you mean?

       Rahi                 : Actually collecting stamps is my hobby.

       Nuri                 : Why do you like collecting stamps?

       Rahi                  : As stamps contain pictures of great men, historic places, it gives me immense pleasure and can satisfy my curiosity

                                    to know more.

       Nuri                 : It’s vast educative value. It’s a storehouse of knowledge of geography and history.

       Rahi                 : What is your hobby?

       Nuri                 : My hobby is quite different from you.

       Rahi                  : What is it?  

       Nuri                  : It’s Photography. Father presented me a camera with that I’ve taken photos of our family and beautiful natural

                                   scenery. I’ve preserved them in the album.

       Rahi                   : It’s a very interesting hobby.

       Nuri                   : Yeah, your hobby is not less interesting. It makes me feel happy and proud when I see my previous pictures.

       Rahi                  : I appreciate your hobby. It can certainly help to visualize about your past.

       Nuri                 : It’s getting late. I’ll go now.

       Rahi                : When will we meet again?

       Nuri                : I’m coming again tomorrow. Thank you.

       Rahi                 : Most welcome. 

     2. Conversation between a doctor and a patient

Mim                 : Good morning, Doctor.
Doctor             : Good morning, how can I help you?
Mim                 : Actually doctor, since last two days I’m having a stomach pain.
Doctor             : Ok, tell me where exactly you feel pain.
Mim                 : It’s somewhat near lower abdomen.
Doctor             : Is it a severe pain or just a light pain?
Mim                 : I mean sometimes it is severe and sometimes mild.
Doctor             : Now tell me what you’ve taken for two days before?
Mim                 : I went to a feast day before yesterday and I’d heavy dinner there.
Doctor             : Do you feel like eating anything?
Mim                 : No doctor.
Doctor             : I think it’s minor stomach infection. I’m prescribing some medicine for 5 days and you’ll feel better.

Mim                 : But how long do I need to be at home? My school exam will start from next week.
Doctor             : Don’t worry. You can hopefully join your regular classes from the next day.

Mim                 : How much shall I pay you doctor?

Doctor             : 500 taka only.

Mim                 : Here it is, please.

Doctor             : It’s all right.

Mim                 : Thank you doctor. I shall see you tomorrow with my blood report.

Doctor             : Ok. See you again.

3. Dialogue about how to eradicate the illiteracy problem from Bangladesh

Sourav             : Hi Srijon, how are you?

Srijon               : I’m fine. And you?

Sourav             : I’m so but thinking seriously over a problem.

Srijon               : What’s about? Can I share you?

Sourav             : Of course. It’s about illiteracy which is the biggest problem of Bangladesh.

Srijon               : Undoubtedly. Without education no nation can reach the culmination of success.

Sourav             : Real peace and prosperity lie in education. But we’re educationally backward.

Srijon               : Where is the solution?

Sourav             : Necessary measures must be taken from government level to uproot it.

Srijon               : Is it possible for government only to spread this mammoth task?

Sourav             : The educated along with mass people can contribute a lot in this sector.

Srijon               : I also think so. But our country is poor. What will the poor section do?

Sourav             : Primary education should be made free and compulsory for all.

Srijon               : Board book must be distributed upto graduation level. Tuition fees can be decreased proportionately.

Sourav             : What can be done if they’re unwilling to send their children to school?

Srijon               : Food for education programme has to be commenced to inspire them to attend school.

Sourav             : We can also teach the illiterate adult to be educated.

Srijon               : Good idea. Mass media should play their active role to a great extent.

Sourav             : Exactly. Let’s try to materialize it.

Srijon               : Thank you.

Sourav            : Ok. See you again.

 

 

   4. Dialogue between a customer and bookseller in connection with buying books

     Owner              : Good afternoon. Can I help you, please?

     Customer         : Yes. I need a few books.

     Owner              : What kind of books?

     Customer         : It’s mainly children’s storybooks.

     Owner              : Ok, do you have any particular name?

     Customer         : Yes, I do. I want “Harry Porter.”

     Owner              : Yes, we have those. I’ll just get them for you.

      Customer         : Thank you so much. Do you have “Gulliver’s Travels?”

     Owner              : Umm… Do you know who the author is?

     Customer         : Jonathan Swift who is liked very much by me.

     Owner              : Oh! Yes, we have those. He is very popular with children.

     Customer         : I also like him very much.

     Owner              : Will there be anything else?

     Customer         : Can I have “Faire Queen” written by Herbert Spenser?

     Owner              : It is unavailable now. But you can have it from here within next week.

     Customer         : How much will it cost?

     Owner              : Only 750 taka.

     Customer         : Ok. That’s all for the moment.

     Owner              : Here is your bill, Sir.

     Customer         : Thank you very much.

     Owner              : You’re most welcome.

     5. Dialogue between two friends about the importance of tree plantation

     Rakib               : Hello Anis, how are you?

     Anis                  : Oh, I’m fine. You?

     Rakib               : I’m fine too. But I’m concerned about our environment.

     Anis                 : What’s wrong with our environment? Please make it clear.

     Rakib               : We’ve frequent floods, cyclones and droughts in our country. Don’t these make you think over our environment?

     Anis                 : Yes. But what can we do against these natural forces?

     Rakib               : Indiscriminate cutting down of trees are responsible for this terrible situation.

     Anis                 : How funny!

     Rakib               : It is the root cause of global warming and most other natural disasters. Our ecological balance is seriously being

                                  disturbed for this.

     Anis                 : We obtain oxygen, food, shelter, furniture, raw material, shade etc from trees.

     Rakib               : It is an integral part of human life to survive in this world.

     Anis                 : Desertification and irregular rainfall can even be caused due to deforestation.

     Rakib               : Then what should we do now?

     Anis                 : It’s very clear. We must plant more and more trees if we really want to have a suitable earth for living.

     Rakib               : I agree with you. From now on I’ll utilize the unused land to plant trees.

     Anis                 : I’ll suggest people to plant two trees if they cut one.

     Rakib               : People have to be made aware of the importance of afforestation through mass media, seminar and    discussion.

     Anis                 : Yes. We along with other school going children can take the responsibility.

     Rakib               : Planting trees in our school campus, we can start this programme.

     Anis                 : Besides it is time to declare tough punishment for them who are engaged in destroying forests.

     Rakib               : Thank you so much. Bye.

     6. Dialogue between father and son on the choice of career

      Father              : Congrats! I’ve been so much pleased that you’ve successfully passed in the exam with GPA 5.

     Son                   : Thanks a lot. This success lies in the mercy of Allah and your well wishes.

      Father              : Have you any dream or a vision of what you intend to do or become in future.

   Son                   : Father, it’s up to you. I’ll always show respect to your decision.

     Father              : In choosing a career, you see whether it suits your temperament or not. But I want to know your mind first.

    Son                   : My choice must be to your liking. I want to be a Computer Engineer, if you agree.

   Father              : Why have you determined to be so?

   Son                   : Our country now needs engineers in large numbers for nations-building and defense works.

     Father              : Yes, it is an excellent profession. Your grandfather himself belongs to that profession.

     Son                   : Only engineers can bring about a revolutionary social reform through their innovation.

     Father              : But have you thought over the hard work to turn ambition into reality?

     Son                   : Yes, I think no work is too hard for me in this profession. I shall leave no stone unturned.

     Father              : Excellent! I agree with you whole-heartedly.

     Son                   : Please, pray for me so that I can sustain your faith upholding your dignity.

     Father              : Be prepared to get yourself admitted into a university.

     Son                   : But it means additional expense to pay coaching fees.

     Father              : Oh, no, my boy. I will gladly bear all expenses in this regard, as I know all my money will be well spent.

     Son                   : You are so kind to me father.        

     Father              : And you are so good to us, dear son.

 

 

A dialogue between you and the manager of a bank  about opening a bank account.

 Myself : Assalamu Alaikum

Manager : Walaikum Assalam

Myself : May I come in sir?

Manager : Yes, of course.

Myself : Can I have a seat sir?

Manager : Sure.

Myself : Thank you.

Manager : Welcome. What can I do for you?

Myself : I want to open an account with your bank.

Manager : Ok, it’s very good.

Myself : But I don’t know how to open an account sir.

Manager : Will you tell me what kind of account you want to open?

Myself : Actually I have got a handsome amount of money as scholarship.

Manager : And now you want to save it, OK?

Myself : Yes, you are right sir.

Manager : I am giving you a form to fill it up. Just fill it up with the information required   in different serial. After filling up the form, come to me with two passport size photographs of you and another copy of photograph of your beneficiary.

Myself : What type of account am I going to open sir?

Manager : It is a saving account.

Myself : Would you explain what is saving account?

Manager : It means you can save any amount of money at any time and you can  withdraw any  amount from your account at any time.

Myself : O, I see. Do I need to do anything more?

Manager : Yes. You have to deposit an amount of initial money to open the account.

Myself : What is the amount sir?

Manager : It may be at least one hundred or more than one hundred.

Myself : Thank you sir for your kind cooperation.

Manager : You are most welcome.

 

 

A dialogue between Evan and Daniel about the bad effect of smoking—

Rana: Hi, Let’s go to playground.

Rumi: Yes, I’m also waiting for you.

Rana: What about you? You aren’t going to school for a few days.

Rumi:Daniel: Just wait. Let me buy a cigarette from that shop.

Rana: What! Cigarette! Oh, yes. I’ve heard you have become a chain smoker nowadays.

Rumi: No brother. Not just so. I smoke now and then.

Rana: Why do you smoke? Don’t you know smoking is harmful for health?

Rumi: Oh, you don’t know. When you smoke, you look smart and full of personality. Smoking also removes tiredness.

Rana: But there are many bad effects of smoking. Don’t you know that? Smoking is like taking poison!

Rumi: What bad effect! Many a man is smoking everyday here and there.

Rana: It’s a false notion. People hate smokers. Besides, smoking the beginning of drug addiction.

Rumi: I didn’t think like you.

Rana : But it may cause you serious diseases like cancer, heart attack, bronchitis etc. It also damages your lung and causes lung cancer.

Rumi:I tried to give it up, but I could not. I cannot even concentrate on my study without smoking.
Rana : It you had thought seriously about its bad effect. You would not have study without anymore.
Rumi: That’s are heard, friend but nobody dies from smoking.

Rana: What! Nobody dies! According to World Health Organization (WHO) 5 million people die every year from tobacco related illness. That is about one person is dying in every 6 second. Smokers are likely to die at least 10 years earlier than the non-smokers.

Rumi: Really! In true sense, I never thought so much. Moreover I never knew such a dangerous effect of smoking. I just started to smoke out of curiosity.

Rana: And this curiosity is spoiling your character and gradually leading you to death.

Rumi: Sure, Evan. I promise I’ll give up smoking from this very day. You have saved me from a great danger.

Rana:  Never indulge such a bad habit rather you should persuade people not to smoke.

Rumi: Thank you very much for you valuable advice.

Rana:You are most welcome. I have go now.

Rumi: Ok bye. See you later.

 

A dialogue between Sujan and Ashik about importance of English:

Opu: Hello Jack,

Sam: Eating apple.

Opu:  Tell me about your exam result in detail.

Sam: Sorry friend; I think if there were no subject named English in the school syllabus.

Opu:  What! You failed in English? Listen, you may be promoted to next class failing in English but how will you pass the test of life without English?

Sam: What do you mean by this?

Opu:  I mean you cannot expect to build up a better life with a better career without the knowledge of English?

Sam: Why?

Opu: Nice! Actually English is essential in our every walk of life.

Sam: Of course. It is an international language. In this age of globalization, it plays an important role for communication in the present world. So, learning English is a must.

Opu: But it is unfortunate that we are neglecting it. For that we are lagging behind than our neighbours.

Sam: Oh! It is really disgraceful. This situation must be changed if we want to keep pace with the modern world.

Opu: Right you are. Our international relations and trade would be affected much if we do not learn English well.

Sam: Exactly. Besides, without efficiency in English none can expect to receive higher studies as all the books on higher education are written in English.

Opu: Yes, it is only English that can help us to enter the storehouse of knowledge. 

Sam: Absolutely. But it is a matter of shame that most of the university graduates lack proper knowledge on English.

Opu: Exactly, and as a result they are being deprived of getting good job and receiving handsome salary.

Sam: Right you are. A sound command over English is a prerequisite for good job and good salary.

Opu: Undoubtedly. In fact, the importance of learning this language cannot be described in words. We must study and practice English seriously. Thank you.

Sam: You are most welcome. Good bye.

 

Now, write a dialogue between two friends about how to do well in the examination.

Hassan                        :   Hi, how are you?

Kamal             :   Very well. Thank you. And how about you?

Hassan                        :    Fine, thanks.

Kamal             :   The exam is drawing near. I’m not well prepared for it. So I’ve study hard now. How have you prepared yourself?

Hassan            :   Not as bad as you say.

Kamal             :    You’ve always been on top in your exams. What’s the secret of your brilliant results?

Hassan                        :    Tell me about those things, will you?

Kamal             :    Certainly.

Hassan                        :   To do well in the exam you have to study regularly. You must not cram anything without.

                             understanding. You should make your own notes and revise them frequently

Kamal             :    Good. Have any advice for me.

Hassan                        :    The thing which you need to do most is to have a fairly good command over language.

Kamal             :   Thank you.

Hassan                        :   Come to my house everyday. I’ll try to explain away your difficulties.

Kamal               :    I’ll certainly go to yours. Mother will be very glad to hear of your proposal.
Hassan             :   Then comes from tomorrow. It’s getting dark. Let us now go home.
Kamal               :    Thank you, for your kind offer.
Hassan             :    I’ll glad to help a friend if I can.
Kamal              :    Good-bye!