Capitalization & Punctuation

Capitalization and Punctuation

 

 Rules in Capitalization

  1. Capitalize the first word in a sentence.
  2. Capitalize the names and nicknames of people.
  3. Capitalize geographic names. Indian Ocean, Hawaii, Empire State Building
  4. Capitalize the pronoun I.
  5. Capitalize the names of days and months. Tuesday, October
  6. Capitalize the names of national, religious, and local holidays. Memorial Day, Easter, Founder’s Day, Christmas
  7. Capitalize proper adjectives. French, Chinese
  8. Capitalize titles used with names. General Bradshaw, Mrs. Rima
  9. Capitalize the first word in the greeting or closing of a letter. Dear friends, Yours truly
  10. Capitalize the first, last, and all the main words in the title of a book, movie, song, magazine, play, newspaper, or television show. Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone , “The National Anthem”
  11. Capitalize the names of organizations, associations, or teams and their members. American Red Cross, Parent-Teacher Association
  12. Capitalize historical events, documents, and periods of time. Boston Tea Party, Declaration of Independence, Stone Age (Civil War, Middle Ages, Medal of Honor)
  13. Capitalize initials or abbreviations that stand for names and also abbreviations of titles and organizations. (Dallas, Texas, Fulton County, Africa, America, AR, TX)
  14. Capitalize the first word of a quoted sentence. He said, ’I go to college daily.’ She said, ’My brother will come here tomorrow.’ The man said, ’I do not take tea’.
  15. Do not capitalize names of seasons. Love autumn colors and spring flowers. Philippines have summer and rainy seasons.
  16. Capitalize the names of avenues, streets, roads, highways, routes, and post offices boxes. (Main Street, Dhaka Road, Highway 89, Rt. 1 Box 2, P.O. Box 45)
  17. Capitalize the names of lakes, rivers, oceans, mountain ranges, deserts, parks, stars, planets, and constellations.
  18. Capitalize the names of schools and specific school courses. (Rotary High School, Mathematics II, World History)
  19. Capitalize North, South, East and West when they refer to sections of the country. (up North, live in the East, out West)
  20. Capitalize names of pets, companies, buildings, ships, planes, space ships, things, products, organizations, proper adjectives: (Spot Tweedy Bird etc, Campbell’s soup, Kelly’s chili Ford cars, Empire State Building, Titanic, The Big Tire Co. etc.)

Rules on Punctuation

1 Comma (,)

  1. Use commas to separate independent clauses in a sentence.

Example: The game was over, but the crowd refused to leave. Yesterday was her brother’s birthday, so she took him out to dinner.

  1. Use commas after introductory words, phrases, or clauses that come before the main clause.

Examples: While I was eating, the cat scratched at the door.  If you are ill, you ought to see a doctor.

  1. Use a pair of commas to separate an aside from the main body of the sentence.

Example: John and Mim, the couple from next door, are coming for dinner tonight.

  1. Use commas to set off all geographical names, items in dates (except the month and day), addresses (except the street number and name), and titles in names.
  2. Use a comma to shift between the main discourse and a quotation.

Example: I said without emotion, “I’ll see you tomorrow.” “I was able,” she answered, “To complete the assignment.”

2 Period (.)

  1. The primary use of a period is to end a sentence.

Example: It is very important for your professional growth.

  1. Its second important use is for abbreviations.

Examples: M.A., Mr. Jasim was happy to see his wife.

3 Question Mark (?)

  1. It goes at the end of a sentence which is a question.

Examples: What can you do for the company? How can you be an asset? Are youhappy?

4 Exclamation Point (!)

  1. This is used in ending extreme emotions expressed in a sentence.

Example: Ouch! Fire! Fire!

5 Quotation marks (“ ”)

  1. Quotation marks are used to quote another person’s words exactly, whether they be spoken, or written.

Examples: Jitu said, “We are going shopping.”  Nitu said, “I have done it.”

  1. Quotation marks are used to denote irony or sarcasm, or to note something unusual about it.

Example: The great march of “progress” has left millions impoverished and hungry.

6 Colon (:)

  1. Colon is used after a complete statement in order to introduce one or more directly related ideas, such as a series of directions, a list, or a quotation or other comment illustrating or explaining the statement.

Example: The daily newspaper contains four sections: news, sports, entertainment, and classified ads.

  1. Colon is used to separate chapter and verse from the bible or to separate hours, minutes, and seconds

Example: John 1:212. 09:25:12

7 Semicolon (;)

  1. Use a semicolon to join related independent clauses in compound sentences.

Example: Jim worked hard to earn his degree; consequently, he was certain to achieve a distinction. Jane overslept by three hours; she was going to be late for work again.

  1. Used to separate items in a series if the elements of the series already include commas.

8 Apostrophe (’)

  1. to form possessives of nouns.    Example: the boy’s hat. three day’s journey
  2. to show the omission of letters. Example: He’ll go = He will go. could’ve = could have
  3. to form plurals.                              Example: Mind your p’s and q’s.

9 Parentheses ( )

  1. Occasionally and sparingly used for extra, nonessential material included in a sentence.

10 Hyphen or dash (-)

  1. Use a hyphen to join two or more words serving as a single adjective before a noun.

Example: chocolate-covered peanuts, Two-storey house

  1. Use a hyphen with compound numbers.

Example: Forty-five, Sixty-two

  1. Use a hyphen with the prefixes ex- (meaning former), self-, all-; with the suffix -elect; between a prefix and a capitalized word; and with figures or letters.

Example: ex-husband, T-shirt

  1. Use the dash to emphasize a point or to set off an explanatory comment; but don’t overuse dashes, or they will lose their impact; typically represented on a computer by two hyphens with no spaces before, after, or between the hyphens.

Example: To some of you, my proposals may seem radical – even revolutionary.

  1. Used for an appositive phrase that already includes commas.

Example: The boys–Jim, John, and Jamal–left the party early.

 

Rewrite the sentences using punctuations and capital letters where necessary.

1.they listen to cd and watch movies on dvd 2. today as they come in they see a foreigner 3. he is sitting alone at a corner table 4. this is shammi 5. the sky becomes dark 6. a strong wind starts to blow 7. is it going to rain 8. rina opens her umbrella 9. suddenly it blows away 10. did the wind take it 11. it sails high above the hill 12. will the wind give it back 13. mili nayan and saleh are my friend 14. they are kind polite and caring 15. well how are you 16. oh im fine 17. yes i know laila 18. no i don’t know yusuf 19. tamim listen to this song 20. neel can you please turn on the radio 21. mary what are you looking at 22.joy do you see that butterfly over there 23. yes i do oh it is beautiful 24. yes it is its wings are blue yellow brown and red 25. mary can we try and catch it 26. no we cant 27. well i can surely take a picture 28. oh you can do that 29. you did fantastic 30. you look great 31. stop writing 32. hira come and see me immediately 33. wow what a picture 34. wow wonderful 35. amal  says lets read this story together 36. no neel says i’m not feeling well i want to go home can we read it later 37. the teacher asks do know what an igloo is  38. yes teacher the eskimos live in igloo it is a house built of snow answers the student 39. mohua said may i come in teacher 40. the teacher looked up and said yes you may why are you late  41. i am sorry teacher i could not get any rickshaw said mohua  42. the teacher said well try not to be lated again 43. yes teacher said mohua softly  44. bulbul said mom tell me a story 45. mother said i m busy now let me finish cooking first 46. can i go and watch the tv asked bulbul 47. well if you have finished your home work said his mother 47. bulbul said yes mom i have 48. we often come here in our free time 49.  what is wrong asad 66. mother said i m busy now let me finish cooking first 67. what a beautiful country it is 68. well if you have finished your home work said his mother 69. i can hear your voice now says rosie 70. is he an honest man 71. Is he not an honest man? 72. aren’t they happy

 

Step-A: Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text.


  1. the rich are not always happy on the other hand the poor are not always unhappy we should not hate the poor a poor man may be an honest man but a rich man may be a dishonest man
    Answer-5:
    The rich are not always happy. On the other hand, the poor are not always unhappy. We should not hate the poor. A poor man may be an honest man but a rich man may be a dishonest man.

  2. the park is beautiful but dirty everybody likes to go there it is a new park we should keep it clean
    Answer-6:
    The park is beautiful but dirty. Everybody likes to go there. It is a new park. We should keep it clean.

  3. the chairman of our union parishad is an honest man he leads a very simple life everyday he hoes out to meet the people become people become happy when they het him among them
    Answer-7:
    The chairman of our Union Parishad is an honest man. He leads a very simple life. Everyday he hoes out to meet the people. People become happy when they het him among them.

  4. he will come after sometime he always comes here to play with us he is fond of playing cricket whenever he gets time, he watches cricket on television
    Answer-8:
    He will come after sometime. He always comes here to play with us. He is fond of playing cricket. Whenever he gets time, he watches cricket on television.

  5. when do you go to school when does your class start when do you come back from school when do you do your homework
    Answer-9:
    When do you go to school? When does your class start? When do you come back from school? When do you do your homework?

  6. i get up early in the morning then i walk for an hour walking is my regular exercise exercise is very useful to everybody
    Answer-10:
    I get up early in the morning. Then I walk for an hour. Walking is my regular exercise. Exercise is very useful to everybody.

  7. the sun rises in the east and sets in the west we get light from the sun the sun is many times larger than the earth it looks round in shape
    Answer-11:
    The sun rises in the east and sets in the west. We get light from the sun. The sun is many times larger than the earth. It looks round in shape.
    12.
    an honest man always speaks the truth people respect him for his honesty a dishonest man always tells a lie we should try to be honest.
    Answer-12:
    An honest man always speaks the truth. People respect him for his honesty. A dishonest man always tells a lie. We should try to be honest.
    13.
    mother told me a story the story was interesting i listened to the story attentively but i forgot everything now i am trying to remember the story
    Answer-13:
    Mother told me a story. The story was interesting. I listened to the story attentively, but I forgot everything. Now I am trying to remember the story.

  8. he never goes to school he is an idiot he never passes any examination teachers do not like him
    Answer-14:
    He never goes to school. He is an idiot. He never passes any examination. Teachers do not like him.
    15.
    he goes to the riverside every evening he walks there for half an hour he takes much interest in walking by the riverside an evening walk by the riverside is useful for health
    Answer-15:
    He goes to the riverside every evening. He walks there for half an hour. He takes much interest in walking by the riverside. An evening walk by the riverside is useful for health.

  9. he said that he would come again he always does whatever he tells he never breaks his promise a gentleman always does so
    Answer-16:
    He said that he would come again. He always does whatever he tells. He never breaks his promise. A gentleman always does so.
    17.
    he was not present in the class yesterday he often does so but it was not the case before once upon a time he was very irregular in going to the class we should tell him to stop this bad practice
    Answer-17:
    He was not present in the class yesterday. He often does so, but it was not the case before. Once upon a time, he was very irregular in going to the class. We should tell him to stop this bad practice.
    18.
    mr khan is a learned person he comes of a gentle family he joined our school two months ago he is very popular with the students and also teaches well
    Answer-18:
    Mr Khan is a learned person. He comes of a gentle family. He joined our school two months ago. He is very popular with the students and also teaches well.

Step-A: Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text.

Step-A: Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text.
19.
all children should go to school parents should advise them to go to school children are the future of our country we should be proud of our children
Answer-19:
All children should go to school. Parents should advise them to go to school. Children are the future of our country. We should be proud of our children.


  1. one day i went to market with my father father bought a lot of items i became very happy as i did not go to market before i remember the day till now
    Answer-20:
    One day I went to market with my father. Father bought a lot of items. I became very happy as I did not go to market before. I remember the day till now.
    21.
    the color of the mangoes is red these mangoes are very sweet and juicy we have many mango trees around our house the mango is a seasonal fruit but it is not our national fruit
    Answer-21:
    The color of the mangoes is red. These mangoes are very sweet and juicy. We have many mango trees around our house. The mango is a seasonal fruit, but it is not our national fruit.

  2. the glass is full of water no animal can live without water water has no color or taste as we cannot live without water we should keep it safe for drinking
    Answer-22:
    The glass is full of water. No animal can live without water. Water has no color or taste. As we cannot live without water, we should keep it safe for drinking.

  3. father goes to office at 7 a m everyday he gets up one hour earlier he spends this one hour for preparation father remains at the office for the whole day
    Answer-23:
    Father goes to office at 7 a.m. everyday. He gets up one hour earlier. He spends this one hour for preparation. Father remains at the office for the whole day.

Step-A: Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text.


  1. the quran is our holy book every muslim should know how to read the quran this book is our guide and teacher if we follow this book we must shine in life
    Answer-24:
    The Quran is our holy book. Every Muslim should know how to read the Quran. This book is our guide and teacher. If we follow this book, we must shine in life.
    25.
    mother starts cooking in the morning and finishes it by 9 a m i go to school at 10 a m mother wants to be sure so that i never become late in school i am happy that i never become late in school
    Answer-25:
    Mother starts cooking in the morning and finishes it by 9 a.m. I go to school at 10 a.m. Mother wants to be sure so that I never become late in school. I am happy that I never become late in school.
    26.
    brother bought a new car last month i like to travel by a car it is only the rich who can buy a car the price of a car is going up day by day
    Answer-26:
    Brother bought a new car last month. I like to travel by a car. It is only the rich, who can buy a car. The price of a car is going up day by day.
    27.
    he reads in class 8 his school stands by the side of a river the headmaster of his school is a very kind person he never punishes students
    Answer-27:
    He reads in class 8. His school stands by the side of a river. The Headmaster of his school is a very kind person. He never punishes students.
    28.
    man is mortal death must come at the right time we cannot avoid death death is the end of life
    Answer-28:
    Man is mortal. Death must come at the right time. We cannot avoid death. Death is the end of life.
    29.
    it does not rain much during the winter season so the winter season appears to be a dry season people suffer from different cold-related diseases in this season i like this season more than any other season
    Answer-29:
    It does not rain much during the winter season. So, the winter season appears to be a dry season. People suffer from different cold-related diseases in this season. I like this season more than any other season.

Use capitals and punctuation marks where necessary in the following text.

  1. i have got gpa-5 in the ssc exam said Rafiq congratulation said I what do you intend to do now i want to study in a reputed college and will try to get admission in Rajuk college Rafiq replied.
  2. said an old crab to young one why do you walk so crooked child walk straight mother said the young crab show me the way will you.
  3. what kind of stories did aesop tell said anwar fables replied Mrs. Amin do you know what fables are no replied anwar well continued Mrs. Amin fables are stories with a message or a moral.
  4. i came to Dhaka this morning i sent you a telegram before starting for home he said did you receive it in time he asked no i replied.
  5. william shakespeare the monarch of world literature was born on 23 april 1564 in stratford on Avon his mother was mary arden and his father was john shakespeare, he was not much educated he had little knowledge of grammar.
  6. the buckingham palace is in england it was originally built for the duke of buckingham in 1703 and was called buckingham house king george III bought it in 1761 it was remodelled and enlarged by a famous architect john n
  7. alexander the great was the king of mecedonia he was the son of philip a mighty king of sparta he invanded India about 327 years before the birth of christ on the way he defeated puru and marched towards p
  8. suppose we are in some danger said miss mebbin nonsense said m packletide its a very old tiger it could not spring up here even if it wanted to if its an old tiger i think you ought to get if cheaper a thousand taka is a lot of money.
  9. who are happy those who have fit bodies are the happiest ones if we are physically sound we will be mentally sound too we need to take care of our health as well as be positive in thinking how lucky they are who are both ways fit.
  10. did you hear a sound he asked she replied i heard nothing distinctly listen carefully he said cant you hear a little moaning sound coming from the old cottage
  11. how dare you wake me up the lion roared i shall kill you for that please please let me go the mouse cried i did not mean to wake you up.
  12. overhearing their whispers the caliph said to the dervishes are you not of this house then no they replied we have never been in this place before
  13. there are many countries in the world with many languages but you cannot speak all the languages so you need a common language that you can use with more or less all the people in the world English is that common language you should learn this language.
  14. rifa said to tasfika how are you i went to your house yesterday but did not find you where did you go i went to the station said tasfika i had to receive my maternal uncle
  15. what do you want nahar said the principal i need three days leaves she replied the principal said why the marriage ceremony of my elder sister will be held on next friday where is your application here it is
  16. wretch said the king what harm did I do there that you should seek to take my life with your own hand you killed my father and my two brothers the young man replied.
  17. once i asked a sweet little girl what is your mothers name she replied cleverly i know my mothers name but i wont tell you that i said what a clever girl you are i dont tell my mothers name to anybody whom i don’t know she spoke with an air of confidence
  18. why dont you attend classes regularly the teacher said to the students you cant expect good results unless you attend classes as i tell you i am sorry sir i have offended you said the student.
  19. mother is an unending sweet name she loves her children never neglects her duties to them when i
  20. think if my mother will leave and embrace the eternity i am at a loss how we can bear this separation.
    are you brothers asked the mistress of the house turning to the darvishes no we are poor wanderers who met by mere chance replied the darvishes
  21. i have missed the plane tareq said to the woman sitting at the front desk what shall I do now go to the desk marked inquiry the woman said flight t w 226 has left the man in the inquiry said but
    your ticket is for flight ba 179.
  22. will you go to college today the father said to her son no father our classes are suspended then go to market and bring some vegetables let me be ready and give me money.
  23. i never eat anything for lucheon she said oh dont say that i answered generously i never eat more than one thing she said i think people eat for too much now a days
  24. the lion roared how dare you wake me up ill kill you the mouse cried please let me go i didn’t mean to wake you up.
  25. we want to go on excursion sir the students insisted where do you want to go the students replied will you allow us to visit sonargaon sure thank you may allah bless you said the principal
  26. what is the time by your watch he said its half past nine i replied i want to go to college
  27. he said would you accompany me please no i am sorry i said
  28. what is your programme after the examination asked salam kamal said ive not yet decided can you suggest any let us go on a picnic said salam what an excellent idea I shall certainly join you said k
  29. fahim said to me have you finished reading the book i gave you yesterday yes have finished reading the book
  30. how is your mother nabila said m rina she is well thank you nabila replied i am very glad to hear that she is in good health said mrs. rina
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