Direct and Indirect speeches

 

Narration

Direct               Indirect

                                         Reporting         Reported

                                             verb                 speech

 

Sentence

 

                          Assertive              Interrogative               Imperative                        Optative                             Exclamatory                        

                                                                (?)                      Verb, let, please                May (wish/pray)                          (!)

                                                                                        kindly, always, never

 

Person

Person Number Subjective Possessive Objective Self/Selves
First Singular I My Me Myself
Plural We Our Us Ourselves
Second Singular You Your You Yourself
Plural You Your You Yourselves
Third Singular He His Him Himself
Singular She Her Her Herself
Singular It Its It Itself
Plural They Their Them Themselves

 

Principles of changing narration

  1. Said to       2. Comma       3. Person       4.Tense       5.Adverb

 

Changing narration at a glance

Sentence Said to Comma Person Tense Adverb
Assertive Said to/Told That 1st person

=

Subject

 

 

2ndperson =

Object

 

 

3rd person = Unchanged

Pre Ind – Past Ind,

Pre Con – Past Con,

Pre Per – Past Per,

Pre Per Con–Past Per Con

Past Ind – Past Per,

Past Con – Past Per Con,

Past Per – x,

Past Per Con – x

 

Future = S + Would +V

 

Now – then,

Today – That day,

Yesterday – The previous day,

Tomorrow – The next day,

Here – There,

This – That,

These – Those,

Come – Go,

Ago-before

Interrogative Asked W/H or If
Imperative Ordered, advised, requested, forbade, proposed, commanded  

To + V1

Optative Wished/Prayed That
Exclamatory Exclaimed with joy/sorrow/

wonder/fear/

surprise

That

 

Exercises on Narration

Assertive Sentence

If reporting verb is present/future tense, tense of reported speech will be unchanged.
He says to me, “I am your teacher.” He says, “I am a student.” Kalam says, “I did not go because I was ill.” He will say, “I shall do the work tomorrow.” I say, “He will pass the examination.” He says to you, “I live here in Chittagong.” My father will say to me, “We are going there tomorrow.” Ali has said to me, “I was ill.” He says to Rahul, “You were mere a boy when I saw you last.” He says, “I have been working since sunrise.” Shama has said to me, “I want to go to college now.”He has said to Harry Potter, “I didn’t understand your cruelty when you show your magic.” They will say to me, “We shall help you for your lacking.” We say Salma, “you went to your house yesterday.”

                                                                                         

Generally 5 changes in a Direct speech.
I said to the girls, “You are right to command them.” Samia said to her mother, “I want the best now.” The old man said to the girl, “I know you and your brother.” He said to me, “I like Messi as a best player and you.” He said his mother, “I want a big ship in my 17th birthday from you or my father.” Nargis said to mother, “I shall go to bed now.” Rejaul said, “I ate my meals.” Sapna said, “I saw Munia near college.” My father said, “We are going there tomorrow.” You said to me, “You do not do your duty.” Reza said, “I had a cow and its colour was white.” He said, “I shall go home.” The teacher said to the students, “You were making a noise in the class.” He said to me, “I did the work yesterday.” He said, “That’s a good idea.” He said, “The train reached at nine.” Sakil said to me, “I am drawing a picture for you.” The girl said, “I know the answer of this question.” Nabbir said to me, “You are not sincere and therefore I do not trust you.” I said to him, “I am sick.” Mother said to me, “Will you go to school?” Rony said to him, “I shall go to Chittagong tomorrow.” He said to me, “You study sincerely and may stand first in the examination.” He said to you, “I live here in Chittagong.” My father said to me, “We are going there tomorrow.” Ali said to me, “I was ill.” He said to Rahul, “You were mere a boy when I saw you last.” He said, “I have been working since sunrise.” Shama said to me, “I want to go to college now.” You said to me, “You do not do your duty.” Abir said to Anwar, “I have passed the examination.” The boy said to me, “You have passed the exam.” My friend said to me, “I have already finished my work.” Shakira said to me, “I went to you home when you are not here.” They said, “We bought the books together yesterday.”

 

If reported speech is universal truth / habitual fact, first 2 changes will be done.
The teacher said, “The moon shines at night.” The teacher said, “All men are equal in the eye of law.” The teacher said, “Time and tide wait for none.” The teacher said to the students, “The more you read, the more you learn.” He said, “Honesty is the best policy.” We said, “Man is mortal.” We said, “Islam is the perfect code of life and Mohammed (Sm.) is his messenger.” She said, “Mohammed (Sm.) was born in Macca in 570 A.” The teacher said to Raju, “Misfortunes never come alone.” He said to me, “Allah is one.”

 

May=might, Can=could       but     Might, could, would, should……..only tense will be unchanged.
He said to me, “I can do the work.” The boy said, “I can swim.” He said to Liza, “We may go to your house.” I said to him, “I cannot attend the meeting.” He said to me, “You may stand first in the examination.” She said to me, “I could attend class yesterday.” He said to me, “I could do the work.” He said to me, “I would do the work yesterday.” He said, “The train might reach at nine.”
Must=had to       Must (obedience) = only must will be unchanged.
He said to me, “I must say my prayers.”Robin said, “Man must die sooner or later.”He said to her, “You must obey your seniors.” The teacher said to Pamela, “You must listen to what your parents say.” Robin said, “Man must submit to destiny.” Fayed said to me, “I must need to pass the exam.” He said, “I must go home.” He said to you, “I must live here in Chittagong.” He said to me, “I must do the work.” He said to you, “I must help you in danger.”

Interrogative Sentence

Starts with auxiliary verb
He said to me, “Are you going?” He said to me,” Are you ill?” He said to me, “Do you know my friend?” Father said to his son, “Are you interested in Mathematics?” My mother said to me, “Is not poverty a curse?” Haron said to me, “Do you know me?” The teacher said to me, “Have you learnt your lesson today?’ You said to Rakib, “Have you seen the man who came to visit yesterday?” Shaurab said to Shuhel, “Will you listen to such a fool?” I said to him, “Will you go to college today?” I said to the Headmaster, “Will you grant me a full free studentship?” I said to her, “Will you go to the college tomorrow?” The policeman said to me, “Did you see the accident?” He said to me, “Did you go to college yesterday?” Liza said to me, “Will you visit my home tomorrow?” We said the boy, “Have you eaten rice for lunch?” Sara Jefferson said to Dona, “Will you take me with your sympathy?” The teacher said to us, “Will you summit this assignment?” Rashid said to us, “Am I unable to solve your glitch?” The teacher said to the students, “Do I bit you for your indulgence?” She said to us, “Shall I not inform my feelings?” The man said to me, “Are you passing the river by swimming?” He said to Ron, “Can you bring to mind you magic verse?” Raima said, “Can you conquer my heart?” Mother said to me, “Can you draw a picture of a tree?” They said to Siam, “Can you tell me what’s your name?” The teacher said to students, “Can anyone give the correct answer of this question?” Kamal said, “Can you lend me your books for three days?” Shefali said to Bina, “Can I take your pen?” You said to me, “Would you help me, please?”

 

Starts with W/H question.
He said to me, “Where are you going?” Ruma said to his mother, “Why will you take my pen?” The man said to me, ‘Where do you live? Taufiq said to Rahul, “Why do you always think about the bad side of things?” The man said to the stranger, “What is your name and why did you come here?” The old man said to his sons,“Why do you quarrel always?” The man said to me, “Who are you?” She said to them, “Why are you making a noise?” He said to me, “What are you doing?” Sakib said to Roman, “Where have you come from?” She said to him, “Why have you come here?” Rubel said to his mother, “What did you see when you were in the states?” He said to me, “Where did you go yesterday?” My mother said to me, “Why did you not go to college yesterday?” Salim said to Salam, “Why did you write those letters?”They said to us, “When will you return home?” He said to me. “When will the next letter come?” The passenger said to the porter, “When will the train arrive?” She said to me, “What’s your mother name and where have you come from?” They said to my mother, “Where did I go in 3.45 pm yesterday?” They said, “How much wealth do you need?” Anika said to them, “Why did their garden destroy?” The astrologer said to the king, “How much long do you live?” He said to me, “Which book do you want?” I said to the pretty girl, “Which book have you lost that you are searching?”

 

Optative Sentence

Structure: Sub + wished/prayed + obj + that + sub + might + verb1 + ext
Teacher said to him, “May you come round soon.” The president said, “May Bangladesh live long.” The dervish said to me, “May you shine in life.” The woman said to his son, “May you be happy.” Mother said to me, “May you live long.” Father said to his son, “May you pass the exam.” He said to me, “May Allah help you.” Mother said to me, “May Allah bless you.” They said, “Long live our president.” Munia said to Maria, “May you get A+.” He said to me,” May Allah bless you.” He said to me, “May you live long.”

 

 

Imperative Sentence

Structure: Sub + (Ordered/advised/requested/forbade/proposed/commanded) + obj + to + v1+ ext
He said to me, “Help the poor”. He said to me, “Don’t talk”. He said to me, “Please help me.”The teacher said to me, “Always speak the truth. “The commander/general/captain said to the soldier, “Fire on.” Shakira said to me, “Dance with me.” He said, “Do the sums.” He said to Liza, “Don’t show your naughty face.” I said, “Shot the bird silently.” We said, “Dug the soil.” The teacher said to Raju, “Don’t tell a lie for next time.” B. Gates said “Leave the flaw of any work.” She said to his teacher, “Complete the lesson.” We said, “Keep your mind in relax mood.”My brother said to me, “Go to college or you will be punished.” The teacher said to Taslima“, write an essay on punctuality.” The teacher said to the students, “Stop writing.” Arif said, “Friends, lend me your cars.”The captain said to the soldiers, “March forward.” The teacher said to Amana, “Read this book.” He said to me, “Please give me some money.” The students said to the Principal, “Please grant me leave of absence.” He said to his friends, “Please wait for me till I return.” ‘Please listen to me’, said he. Father said to me, “Take care of your health.” Father said to the son, “Don’t quarrel with anybody.” Mother said to me, “Don’t run in the sun.” The teacher said to the student, “Do not tell a lie.” Mrs. Salam said, “Don’t forget about that.” Mother said to her son, “Do not waste your time.” The teacher said, “Always speak the truth.”

 

No. Changes Let us/ let’s Let us/ let’s Let me/him/her/them
1. Said to Proposed to Suggested told
2. Comma That we should/That they should * that
3. Person * * Follow the normal rules
4. Tense Verb1 Verb1 + ing + ext Sub + might + verb1
5. Adverb Follow the normal rules

 

Farid said to Rafi, “Let us learn our lessons.” They said to us, “Let us decide the matter.” He said to me, “Let us do it.” The chairman said, “Let us settle the dispute.” Tamanna said to Ruma, “Let us go out for a walk.” “Let us wait here till the rain stops,” She said. She said to me, ‘Let us make fun’. He said to me, “Let us go out for a walk.”

The beggar said to her, “Let me have a meal.” The prisoner said, “Let me see my mother.” Father said, “Let him read attentively.” The old man said, “Let me have some milk.” The boy said to me, “Let them play cricket.” Samia said to her mother “Let me drink a glass of water.” I said to the girls, “Let me tell some words with you and about your family.” They said, “Let her go to join the match.”

Exclamatory Sentence

!sub + verb                               Sub + verb!                          Sub + verb (to/for….)!

{Very, most, so, great must be brought into indirect speech if it starts with what/how}

He said to me, “What a nice garden it is!” He said, “What a magic you show! Harry Potter.” They said, “What an exciting game you play!” Liza said, “What a miserable life the poor of Bangladesh lead!” I said, “What a clever girl you are!” I said to you, “What a brave man you are!” I said to him, “What a nice fellow your father is!” I said to her, “What a nice girl you are!” “What an honest man he is!” said Mr. Rahman. The boy said, “What a terrible storm it is!” I said to him, “What a nice gift I have got for you!” He said, “What cheering report! He said, “What a pity!” You said to me, “How nice your handwriting is!” They said, “How sweet the mango is!” I said to you, “How obliged are you to me!” The teacher to him, “How funny you are!” The man said to the boy, “How silly you are!”She said, “How sweetly the bird sings!” They said, “How a nice song we sing!” Sara Jefferson said to Dona, “How sweet baby you have!” Rashid said, “Yeah! We can hunt the birds.” The traveler said, “How wicked the boys are!” I said, “Had I the wings of a bird!” I said to her, “Alas! He is dead. He said, “Alas! I am undone.” Rima said, “Alas! She has lost her mother.” The boy said, “Hurrah! My father has come.” He said, “Hurrah! I have gained it. ” He said, “Bravo! You have done very well.” Ruma said, “Hurrah! We beat our against party.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

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