2.1 Definition: A verb is one of the main parts of a sentence or question in English. It tells an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand). Whether mental, physical, or mechanical, verbs always express activity.
2.2 look at the following chart.
|Classification of Verbs||Identification|
|1. Finite Verb||verb1 and verb2|
|2. Non-Finite Verb||verb1+ing/to+ verb1/verb3|
3. Auxiliary Verb
|To be||am, is, are, was, were, be, being, been|
|To have||have, has, had|
|To do||do, does, did|
|Modals||can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, need to, dare to, must, ought to, going to, had better, would rather|
|4. Linking verb||am, is, was, are, were, has been, might have been, become, etc.|
|5. Infinitive||to+ verb1|
|6. Gerund||verb1+ing (noun)|
|Present Participle||verb1+ing (adjective)|
|Perfect Participle||having +verb3|
|8. Transitive Verb||having object|
|9. Intransitive Verb||without object|
|10. Factitive Verb (It takes two objects)|
|appoint, assign, choose, deem, designate, elect, judge, make, name, select, informed, remind, raise, set, suckle, lay|
|11. Causative Verb or Copulative (person or thing makes something happen)|
|make, cause, allow, help, have, enable, get keep, hold, let, force, show, require, dip, drench, fell|
|12. Cognate Verb (object and verb are derived from the same root)|
|He slept a troubled sleep. He laughed a bitter laugh. He died a painful death. He dreamed a strange dream. Tusher smiled a happy smile. The woman lived a happy life. They fought a heroic fight. She died a premature death. Borna danced a jolly dance. The tree grew a century’s growth.|
|13. Reflexive Verb (a verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same)|
|He was talking to himself. I see myself in the mirror. They enjoyed themselves. He found himself lying by the road. The children behave themselves. He busied himself in the kitchen. She applied herself. I saw myself as a famous actor. You might cut yourself. I am teaching myself to play the piano.|
|14. Quasi-passive Verb (in spite of being active voice, it expresses the meaning of Passive voice)|
|Honey tastes sweet. The bed feels soft. The book reads well. The bed feels soft. The school garden looked beautiful. The pen writes well. The sun shines brightly. The stone feels rough. Iron feels hard.|
|15. Reciprocal Verb (describes something that two people do to or with each other)|
|meet , wed, reunite, fight, kiss, marry, like, reconcile, divorce, want, greet, to shake hands, to embrace, to hug, fall in love, to speak with, to understand|
|16. Group verb or Prepositional verb
It is allowed by a preposition or an adverb; the combination creates a meaning different from the original verb alone.
|call back, deal with, along with, lay off, make fun of, looking after, bring up, put up with, made up, takes after, stand by, use up|
2.3 Classification: Verb can be classified into two kinds.
Finite: Verbs that have the present or the past form, are called finite verbs. Verbs with tense are finite. It is changeable according to tense, number and person.
Nonfinite: Verbs in any other form (infinitive, -ing, or -ed) are called nonfinite verbs. Verbs without tense are nonfinite. It is completely unchangeable according to tense, number and person.
2.4 Verb at a glance
|Verb||Finite (changeable according to tense, number or person)||verb1/ verb2|
Indentify finite and nonfinite verb from the following sentences
|I play cricket. I am playing cricket. I have played cricket. I like to play cricket. I saw a flying bird. I like playing cricket and reading books. Playing cricket I met with Rana. I saw him running. I playing cricket returned home. I got the task completed. He seems to be frustrated. The cars made in Japan last long. The story told to me is interesting. Having played cricket, I returned home. In spite of his working hard, he could reach to his goal. By studying attentively, you can get A+. He sits to read when it is time for reading. He is too short to touch the fan. Nancy does her homework every day. Nancy is doing her homework at the moment. They are writing a letter. She speaks Chinese very well. He has a big car. The proposal has been examined today. She tried to help him It is healthy to laugh problems. Finding the gates widely open, the thief went away. He had his car cleaned. I can’t go with you. Unfortunately, she had to go. Do you really go out with her? I didn’t go to work today. I want to go home. I like going to the cinema. He suggested going for a walk. Going faster would have been really dangerous. Jack has gone away on holiday. I had gone back to their cars. I had gone to university. I am going to a concert tonight. Going across the bridge last night, I saw someone swimming in the river. He promised me to send a letter. The promised letter never arrived. He loves to eat popcorn. I waited for him to come. The postman distributed all the letters but one. Everyone wanted to buy the new book, but there were only 10 copies. I heard my dad going up the stairs.|
2.5 Finite verb can be classified into two kinds.
- Transitive: An action verbwith a direct object is transitive. It is directly attached with a noun or pronoun. Some transitive verbs can be used with a direct object and an indirect object.
- Intransitive: An action verb with no direct object is intransitive. It is not directly attached with a noun or pronoun. It needs the help of a preposition to be attached.
2.6 Identify transitive or intransitive verb from the following sentences.
|I wrote a letter. I slept. I coughed. The glass fell. My cat ran. The sun rose. She cut the cake. They climbed the mountain. He gave her a flower. He wrote a poem. They run. He died. It snows. Bulbul’s mistake cost him his job. I admire your courage. We need to maintain product quality. Most shops here close at 5.30 p.m. Everyone wished us all the best for the future. I couldn’t face him today. Leave me a message and I’ll get back to you. She loves animals. The company has offered me a job. Liza brought her a glass of water. He sent her a letter. Can I buy you a drink? Palash gave me a book for my birthday. Poly passed her a cup of coffee. Shall I make us some lunch? Jerin was trying to sell me her car. We took Maria some flowers and wine. Show me your holiday photos. The baby was crying. I work for a large firm in Paris. They laughed uncontrollably. We talked for hours. The man sang a song. I was found guilty of starting the fire. Pinto always sings in the bath. The match starts at 3 p.m. She left London on June 6. The trees were moving in the breeze. The area’s changed greatly in the last decade. I want to leave early. Could you move your car please? Marriage hasn’t changed her. The museum opens at 10 a.m. We went for a walk. The sun was setting and a red glow filled the sky. Jim is doing well in his new job. He used to run a restaurant. The path ran over the hill. He was living a life of luxury abroad. I washed, dressed, and went out. Kevin couldn’t read or write. I asked him to come in. He did not enter the room. She was reading a book. He sat down at the computer. He started to type an email. The bull was chasing him. Do you want any help? He had been managing the business for six years. I was out when she called. She called me a cheat and a liar. I sold some books. I took the bus. I bought a radio. I understood her question.|