Linkers/connecters

  1. A lion was drinking water from a brook. (a)  a lamb was also drinking water from the downstream of the same brook. The lion saw the lamb and decided to devour it. (b)  he was thinking about how to accomplish his evil design. (c)  he hit upon a plan. (d)  the lion complained that the lamb was disturbing him by muddying water. But the lamb said that he was drinking water from downstream. (e)  the questions of muddying water on his part did not arise. (f)  the lamb argued that it was the lion that was muddying the water for him as he was drinking water upstream. (g)  the lion retorted that the lamb spoke oil of him a year ago. (h)  the lamb said that he was not born a year ago. The lion grew into a rage. (i)  he said that perhaps his father spokes ill of him last year. (j)  the lion had the right to take revenge and kill the lamb.
  2. There have been significant changes in the types of entertainment over time. Many of these no longer exist. (a)  they do, people keep looking for newer forms of entertainment. (b)  snake charming, puppet shows, jatra, jarigan, sharigan and kabigan which were common forms of entertainment in the past, have almost lost of their appeal. (c) , radio used to be a good source of entertainment. (d)  it is giving place to television and to satellite channels in particular. (e) , the entertainment business, like other spheres of life, is getting westernized. (f) , folk music or palligeeti is now sung with western instruments. (g) , modern music is now fusing melodies from folk and traditional songs. (h) , band and pop music is becoming more and more popular particularly among the young generation. (i)  sport has become a great source of entertainment today. (j)  football, which used to be the most popular spectator sport in Bangladesh is gradually being replaced by cricket.
  3. A thing of beauty is a joy forever. (a)  a flower is a symbol of beauty and purity. Its sweet smell attracts one to all. (b)  flower cultivation was very rare in our country. (c)  the scenario has changed. (d)  many people cultivate flowers not only for enjoying their beauty but also for earning money. (e)  in big cities and towns many flower shops have flourished. Different kinds of flowers are sold there. (f)  the demand of flowers is increasing day by day. (g)  they are of great use to us. (h)  we keep flowers in flower vase to beautify our drawing room. (i)  during marriage ceremony we decorate gate and vehicle with flowers. Thirdly, we express our love and affection towards anyone with flowers. (j)  the use of flowers is very great.
  4. Food adulteration is a social problem. There is hardly any food that is not adulterated. (a) , a business syndicate is involved in this. (b) , they are bringing national health to the edge of death. (c) , people taking adulterated food will become gradually sick. (d) , they will suffer from many complicated diseases. (e) , they will die. (f) , food adulteration has reached in an alarming state in our country. (g) , the authority concerned is playing a silent role. (h) , laws regarding this crime are not so strict. (i) , this crime is going to be out of control. (j) , steps must be taken against this heinous crime to save our life.
  5. Happiness lies in the mind of a man (a)  beauty lies in the eyes of a beholder. (b)  we can say (c)  happiness comprises a state of mind. A poor man can be happy with one lakh Taka (d)  it has no importance for a millionaire. (e) , the source of happiness lies in us. (f)  we do good work (g)  gives happiness to others, our own happiness also increases by leaps and bounds. One way of doing this is to find out and go out to those (h)  may be in need of our help. The highest form of happiness is derived when we help others (i)  make them happy. (j)  in every religion, great importance is put on the service of mankind.

Answers
1. (a) as;  (b) so;   (c) that; (d) while;   (e) in fact;  (f) if;  (g) which;  (h) who;  (i) and;  (j) therefore/so

  1. (a) in fact;  (b) by doing so;   (c) certainly; (d) and;   (e) eventually;  (f) at present;  (g) but;   (h)

sorrowfully;  (i) as such;   (j) so/ therefore  

  1. (a) likewise;  (b) in the past;   (c) at present; (d) now;   (e)  recently;  (f) as a result;  (g) truly

speaking;   (h) firstly;  (i) secondly;  (j) so/hence

  1. (a) even if;  (b) thus;   (c) once; (d) but now;   (e)  at present;  (f) consequently; (g) moreover;   (h) nowadays;  (i) besides/also;  (j) but
  2. (a) incidentally;  (b) so;   (c) then; (d) at first;   (e)  so;  (f) instead;  (g) then;
    (h) again;  (i) therefore;  (j) so

  1. Honesty is a noble virtue. The man (a) — possesses this rare quality is the happiest man on earth. To be honest, a man should have trustworthiness (b) — nobody trusts a liar. A liar may prosper for the time being, (c) — ultimately he goes to the dogs. (d) — we should be honest. It is said that honesty is the best policy (e) — dishonesty is the sign of downfall. God helps those who are honest. (f) — dishonest people are cursed; Childhood is the best time (g) — children should be taught honesty. It is said (h) ? children should be allowed to mix with those friends (i) — are honest. (j) — the can mould their characters.
    2. Many years ago there lived a king named Soloman. He was very wise and helped people in many ways. (a) —, his name and fame spread far and wide. The Queen of Sheba heard about the name and fame of king Soloman. (b) —, she could not believe that he was so wise and wealthy. (c) —, she decided to visit his country and meet him personally. (d) —, the queen came to king Soloman’s palace. She brought with her hundred servants who carried many fine presents. (e) —, she brought with her some artificial flowers that were mixed with some real flowers. (f) —, the flowers were beautiful and looked alike. (g) —, the queen asked the courtiers to find out the real ones. They took time and watched the flowers minutely. (h) —, they failed to differentiate. (i) —, King Soloman watched some bees flying over some flowers. (j) —, he realized those flowers to be real.
    3. The greatness of a book depends (a) — on the acceptability among readers. (b) — we read a book just once, we can discover many things in it. (c) — basing on one reading, we cannot judge the standard of a book. (d) — a book is praised (e) —, we have no doubt about the greatness of the book. (f) — the first reading we may not understand a book. But if we read more than once, we will see (g) — it was read (h) — praised. (i) — the great books are those (j) — have passed the test of time.
    4. Everybody wants to be happy in life. Happiness is a relative term. (a) — it depends upon some factors. (b) — contentment is the key to happiness. Contentment varies from person to person. (c) — a beggar may be contented with only ten taka (d) — a wealthy man may be unsatisfied even after getting one million taka. (e) — it is said that contentment brings happiness. (f) — we must learn to be contented with what we have. (g) — this learning is the simplest way to remain happy. (h) — we must remember that our life is short and in this short life, we cannot get everything (i) — we want. If we want everything, we will not get happiness. (j) —– we will get frustrated and plunge into the world of sadness.
    5. Trees are a vital part of our environment, (a) —, they bear a great impact on the climate. (b) — we are not careful about them. (c) —, we destroy trees at random. (d) —, one day the country will bear the consequence of greenhouse effect. (e) — ours is an agricultural country, our economy depends upon it. (f) —, our agriculture is dependent on rain, (g) — trees play a vital role on our climate, (h) —, trees keep the soil strong. (i) —, trees save us from flood (j) — many other natural calamities.

 Answers

  1. (a) who;  (b) because;   (c) but; (d) so; (e) whereas;  (f) moreover;  (g) therefore; (h) hence; (i) in addition;  (j) thus
  2. (a) so;  (b) but;   (c) therefore; (d) accordingly;   (e) besides;  (f) that;  (g) then;   (h) but; (i) suddenly;  (j) thus  
  3. (a) mainly/actually/generally;  (b) if;   (c) only/for; (d) but;   (e) if/when;  (f) highly;  (g) through;   (h) why;  (i) and;  (j) which
  4. (a) so/therefore; (b) in fact/in the true sense;   (c) for example/for instance; (d) on the other hand/on the contrary/ but; (e) so/for this reason/this is why; (f) hence; (g) in fact;   (h) in this case/in

this respect; (i) naturally/it is used that; (j) however  

  1. (a) in fact; (b) so; (c) in course of time; (d) besides; (e) then; (f) consequently; (g) however; (h) true

that; (i) at the same time;  (j) moreover

 

  1. Bangladesh is mainly an agricultural country. (a) , her economy and prosperity depend on agriculture. (b) , our agriculture depends on the mercy of nature. (c) , if there is sufficient rain, people can plough their lands and sow seeds in time. (d) , they can reap a good harvest. (e)  if it does not rain in time, the farmers cannot grow the crops easily and they do not have good harvest. (f) , without water our agriculture is lifeless. The rain is not always beneficial to our agriculture (g) —, sometimes it rains so much that it causes floods. (h) —, our crops go under water and most often, they are totally destroyed. (i) , the farmers who constitute the most part of our professional people, lose everything. (j) , we can safely conclude that our economy depends on rain.
  2. Deforestation means cutting down trees or destruction of trees at random. (a) — it endangers our life. There are many factors behind this destruction. (b) — our population is increasing by leaps and bounds. (c) — there is excessive pressure on land. (d) — our carelessness is mainly responsible for this destruction. (e) — the additional population requires more land for settlement and agricultural cultivation. (f) — with the increase of population infrastructure facilities are getting increased. (g) — land areas are decreasing and land for trees and forests are getting decreased day by day. (h) — people are destroying trees for cooking food, making brick and melting pitch etc. (i) — deforestation causes increase of carbon dioxide, global warming and ecological imbalance. (j) — there are natural disasters including flood, cyclone, tidal surge etc.
  3. Drug addiction is a curse in modern age. (a) —, it is the habit of using un-prescribed medicine for exciting feelings. (b) —, drug addiction is found among the young generation. (c) —, it has engulfed the whole nation. (d) —, people of all ages have fallen victim to this dangerous diseases. (e) — drugs create some kind of dream-like feelings, the drug takers forget everything for the time being. (f) —, the influence of drugs also causes long sleep to the drug addicts. (g) —, the after effects of drug addiction are many. (h) —, it is harmful not only to the addicts but also to the whole society. (i) — drug taking is a diseases, there should be given treatment to cure the addicts. (j) —, parents and responsible authorities should be more alert to cure drug addiction.
  4. Students have certain duties towards the country, (a) —, they must contribute to the eradication of illiteracy. During the vacation they can go to villages and teach the illiteracy people. (b) —, they can make a literate nation and ensure a considerable development. (c) —, the students have to create awareness among the common people about the basic rules of health and sanitation. (d) —, it will have an enormous effect on the overall development of the country. (e) —, the students should teach the illiterate farmers about the scientific methods of cultivation. (f) —, they should take part in voluntary service during the crisis periods of a country. (g) —, the students should prepare themselves as the future leaders of the country. They must be serious in this matter. (h) —, they will fail to prepare themselves. (i) —, the country will not see the light of development. (j) —, the students are the most vital element of a country and their development means the development of the country.
    5. Time and tide wait for none (a)  no one can stop the march of time. (b)  we should not waste a single moment in vain (c)  we should make the proper use of very single moment of our life. (d)  the students should understand the value of time. Some students pass away their valuable time in Face book. (e)  they kill their time (f)  they cannot prepare their lessons well. (g)  they always have a poor preparation for the exam. (h)  they cannot do well in the exam. (i)  they don’t stop wasting time (j)  they continue to waste their time using Face book till it is too late for them.

Answers
1. (a) so;  (b) again/but;   (c) hence; (d) as a result;   (e)  but/ on the other hand;  (f) true that/ in

fact;  (g) for example/for instance;   (h) that is why/ as a result;  (i) consequently;  (j) therefore

  1. (a) as a result/consequently;  (b) firstly;   (c) as a result;(d) but;   (e) true that;  (f) at the same

time;  (g) consequently;   (h) moreover;  (i) but; (j) consequently  

  1. (a) in fact;  (b) however;   (c) at present; (d) moreover/ and;   (e)  as;  (f) at the same time;  (g)

besides;   (h) in fact;  (i) as;  (j) above all

  1. (a) firstly;  (b) thus;   (c) secondly;(d) because;   (e) at  the same

time;  (f)thirdly;  (g)finally;   (h)otherwise;  (i) consequently;  (j) so  

  1. (a) that is why/truly;  (b) so;   (c) rather/instead; (d) specially;   (e)  virtually/as a matter of fact;  

(f) consequently;  (g) therefore;   (h) as a result/ consequently;  (i) yet;  (j) rather

 

 

 

 

Sentence Connectors

  1. Mobile phone has become an essential gadget for everybody. (a) — it has become very popular. (b) — it has created a number of problems. It has (c) — advantages (d) — disadvantages. (e) — it helps to connect people. (f) — it helps to exchange information (g) — it can be used for various purpose. (h) — it has a few disadvantages. (i) — it can cause a lot of troubles. (j) — its advantages are more than its disadvantages.
  2. The gifts of science are uncountable. (a) — we cast our eyes, we see the wonders of science. Satellite TV channels are means through (b) — we can see and hear the events (c) — are happening all over the world. (d) —, today we have specialized satellite channels on almost every interest. (e) —, people now have more choices and more freedom about television programmes. Satellite channels help us a lot by reporting on climatic conditions of different parts of the world. (f) —, we can be aware of storms, cyclones and tidal bores, (g) — satellite channels are helping us to a great extent to enrich our own culture and tradition. (h) — satellite channels are playing a favourable role, it is (i) — doing harm to our young and new generation. (j) — still we cannot deny the immense benefits we are getting from satellite channels.
  3. Illiteracy is a great problem in Bangladesh. Most of the people of our country cannot read or write. (a) — the literacy rate in Bangladesh is too low. (b) — it is too poor to be imagined. Illiteracy hampers the development of our country. (c) —, illiteracy helps creating other problems like poverty, unemployment and terrorism. (d) —, there are many reasons responsible for illiteracy. (e) —, we can mention poverty. (f) —, it is the cause. (g) —, we can talk about ignorance and superstition. Unfortunately, most of the people do not have any idea about the importance of education. (h) —, they are reluctant to send their children to school. (i) —, we can mention the limitations of our government and poor infrastructure of our country. (j) —, we should work together to increase the literacy rate of our country.
  4. Once a crow became thirsty (a) — it was a very hot summer day. (b) —, it flew one place to another in search of water, (c) — it did not find any water to drink. (d) — being dejected it decided to fly away to another place. (e) — it noticed a jar in a garden. (f) — it flew to the jar. There was some water in the jar. (g) —, it was at the bottom and out of its reach. (h) —, it did not lose hope. It noticed a heap of pebbles nearby. (i) — it dropped the pebbles into the jar one by one. (j) —, the water came to the mouth of the jar and the crow drank to its fill.
  5. Soil is necessary for life (a) — most of our foods come from soil. It is true (b) — some of us eat meat. (c) — meat comes from animals that live on plants (d) — again grow on soil. (e) — we do not give food to soil, plants will become weak. (f) — natural and inorganic manure are necessary for cultivation. (g) — compost manure is widely used in cultivation. (h) — agriculture scientists discourage the farmers to use pesticides, (i) — they opt for a method of catching pests in traditional way. (j) — it is not so popular.

Answers
1. (a) as; (b) but/however; (c) both ; (d) and ;   (e) firstly; (f) secondly;  (g) furthermore;   (h)

however;  (i) which;  (j) yet

  1. (a) wherever;  (b) which;   (c) that; (d) in fact/really; (e) therefore;  (f) thus; (g) in addition/

moreover/besides; (h) though/although; (i) also;  (j) but  

  1. (a) so;  (b) actually; (c) besides; (d) however; (e) for example; (f) in fact;  (g) moreover;   (h) hence;  (i) again; (j) however
  2. (a) because/as;  (b) that is why; (c) but; (d) however/at last;   (e) suddenly; (f) soon;  (g) alas/unluckily;  (h) but;  

(i) then;  (j) as a result

  1. (a) because;  (b) that;   (c) but; (d) which;   (e) if;  (f) so/therefore;  (g) nowadays; (h) moreover;  (i)

and;  (j) but

 

Sentence Connectors

  1. Dowry is a social curse. This system prevails in our society. (a) —, there is no written statement about this system. (b) — it is available in our society. (c) —, it is a tradition that exposes our narrow mentality. (d)  — , it is an inhuman torture for both the brides and their guardians. (e) — , the bridals guardians have to suffer a lot to meet up the demand of the bridegroom. (f) — , the brides are to undergo mental and even physical torture in their law’s houses for being unable to pay the dowry. (g) —, this social curse must be removed. (h) — , laws against dowry should be enforced strictly. (i) — , female education should be ensured and more employment opportunities have to be created. (j) — , public awareness should be increased.
  2. Man is a social being. (a) — , man cannot live alone. (b) — , man has been living together from time immemorial. Living in society is not an easy task. If we want to live in a society, we have to follow certain rules and regulations of that society. (c) —, we have to be cooperative. (d) — , we must help others when they need it. (e) —, we have to be careful not to hurt others by our words or activities. (f) — , we must control our emotions and behave well with others. (g) —, we should not think and live only for us. (h) —, we should always work for the betterment of the society. (i) —, we should sacrifice our lives for others. (j) — , sacrificing our lives for others can make us immortal.
  3. Smoking in public place is strictly prohibited in some Asian countries. (a) — , Bangladesh Government has made a ban on smoking in public place. (b) — , smoking is very injurious to our health, life and environment. (c) — it is a very dangerous habit. (d) — it can cause fatal diseases like bronchitis, cancer, tuberculosis, high blood pressure, kidney and heart diseases (e) —  it also pollutes our environment. (f) — a smoker can harm a noon smoker. (g) —  in my family, there is not a single smoker. (h) — the environment of our home always remains fresh. (i) — some people think smoking is a part of fashion. (j) — they completely wrong.
  4. Nelson Mendela was the greatest leader of South Africa. (a) —,  he was one of the greatest leaders of the world. All his life, he struggled against apartheid. The Europeans were separated from the non-Europeans (b) — it was the government policy of racial segregation. (c) — , the blacks were treated cruelly. (d) — , they were denied all basic human rights. (e) — , the blacks were subjected to all sorts of indignities. (f) — dogs received a much better treatment than the blacks. (g) —, they were aliens in their own country. (h) — , the great leader vowed to put an end to the inhuman practice. He was thrown behind the prison bars. (i) — , the oppressive rulers could not break his spirit. (j) — , the great realized the goal of liberating his own people.
  5. (a) — I was walking along the road the other day, I happened to notice a small brown leather purse lying on the pavement. I picked it up and opened it to see (b) — I could find out the owner’s name. There was nothing inside. It (c) —  some small change and a rather old photograph  a picture of a woman and a young girl about twelve years old who looked like the woman’s daughter. I put the photograph back (d) — took the purse to the police station. (e) — I handed it to the sergeant-in-charge. Before I left, the sergeant made a note of my name and address In case the owner of the purse wanted to write and thank me. That evening I went to have dinner with an uncle and aunt of mine. They had also invited another person, a young woman, (f) — there would be four people at table. The young woman’s face was familiar, (g) — I could not remember where I had seen it. I was quiet sure, (h) — we had not met before. (i) — Conversation, however, the young woman happened to mark that she had lost her purse that afternoon. I at once remembered where I had seen her face. She was the young woman in the photograph (j) — she was now much older.

 Answers

1.(a) however/but (b) still/yet (c) in fact

(d) moreover (e) because (f) besides (g) so   (h) at the same time (i) moreover (j) above all

  1. (a) so (b) in fact (c) firstly (d) therefore/in other words (e) secondly (f) that is why

(g) thirdly (h) rather (i) so (j) in fact. 

3.(a) similarly (b) in fact (c) at the same time; (d) because (e)  and (f) besides (g) fortunately (h) so/as a result (i) nowadays (j) but/in fact.

  1. (a) in fact (b) as (c) basically (d) moreover  (e) furthermore (f) even (g) in other words   (h) so (i) nevertheless (j) eventually. 
  2. (a) while (b) whether/if (c) had (d) and (e)  then/there (f) and (g) but (h) that (i) during (j) but                                  
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