Completing with words/phrases
|would rather বরং||used to অভ্যস্ত||untilযতক্ষন না পর্যন্ত||tillযতক্ষন পর্যন্ত|
|had better বরং ভাল||moreover অধিকন্তু||as soon as যত তাড়াতাড়ি||as long as|
|have to/has to||however যাহোক||even if এমনকি যদি||as much as যতটা|
|had to||as fast as এতটাই দ্রুত||even though এমনকি যদিও||along with সঙ্গে|
|as well as পাশাপাশি||along with সহ||accompanied by সঙ্গী||together with সঙ্গে|
|Ifযদি||in case যদি||unless যদি না||provided এই শর্তে যে|
|providing that এই শর্তে যে||provided that এই শর্তে যে||what’s it like এটা কিসের মতো||while (যখন)|
|Since||as though যেন||as ifযেন||was born|
|let alone (উল্লেখ না করা/চিন্তা করা যায় না /ভাবা যায় না)||would you mind আপনি কিছু মনে করবেন|
Look at the following structures
- No sooner had……..than + Simple Past
Scarcely had ……..when + Simple Past
Hardly had……..when/before + Simple Past
- Would rather……… than + ext
- Had better/have to/has to/had to/used to +verb1+ext
- What if+ sub+ verb + ext+?
- Would you mind+verb1+ing+ ext+?
- What’s it like +verb1+ing+ ext+?
- While + verb1+ing
While+ sub+was/were+ verb1+ing
- Lest + sub+ should/might+verb1+ext
- It is time/high time+sub+ verb 2 + ext
- Introductory there/it
- Since/as if/as though
Simple present/Present perfect………… Simple past
Simple past………… Past perfect
- If/in case/had/unless/provided/providing that/provided that……follow the rules of conditional sentence
- What does…….look like/What’s……. like
- Either….or/Neither….nor/Both….and/Not only….but also
|Let alone is used after a statement, usually a negative one, to indicate that the statement is even more true of the person, thing, or situation that you are going to mention next.|
|He would never walk again let alone play golf. I don’t have enough money to buy petrol, let alone a bike. He was incapable of leading a bowling team, let alone a country. My baby girl can’t say Daddy, let alone talk. Our professor couldn’t solve the problem, let alone the students. I can barely handle my own two kids, let alone several of their friends. I can’t speak Bangla fluently let alone English. He can’t afford beer, let alone whisky. I wouldn’t want to go to dinner party with that person, let alone a week-long vacation. She was too tired to walk, let alone run. I can’t read French, let alone speak it. I don’t have a bicycle, let alone a car. I don’t like grilled fish, let alone raw fish. He can’t run his own family, let alone a nation. He can’t even read, let alone write. He cannot walk, let alone run. He can’t even float let alone swim. I don’t want to see him, let alone go out with him. She doesn’t even speak her own language well, let alone French. She can hardly walk, let alone run. I was too exhausted to think, let alone study. I can’t even read Italian, let alone write it. Don’t whisper, let alone speak.|
|The structure no sooner had … than is used if the second event takes place immediately after the first. Remember that in this structure no sooner introduces the event that occurred first. When we begin a sentence with a negative word, we put the auxiliary verb before the subject.|
|No sooner had the sun risen than the fog disappeared. No sooner had I finished my studies than I got a good job. No sooner had the sun disappeared below the horizon than darkness began to envelop the planet. No sooner had the police left the scene than trouble started brewing again. No sooner had we heard the noise than we rushed to the spot. No sooner had she finished one project than she started working on the next. No sooner had I closed my eyes than I fell asleep. No sooner had I arrived at the station than the train came. No sooner had I gotten up from bed, than I took a bath. No sooner had I eaten the fish, than I started feeling sick. No sooner had they completed the work, than they demanded the wages. No sooner had I gotten my bags unpacked than I realized that my camera was missing. No sooner had he graduated, than he was on his way to America. No sooner had she read the letter than she started crying.
No sooner did I arrive at the station than the train came. No sooner did we hear the noise than we rushed to the spot. No sooner did I get up from bed, than I took a bath. No sooner did he fire the gun than the tiger sprang on him. No sooner did he see the police than he ran away. No sooner did I put the phone down than it started ringing again. No sooner did they meet than they fell in love with each other. No sooner did she read the telegram than she fainted. No sooner did the thieves see the police than they ran away.
Hardly had the child started crying when his mother lifted him up. Hardly had I gone to bed when I fell asleep. Hardly had I taken a dose of medicine when I started feeling better. Hardly had he reached the bus station when the bus came. No Hardly had the driver seen the signal when he applied the brake. Hardly had I reached the station when the train came.
Scarcely had I reached the station when the train arrived. Scarcely had I eaten the fish, when I started feeling sick. Scarcely had they completed the work, when they demanded the wages. Scarcely had I gotten my bags unpacked when I realized that my camera was missing. Scarcely had he graduated, when he was on his way to America.
|As soon as they completed the work, they demanded the wages. As soon as I ate the fish, I started feeling sick. As soon as I arrived at the station, the train came.As soon as she finished one project, she started working on the next. As soon as I got up from bed, I took a bath. As soon as the sun rose, the fog disappeared. As soon as I finished my studies, I got a good job. As soon as I put the phone down, it started ringing again. As soon as they met, they fell in love with each other. As soon as the sun disappeared below the horizon, darkness began to envelop the planet. As soon as he fired the gun, the tiger sprang on him. As soon as the police had left the scene, trouble started brewing again. As soon as he saw the police, he ran away.|
| Would rather/ ‘d rather/prefer to
It is used to decide a preference when making a choice among different options.
Positive Form: Subject + would rather + verb + than + verb
|I would rather stay home than go out tonight. I’d rather go home now than go to the cinema. She’d rather play tennis than sit here. They’d rather drink tea than cola. I would rather go by car than stay at home. She would rather come with us than stay at home. My father would rather drink tea than drink coffee. She’d rather buy a gold ring than a silver ring. I’d rather resign from my job than take a cut in salary. I’d rather watch a match than go to the cinema. I would rather write about math than science. I would rather play cricket than clean my room. She would rather go shopping than study grammar. He would rather play hockey than play cricket. She would rather eat a burger than eat a sandwich. She would rather study at the library than go to parties. I’d rather use a keyboard than write with a pen. I would rather walk than cycle. I’d rather walk than drive. I prefer walking to cycling. I prefer walking to driving. I prefer using a keyboard to writing with a pen.
When prefering a negative option, we use “not” before the verb.
I’m tired. I’d rather not go out this evening. We’d rather not tell a lie. Sam would rather not talk to him. She’d rather not say that again.
|What if+ sub+ verb + ext+?|
|What if four students fled away from school? What if I was seen on national television? What if a man fell in love with a woman? What if there is a lamp that gives money? What if I found out him to be selfish? What if a child was taken to a military school and trained to kill? What if father saw me at the cinema? What if he told a lie to Tusher? What if I bought a farm in Satkhira? What if I was recruited to become a pilot? What if the boy was beaten by mad dog? What if the bus is late? What if we could learn to get along? What if you don’t pass your exams? What if we arrange it for 9:00 instead of 10:00? What if we find the candles and put them around the room? What if I gave up working full-time? What if I accidentally told Mim about the party?|
|Would you mind + verb+ ing+…….?
It is a good way to politely ask for something that isn’t too much trouble for the other person.
|Would you mind passing me that bottle over there? Would you mind closing that window? Would you mind watching my bag for a few minutes? Would you mind explaining to your colleague? Would you mind sending me a list of everyone who’s coming? Would you mind taking this book back for me? Would you mind sending that mail for me? Would you mind reading this, please? Would you mind helping me with these boxes, please? Would you mind speaking in English? Would you mind lending me you bike? Would you mind sharing your experience? Would you mind doing something for you?|
|Provided/provided that/providing that/if/had/in case/unless|
|You can go out to play football provided that you finish your homework. He will pass his test tomorrow, provided that he studies today. We will go to the beach, provided that it stops raining. I will buy my son a new car, provided that he agrees to not get a tattoo. We’ll be there at about 7.30, provided that there’s a suitable train. Provided that there are enough seats, anyone can come on the trip. Provided that the boat leaves on time, we should reach France by morning. He’s welcome to come along, provided that he behaves himself. He will come provided that he is well enough. I will call you up, provided that i have time. I will go provided that she comes. I was allowed to go off by myself provided that I promised to be careful. I will go provided that the others go. She will help me provided that I promise to do her homework. She will help me if I promise to do her homework. Providing that you went to the party, I would go, too. Provided you study hard, you can be successful. Providing no one has any more questions, we can finish the lesson. I can afford to have a holiday providing that I earn fifty pounds a day. You can borrow the car provided that you promise to drive carefully. We’ll be there at about 7.30 provided that there’s a suitable train.|
| Not only……but also শুধু নয় … আরও whether … or কিনা
Either ………. Or(দুটির/ দুজনের মধ্যে হয়একটি/ একজন অথবা অন্যটি)
Neither … nor (এটাও নয় … ওটাও নয়/দুটি বিষয়ের/বস্তুর বা দুই ব্যক্তির কেউই নয়/কোনটিই নয়)
Both … and (এবং … উভয়েই/উভয়টিই/দুটি বস্তু, বিষয় বা দুই ব্যক্তি/পক্ষের উভয়টি/উভয়কেই বোঝাতে )
|She is not only rich but also famous. He visited not only France but also Switzerland. He not only insulted her in front of her friends but also threatened to beat her up. He was not only upset but also angry. The place was not only good, but also safe. She is not only a good wife, but also a good mother. She speaks not only English, but also French. Mid position with verb is also possible. She not only speaks English, but also French. She was not only sad, but also angry. Not only was she sad; she was also angry. They not only need food, but also shelter. Not only do they need food, but they also need shelter. Not only do they need food; they also need shelter.
Either I or my friend will raise the flag. Either he or his brothers are guilty. You can either study or sleep. Either Maliha or Samia will present the meeting. He is either mad or foolish. Neither Rana nor his sister passed. Neither the teachers nor the students were present. Neither you nor he is responsible. Neither the teachers nor the students missed the programme in the college. He neither did the work nor asked others to do this.
Both my friend and cousin came on the occasion of my birthday. I took both accounting and marketing as my major courses. He is both honest and kind. Both Anik and Jotisko are intelligent. Both the teacher and the student were absent.
I do not know whether she will come or not. The man asked me whether I had completed the work. I do not know whether he is honest or dishonest.
|22.8 Relative pronouns: who, which, that, what, whom, whose|
|The man who came here yesterday is my brother.This is the book which is now out of print. I do not know what they want. Mr. Kalam is a businessman who works mainly with the foreigners.This is the boy whose pen has been lost.|
|Whoever যে–ই হোক/ Whateverযা–ই হোক/ Whenever যখনই হোক /Wherever যেখানেই হোক /Enough to যথেষ্ট|
|Whoever is present here, he/she should listen to our request. Whoever you are, I won’t respect you. Whatever you want, it must be legal. Whatever your ambition is, it should be honest. Whatever he wants can never be met. Whenever you need me, just make a phone call. Inform him of the matter whenever he comes. Wherever he goes for help, nobody helps him. Wherever you go, I will always be with you. She was not meritorious enough to get GPA-5.The girl is intelligent enough to understand the questions. He is not strong enough to carry the load.|
- Complete the sentences with suitable phrases/words given in the box.
|There||as soon as||It||have to||as if|
|would rather||let alone||was born||what’s it like||What…. look like|
a) In China most of the students — join English Club. Is it the same in Bangladesh?
b) I — go abroad than join in student politics. In our country it is like committing suicides.
c) I’m a university student. But he behaves with me — I were a baby.
d) Asif is very idle. He cannot get up early in the morning, — taking exercise.
e) Alexander was a great King of Mecedon. He — in 356 BC.
f) — living beside a river? It seems you are enjoying the life of a fisherman.
g) They stoop up — the teacher entered the classroom. He became very pleased with them.
h) The sailor became terrified. — were no birds or animals in that snow covered country.
i) In cold countries people lead their life through hardship. — snows everywhere all the year round.
j) Student : Sir, — does an octopus —? Teacher : It’s very colourful and strange.
|as soon as||had better||There||What….look like||as if|
|It||was born||would rather||have to||let alone|
a) I don’t like Shipon’s behaviour. He speaks — he were a king. He should change his attitude.
b) He can’t remember the face of his father. — the details of his activities.
c) — the master saw the duck, he started clapping. He wanted to unfold the secret.
d) Everybody has heard the name of Aristotle. He was a great philosopher. He — in 384 BC in Greece.
e) We — starve than eat poisonous fruits. Nowthe presence of formalin is very common in fruits.
f) People lead a very uncomfortable life. They — face various types of problems everyday.
g) Once upon a time — lived a king. He had four daughters whom he loved very much.
h) Baby: Mom, — does Dracula — ? Mother: It’s very dangerous. You can watch them in films.
i) Life is very difficult in the deserts. It is very hot. — hardly rains.
j) You — tell her everything. It’s already too late.
|what’s it like||What….look like||as if||there||would rather|
|as soon as||as though||There||let alone||what does….look like|
a) I am not interested to invite Salam, — the members of his family.
b) Jerry was very small but could do many gracious work. He acted — he were a grow-up-man.
c) Student: Sir, — does a dolphin —- ? Teacher: Very nice! It looks like a giant fish.
d) Nobody likes Shampa. She speaks — she were a mad.
e) Long ago — lived a very kind-hearted man named Mohsin.
f) We — go home than stay in this risky fair. Nowadays visiting fair is not safe at all.
g) — the match started, everybody kept silent. It seemed all took the match very serious.
h)— dews everywhere during autumn and the grass glitters like diamond.
i) Son: Dad, — a lion —? Father: Yes, dear it looks like a king.
j) — living an Australian style? You seem to be very lucky living in Sydney.
|what if||would better||There||It…..changed||as if|
|had better||has to||as soon as||was born||let alone|
a) Corruption is a great sin. I — die than become a corrupt.
b) — you got yourself admitted into a driving course to be a driver?
c) You look very upset. You — go to office today.
d) — the chief guest came with a smiling face, the audience kept silent. He delivered his speech.
e) Father seems to be very annoyed. He looks — he lost something important.
f) The boy looks very weak. He cannot walk well — carry this heavy load.
g) In our country a girl who is matured usually — wear veil. Is it the same in the cities?
h) Taimur was a great ruler. He — in Uzbekistan is 1320.
i) Everything changes in course of time. — is high time we — our old ideas.
j) Long ago — lived a king in Persia. He was very pious as well as kind hearted.
|as soon as||what does….look like||It||had better||what if|
|was born||let alone||have to||would rather||what’s it like|
a) Deforestation is a matter of great concern. We — take steps to stop cutting down trees at random.
b) To tell a lie is a great sin. We — die than tell a lie. Otherwise, none will respect us.
c)— you were driving your bike without helmet and met a serious accident?
d) — swimming in the sea? It seems to be very heroic to me.
e) — the mother heard the news, she cried out loudly. She lost her child in a car accident.
f) Rome was not built in a day, — took a long time and hard labour to build this beautiful city.
g) Mr. Tarafder is a poor man. He cannot afford to buy a piece of land — a flat.
h) Thomas Alva Edison was a great scientist. He — in the USA in 1847.
i) Your shirt looks very dirty. It’s old enough. You — buy a new one.
j) Myself: Hi Sumon, — an albatross —? Sumon: It’s a big sea bird. It looks an eagle.
|as soon as||let alone||what does||was born||had better|
|had to||as if||There||would rather||it|
a) Marconi is famous for the invention of radio. He — in Bologra, Italy in 1974.
b) Shanto has broken his leg. He cannot walk — participate in the match.
c) Nazrul is a famous Bengali poet. He — face many difficulties of life during his early life.
d) You — take a lifeboat. The sea many be stormy enough.
e) Everybody is annoyed with Shanta. She talks in this way — she knew everything.
f) The students rushed to the classroom — the bell rang. It is the common picture of every school.
g) Long ago — lived a great saint in Baghdad. His name was Abdul Quadir Jilani.
h) — started raining cats and dogs. So we had to carry umbrella with us.
i) This show is crowded. We — watch the next show.
j) Son : Father, — a monarch look like? Father : Sorry, dear, I had never seen a monarch.
|as soon as||what does….. look like||was born||as though||had better|
|would rather||There||What’s it like||let alone||It…..changed|
a) The old man was very curious. He looked — he wanted to know many things from us.
b) — the Prime Minister arrived, she started crying. She lost her son in a bomb explosion.
c) It may rain at any time. We — take spare shoes with us.
d) — living a lonely life? You seem to be happy living in the island.
e) Child: Sister, — a crocodile —? Sister: Sorry, no idea. We may watch them in the zoo.
f) The child could not remember the face of its mother, — the details of her attitude.
g) Pythagoras was a great Greek philosopher, He — in 570 BC.
h) Now the world is advancing very fast, — is high time we — our method.
i) Long ago — lived a poor woodsman and his wife. They were unhappy because they had no child.
j) I — stay alone than play with bad boys. Bad boys are usually quarrelsome and naughty.
|what’s it like||There||what does…. look like||It||what if|
|let alone||have to||would rather||as soon as||as though|
a) Everything became fresh again — the storm was over.
b) Long ago — lived a wise king named Solomon who was famous for his wisdom.
c) — was autumn when the writer went to a mountain to stay there.
d) In the Indian subcontinent office? You seem to be very happy with your govt. service.
e) — working in the government office. You seem to be very happy with your govt. service.
f) Student: Madam, — a dinosaur —? Teacher: Sorry, I have never seen a dinosaur.
g) We — remain unfed than beg in the street. Begging is certainly a great curse.
h) Talha has no interest in religion — say prayers five times daily.
i) Your pen must be checked before going to the exam hall, — it ran short in the middle of the exam?
j) Mr. Siddiq is very envious. He thinks — he were a great scholar in the world.
|what does….look like||as though||have to||what’s it like||let alone|
|as soon as||was born||There||would rather||It|
a) In coastal areas people — live in anxiety. Is it the same in other areas of a country?
b) Albert Einstein is one of the greatest scientists of the world. He — in 1879 in Germany.
c) Long ago — lived a great warrior named Genghis Khan. He was born around 1162 AD.
d) We — work in cooperation than work separately. It is said that unity is strength.
e) Child : Brother, — a fairy —? Brother : Oh! It’s beautiful. It has wings.
f) The children went out their house — the rain stopped.
g) — staying in luxurious hotel? You seem very glad with your lonely life in luxurious hotel.
h) The girl came to us running. She looked — she had seen us many times.
i) Sujon never goes to Dhaka, — visit Ahsan Manzil. He never feels comfortable without telling a lie.
j) The writer could not recognize his lady guest, — is long since he caught sight of her at the play.
|what does…look like||as if||had better||There||what if|
|let alone||as soon as||It||have to||would rather|
a) Most of the politicians play the role of actors/ actress. They act — they were the real patriots.
b) Pakistan cricket team is very weak. They cannot defeat Bangladesh, — India.
c) In our country the members of law enforcing organizations — lead a very risk life.
d) They are inattentive to their studies. — they were attentive to their studies?
e) We — walk fast. It may start raining. The sky seems stormy.
f) Bangladesh experiences political instability. — is high time we changed our political view.
g) — the meeting started, some activities of opposite party started picketing.
h) — was a time when the people had to fight against the ferocious animals.
i) We — develop our humanity than observe hartal and strike. Let us change our destructive culture.
j) She: — your mother, —? Rana : She is a very nice woman.
|had better||what’s it like||let alone||as if||There|
|would rather||have to||what does… look||It||as soon as|
(a) — are no trees in the premises of my house. All the trees have been uprooted by the cyclone Ayla.
(b) We — stay at home today then go to college. It’s a stormy day.
(c) A: — a dinosaur —? B: It’s a huge animal. But I’ve never seen it.
(d) — living in a boat? The Bedeys seem to be happy with their life in boats.
(e) It is noon. But it is dark all around as the cloud has covered the sky. It looks — were evening.
(f) Cycling in the mountainous area is risky. So, — is not wise to like in the mountains by yourself.
(g) He can’t write a simple poem, — a sonnet. He doesn’t have the least poetic genius.
(h) The bomb exploded — we came out of the house. Thanks God, we could save ourselves.
(i) You — not keep late hours for study. You may get sick.
(j) Everyone is not involved in this matter. Why does everyone — sign?
|had better||as long as||was born||let alone||wish|
|Lest||would rather||as soon as||as if||have to|
(a) Mr. Aziz is an honest man. He — starve than take bribe.
(b) Hello, I am from Bangladesh. I — in Dhaka.
(c) Your mother is ill. So, I think you — go home early.
(d) We have started late. Now you are walking slowly. Walk fast — you should miss the train.
(e) I want to set up a hospital. But, I have not enough money. I — I were a millionaire to do that.
(f) I helped him many a time. But, now he speaks in such a manner — he did not know me.
(g) None can live without hope. In fact, there is hope — there is life.
(h) Rima was waiting for the reply. So, she went home — she got the telegram.
(i) You don’t know how poor he is. He cannot buy a fan, — an air-conditioner.
(j) There are some promising sectors here. So, we all — work sincerely to flourish in those areas.