Simple, Complex, and Compound
The sentence which introduce the structure of a sentence is called structural sentence. It is of 3 kinds.
- Simple Sentence
- Complex sentence
- Compound sentence
(a) Simple sentence : A sentence which has a subject , a finite verb and an object is called a Simple Sentence.
*Example: I go to school
*Structure: subject + finite verb+ object.
(b) Complex Sentence : A sentence which has two or three clauses of which there is a Principle clause and the other clauses are subordinate clauses and all the sentences are connected with connecting word is called a Complex Sentence.
* Example: It started raining when I was about to go out.
* Structure: Principle Clause + connecting word + subordinate clause. (In this sentence ‘It started raining’ is a principle clause, ‘when’ is connecting word and ‘I was about to go out’ is subordinate clause)
** In a Complex sentence Subordinate clause is always dependent on Principle clause to express a full sentence.
(c) Compound sentence: A sentence which has two or three clauses of which all are Principle clauses and are connecting to each other with connecting word is called a compound sentence.
* Example: It is raining and I am going out with my umbrella.
* Structure: Principle clause + connecting word + Principle clause
Simple, Complex, and Compound at a glance
|1. Simple||One clause
One Principal clause
Subject+ one finite verb (non finite verb)
|2. Compound||At least two principal clauses
Added with FANBOYS (for/and/nor/but/or/otherwise/yet/so)
|3. Complex||Principal clause and Subordinate clause added with Subordinating Conjunction
Subordinating conjunction + Subordinate clause + Principal clause
Principal clause + Subordinating conjunction + Subordinate clause
Principal clause will be unchanged
Subordinating conjunction: what, where, wherever, why, how, who, when, whenever, which, whom, whose, if, even if, even though, in case, unless, provided, provided that, providing that, since, as, as if, as though, as long as, as much as, as soon as, although, though , because, while, than, in order that, so that, that, after, before, till, until, lest
Look at the chart of Simple, Complex, and Compound
|1||Intensity||too…to + verb1/enough to||so….that||very…and|
|2||Purpose||Infinitive (to+verb1)/in order to+verb1/with a view to||so that
in order that
|3||Opposition||In spite of/Despite||Though/Although||but/yet|
|4||Conditional||By + Gerund||If (affirmative clause)||and|
|Without + Gerund/noun||If (negative clause)/Unless||or/otherwise|
|5||Time||At the time of/During/ At the age of/Preposition+time||When||and|
|6||Reason||Because of/Due to/Owing to on account of /for/Verb1+ing||As/Since/because||and/so/ and so|
|7||Appositive||Appositive||who/which/that + verb||and|
|8||Nonfinite verb||Present participle/Verb1+ing/
|since / as / because/ RP/when /
|Past participle||who/which/that (passive voice)||and + subject|
|Perfect participle||after / before||and ……… (then)|
|who/which/that + verb||and|
|10||Adverb + simple sentence||that clause||and|
|11||Sub +verb+object+to be…||that clause||and|
|12||Besides/as well as/both…..and||As/Since/because/When||Not only…..but also|
|13||Verb1+ing||As soon as/No sooner had/ hardly had/Scarcely had||and|
|14||the place of (using at, in, on, to, from, before)||where||and|
|15||the reason of||why||and ……. its reason|
|1. A. He is too honest to take bribe. Nawazish was too tired to continue working. Imran was too arrogant to listen to my advice. Ahad was too polite to refuse my request. Fahad is too fat to run fast. Arefin is too rich to buy my property. The news is too good to be true. He is too proud to beg. It is never too late to mend. He is too ignorant to sign his name. He speaks too fast to be understood. He is too short to touch the fan. I am too fool to understand the simple matter. The writer was too poor to maintain his family. He is too weak to move. They walked too slowly to catch the bus. He is too honest to accept a bribe. The dress was striking enough to attract attention. He is too coward to face his enemy.
B. The hall is large enough to accommodate all invitees. He is talented enough to compose his own songs. He is strong enough to push the trunk. The girl is intelligent enough to understand the questions. He is not strong enough to carry the load. The man is honest enough to be rewarded. The work is hard enough for her complete in time. She did it smoothly enough to make everybody puzzled. The woman had enough money to purchase anything anytime.The boy has enough merit to get A+ in the exam.
C. The importance of television is too many for us to describe. Horayra drove too fast for the police to catch. The box is too heavy for me to carry. There was too much snow for us to go walking. The dress was too expensive for me to buy. The runway is too short for the planes to land. He is too poor to send his children to school. The puzzle was too difficult for me to solve. He is too strong for you to beat him. The house is too small for everybody to accommodate. The water is too salty for me to drink. His ideas are too complicated for me to comprehend them. This is too small a thing to pit down. The tea is too hot to be drunk. This fact is too evident for us to require proof. Any branch of knowledge is too difficult to be conquered by perseverance.
C. He is so weak that he cannot speak a single word. They are so nice that they cannot be used just at present. The old man was so tired that he could not walk. The baby was so little that he could not walk. The box is so old that it cannot be used. He is so weak that he cannot speak a single word. They are so nice that they cannot be used just at present. He is so young that he cannot take the responsibilities. He is so poor that he cannot send his children to school. The roast looked so delicious for the cook that he could not resist the temptation.
D. The puzzle was very difficult and I could not solve it. He is very strong and you cannot beat him. This house is very small and it cannot accommodate everybody. He is very stupid and he will not pass the test. He is very old and he cannot walk without support. She was very distressed and she could not answer my questions. You are very young and you cannot get married. She is very shy and she cannot perform on stage. His ideas are very complicated and I cannot comprehend them. The water is very salty and I cannot drink it. We arrived very late and we could not have dinner.
Exercises on Simple, Complex, and Compound
|2. A. We must study hard to make excellent results in our exams. They come here to enjoy themselves. He wants to be a doctor to serve people. The farmers work hard to support themselves. We work hard to attain success in life. She hoped to win the first prize. The farmers sow good seeds to get good crops. We have to be honest to reach the highest peak of life. He always works hard to improve his result. We have to work hard to earn money or to gain knowledge. Tourists from home and abroad visit its shore to enjoy themselves. He lent some money from the bank to buy a car. We have law-enforcing agencies to stop the dishonest businessmen. Bangladesh govt. has already made some laws to root out this vice.
B. We have to be educated in order to serve the nation. We have to save money in order to buy a football. She reads attentively in order to do well in the examination. The farmers sow good seeds in order to get good crops. Creator has blessed him with conscience in order to differentiate the right path from wrong one. I must answer to the questions briefly and to the point in order to obtain good marks. The visitors go there for enjoying natural beauties.
C. He keeps his students busy so that he can make them happy. The writer wanted mountain air so that he could be physically fit. He worked hard so that he could pass the examination. We eat so that we may live well. We should make the habit of reading books so that we may earn knowledge. A student should attempt to answer all the questions so that he may get good marks. People have to decrease their consumption so that they can survive. He studied sincerely in order that he could save money. He went to Bagerhat so that he could visit the Shat Gombuj Mosque.
|3. A. In spite of his being healthy, he is lazy. In spite of his working hard, he could not reach to his goal. In spite of saving life, he was insulted. In spite of having a large population, her educational facility is very limited. In spite of not making one rich, it brings peace in mind. In spite of being healthy, he does not work at all. In spite of being a test playing country, Bangladesh’s standard is not high. Despite knowing it, many people go on smoking every day.
B. Though he was learned, he did not get a good job. Though it is a blessing, it has dark sides. In this world many people are unhappy though they have money. Though he was qualified, he did not get a government job. Though he has intellect and conscience, he has lagged behind the humanity. Though it is a very costly game, young men get a great deal of delight plying it. Though the price is increasing day by day, the income of people is not increasing at all. Though Bangladesh is not a big country, too many people live here.
C. He is old but he is very active. He is healthy but he does not work at all. He behaved rough but lie was not punished. He worked hard but he failed. He left the country but the reason was mysterious. In winter, it remains idle but it works hard in spring. She has a large population, but her educational facility is very limited. It may not make one rich but it brings peace in mind. He is healthy but he does not work at all. Bangladesh is a test playing country but its standard is not high. Morning walk costs us nothing, but it gives us invaluable benefit. He ran fast but he could not catch the thief.
|4. A. By studying attentively, you can get A+. By writing regularly, you can avoid your mistakes. By working hard, they can remove their condition. One can prosper in life by working hard.
B. Without practicing much, you can’t show better performance. Without discussing the problem, you cannot solve it. Without learning English, we cannot hope to get any job. None can receive any reward unless he works hard.
C. If I take balance diet regularly, I can be healthy. If you read more, you will know more. If you work hard, you can prosper. If you practice regularly, you can play well. If we work hard in this regard, we can see soon pollution free nation. If a student is devoted to studies, he will surely shine in life. If we maintain it, we shall be able to lead a peaceful life. If he takes exercise regularly, he can maintain fitness. If they can know the benefit of sincerity, they will make a good use of it.
D. If you do not hold your tongue, I will turn you out. If she does not take exercise regularly, she can’t be healthy. If you do not make hurry, you will supper a lot. If he does not maintain traffic rules, he will be punished. If you don’t have a visa, you can’t go to abroad. If they do not complete assignment, they will be taken to task. You cannot receive affection unless you give it also.
E. Speak the truth and I shall pardon you. Work hard and you will prosper. Be attentive and you will understand it clearly. Follow my example and you will shine in life.
F. Write much or you cannot avoid mistakes. Hold your tongue or I will turn you out from the class room. We must develop the habit of speaking the truth or we cannot other respect. Drive carefully or there may be accident. Move or you will die. Do it quickly or you will in danger. Keep quiet or go out. Work hard or you will not pass in the examination. Do or die.
During+time=long term =season/year
At the age of+ age = if expresses age
At the time of+verb+ing= if expresses time of verb
|5. A. During the rainy season, it assumes a terrible shape. When it was winter, I was in London. When it was daylight, I was half awakened by the sound of chopping. When it is spring, the cuckoo sings. The authoress went to Dhaka when it was autumn. He woke up when it was raining. The girls were delighted when the saw the fine flowers. When it is summer, it becomes emaciated. When he was fighting battles, he spent much of his time studying. When we were children, the family protected us. When we grow up, we need help of people around us. When a teacher is absent, students generally make a noise. When the lunch was over, the lady went away. When my mutton chop arrived, she took me t ask. You came here only at four. He sits to read when it is time for reading. When I arrived my friend took me to his house.
B. When Kamal went to market, he bought a book. He was glad when he heard the news. When I went there, I found the door locked. You came here when you were only four. When it was 1971, Bangladesh got independence.
|6. A. Completing his study, he went to play. Finishing her work, she went home. Standing by the window, the girl looked out. Entering the classroom, the teacher found the boys gossiping. Standing in front of the graves, we bow down our head. Filling the pitcher, he went out. Seeing the small baby, she took it in her arm. Finding the gates widely open, the thief went inside. Talking to you I always feel better. Feeling tired, I went to bed early. Seeing the policeman, the robbers ran away. Finding the door open, I went inside. Crying at the top of his voice, he rushed at the thief. Having worked for several hours, we came out of the office. Men pollute water by throwing waste into it. Walking along the road, I saw a snake. Having lost all his money in gambling, he became a pauper. Taking a cue from his words, I solved the riddle. Breaking the door open, the burglars entered the house. Not realizing the implication of his words, he went on speaking. Having found a hotel, we looked for somewhere to have dinner. Having finished her work, she went home. Having lost all of my money, I went home. Having forgotten him, I went outside. Having typed the letter, he went home. Having spoken to her mind, she felt more at ease. Having looked over the papers, she looked out of the window. Having been defeated by our army, the enemy forces retreated fast into their territory. I dislike him for his laziness.
B. The earth being round, we met again. The sun having set, we reached home. The marriage ceremony being over, the guests were going the feast. His handwriting being illegible, I couldn’t figure out what he had written. The moon having risen, we set out our journey. Education being one of the basic needs of a human being is essential for any kind of development. It being a fine day, everybody was out on the roads. The lunch being over, she went away. The weather being very hot, we could not go to play. It being a small cot, he couldn’t sleep on it.
C. Since he was sharp, he made a good result. As he saw the tiger, he ran away in fear. As the writer was poor, he could not visit Sheraton earlier. Since the water was salty, the sailors could not drink. Since the workers were encouraged by the owner, they went on working. As the shirt is costly, I cannot buy it. Monir was loved by all because of his honesty. As the writer was poor, he could not visit Sheraton earlier. As they are industrious, they will succeed in life. As he works hard, he stands first in every class. As they are assets to the nation, they should equip themselves accordingly. Their effort has been proved ineffective since adulteration of foods and other commodities is on increase. Since there was no rain, he was worried. As love is divine everybody wants it. Since they played well, they won the match. As the writer was poor, he could not entertain her properly. As he saw the police, he ran away. As he had much experience, he got the job. Since he was angry with her, he didn’t utter a word.
D. The girl finished her cry and attended to her class. I had forgotten him and went outside the cabin. It flies from flower to flower and collects honey. It ennobles one’s character and gives one high position in society. He found a mad dog and injected some weak germs into his blood. All on a sudden Eva lost her balance and fell into the river. He drew a package from his overcoat and threw it upon the table. He took the purse and ran away. They are very nice and they cannot be used just at present. The divers put off their clothes and plunged into the river. The boy was courageous and managed the unruly horse. I was ill and I could not attend the meeting. Sahel was honest and could not take the money. Fatima was slender and mastered the art. Many women were present there and they wept to hear the news. There were many students and they all shouted. I bought some interesting novels and I presented them to my sister. The boy was courageous and managed the unruly horse. I was ill and I could not attend the meeting. Sahel was honest and could not take the money. Fatima was slender and mastered the art. The man saw the tiger and went away. I took a cabin and asked for man to chop wood. The dog lay close to him and found comfort there. The thief took the money and ran away. The man saw the RAB and ran away.
E. Love is divine and everybody wants it. The sun had set and we went home. The matter was easy and I understood it. He spoke very fast and we could not follow him. The door was opened and Jims stepped in. The sea water was very salty and they couldn’t drink it. He is a thief and we suspect it. The meeting was over and we went home. Smoking causes cancer and this is well known. The load is heavy and I cannot carry. The curry is salty and I cannot eat. The sun rose and the fog dispersed. The weather was very cold and there were no birds or animals. He was born at a beautiful place and we had seen it. The lunch was over, she went away. Their throats were very dry and they could not speak.
|7. A. Rabindranath Tagore, a renowned poet, won the Nobel Prize for literature. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is recorded to be heavily polluted. Susan, my neighbor, is a good cook. Ms. Sarmin, my vice-principal, punished me for not doing homework. My mother, a lovely woman, baked cakes for my birthday. Water, an important element, is being polluted day by day. Rana, a famous poet, keeps a good relationship with his fans. You, my best friend, lead a very decent life. The sun, a star in the sky, is one of the greatest sources of energy. Your friend, Bill is in trouble. A beautiful dog, Tommy was my favorite pet. The popular cricketer, Tamim Iqbal is a man of letter. A hot tempered cricket player, Shahid Afridi tried to hit a six. A beautiful dog, Tom was one my favorite pet dogs. My sister, Bonna got first class. My neighbor, Sam bought a new car. Dhaka, the city of mosque, is the most famous for as tourist destinations.
B. Lily who is your best friend, is performing at the art club tomorrow. Rana’s study room which is the most untidy area, is packed full of books. Neha who is a beautiful girl, is my friend’s sister. A red BMW which is my friend’s car, is the topic of discussion today. Dina, my well wisher, stood by me in trouble. Milton, who is a trained magician, performed at my sister’s birthday party. My wife who is a nurse by training, has to work at night shifts also. Richard, who is my intimate colleague, would be delighted. He who is my brother, is a doctor.
|8. A. The women standing in the corner are from Brazil. The police saw the body floating down the river. We met a boy carrying a heavy bag. I saw a bird sitting on the wall. I saw a girl standing at the window. There are many vehicles running in the street. He is a poor man living in Dhaka. The students studying seriously can expect to make an excellent result. I saw him walking down the street. She heard me reading aloud my vocabulary. The doctor working in the hospital is known to all. We found him smoking behind the shed. Jamir is a farmer living in a village.
B. The man who works hard can shine in life. A man, who leads in idle life, brings misery for his life.They saw a ship that was coming to them. Those who become tired may go to relax there. Most of the students who come from abroad get admitted in the private medical colleges. Shylock was a cruel man who resided in Venice. People who work in the office, usually walk in the morning. People who come from home and abroad enjoy its beauty very much. They saw the drunken porter who was lying on the floor. They saw a ship that was coming to them. People who live in the village are farmers. The man who knows English well can go abroad. Organizations frequently need employees who have a good command of English. Only the boys who work hard can shine in life.
C. A good teacher discovers the treasure hidden inside each student. The book written by me is informative. People affected with arsenicosis die ultimately. People addicted to gambling lose everything. Education imparted to students is high standard. The answer written by him was not correct. The cars made in Japan last long. The tea imported from Srilanka is qualitative. The pen presented to you is fantastic. The picture which was drawn by Liza is very fine. The house decorated with lights looks beautiful. Friendships made in childhood last forever. The noise made by the car suggested an engine problem. She shocked by the bad news, burst into tears. The event organised by our team will surely be a great success. The film based on real events tells the story of a teacher. The car taken to the garage was repaired within an hour. She admired by everyone began to grow arrogant. He dumped by his girlfriend felt really helpless.
D. Once upon a time there lived a man named Abdul. Once there was a girl named Rina. A man named Opu came here. We belong to a country named Bangladesh.
E. I still remember the advice which was given by my father. The Tajmahal that was built many years ago still looks very charming. The steps which are taken by me prove fruitful. The heart which is formed for love cannot be happy without the opportunity of giving and receiving lover.
|9. A. He is a good student. He is a meritorious boy. The greedy criminals should be given tough punishment. Mr. Mashiur Rahman is an honest man. An ant is an industrious insect. Mr. Masud is an unfortunate man. Iron is a useful metal. Alam is a very brilliant boy. Pasteur was a famous scientist. I bought some interesting novels. Honesty is a great virtue. London Iron is the most valuable metal. A lost moment is lost forever. The sleeping cat is brown. Cox’s Bazar sea-beach is the longest sea-beach in the world. She has got a broken heart. He bought some valuable gifts. The cuckoo is a bird of very shy nature. Traffic jam is a common affair in big cities and towns. Some TV channels present unpleasant programmes. A thing of beauty is joy forever.
B. Bangladesh is a densely populated country. A postman is a very familiar figure. He made a very poor impression on him. Television has a great educative value. Teaching is a very noble profession. My mother is a very religious woman. They go to the teachers for a very concise suggestion. Today many of them lead a very miserable life. A dog is a very faithful animal. The fox is a very cunning animal.
C. A dishonest boy suffers in life. An industrious boy will shine in life. A frugal boy can get success in life. A drowning man catches at a straw. The recovered animals will be released. The freshly picked tomatoes look delicious. The woman who is reported is a spy. A friend who is true stands by his friend in time of need. Faisal is a boy who is very intelligent. The water which is pure is necessary for us.
|10. Unfortunately Bangladesh has lost the game. Certainly I will go there. Undoubtedly smoking is a bad habit. Finally we will go to Dhaka. Surely they had joined you. Probably her boyfriend will buy her some flowers. Definitely my uncle is moving to Stockholm soon. Unfortunately, the flight to Dallas had been cancelled. Usually our supper is taken at 9 pm. Clearly she has made a mistake. Truly I have lost my mind. Unfortunately she lost he purse. Suddenly the rain started. Undoubtedly Pohela Baishakh is the most celebrated festival in Bangladesh. clearly, the only way was to swim.|
|11. A. I know him to be honest. We supposed him to be a gentle man. The lady was judged to be guilty. She never imagined herself to be great. We considered him to be gentle. I believe my students to be sincere. The man is reported to be a spy. We assumed her to be innocent. They discovered the guard to be faithful. We felt the decision to be wise.
B. Everybody believes that education is the backbone of a nation. We think that the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. I think that you are honest. They thought that I did it. We realized that it was a time capsule. He thought that it was India. People think that Hasan is a great hero. I consider that the man is honest. He knows that he will pass. We believe that the earth is round. We believe that he has that ability. They admitted that they were guilty. They said that the movie was fantastic. He said that he was so disappointed. We think that we can touch the stars. I believe that he is innocent. I suspect that she eloped with her boyfriend. The children complained that they had nothing to do. She didn’t really think that it would happen. The teacher should know that everything is unacceptable. I believe that everything happens for a reason.
|12. A. As soon as the neighbours heard the hue and cry, they rushed to the spot. As soon as saw him I called him. As soon as he touched it, he was surprised. As soon as he saw me, he ran away. As soon as I reached the station, the train left. As soon as he teacher came, there was silence. As soon as she heard the news, she burst into tears. As soon as he saw, it she showed me. As soon as she arrived home, the telephone rang. As soon as we reached the station, the train left. As soon as the students came to college, the bell rang. As soon as we started for college, the rain started. As soon as he saw me, he ran away swiftly. As soon as the police marked the thief, he ran away. As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away.
B. No sooner had the rain stopped than they left the shelter. No sooner had we reached the station than the train left. No sooner had the man seen than he ran away. No sooner had the thief seen the police than the thief fled away from the spot. No sooner had we reached the college than the rain started. No sooner had I entered into the room, I broke a glass. No sooner had you left the place than you had an accident.
|13. A. Besides teaching us English, Khan writes novels. Besides ennobling our mind, it also refines our sensibility. Besides helping me, he completed the task. Besides calling her, I offered her love. Besides playing tennis, she skis very well. Besides learning English, he writes novels. Besides fruit, we’re going to have ice cream. Besides the rain, we experienced heavy winds. Besides being a businessman, he is a musician. Besides French, he can obviously speak English. Besides being a surgeon, he was a famous writer. Besides being an actress, she was a famous painter. Besides being sent to prison, he was heavily fined. Besides being a fantastic footballer, he’s also good at cricket. Besides playing tennis, I also play football. Besides robbing the passenger, he also murdered them.
B. The producers ended up not only extending but also expanding their filming hours. She is not only rich but also famous. He visited not only France but also Switzerland. He not only insulted her in front of her friends but also threatened to beat her up. He was not only upset but also angry. The place was not only good, but also safe. The plot moved not only swiftly but also artfully throughout the movie. The movie is being shown not only at the Fox Theater but also neighborhood theaters. She is not only a good wife, but also a good mother. She speaks not only English, but also French. She not only speaks English, but also French. She was not only sad, but also angry. Not only was she sad; she was also angry. They not only need food, but also shelter. Mr. Khan not only teaches us English but also writes novels. Ebon not only likes but also recommends the movie. Not only the movie but also the play was good. The actors were not only engaging but also skillful in their performances The directors wanted not only to win but also to receive recognition for their work.
C. The actors were both engaging and skillful in their performances. The movie is being shown both at The Fox Theater and in neighborhood theaters. The producers ended up both extending and expanding their filming hours. Both the movie and the play were good. I liked both the movie and the play. The directors wanted both to win and to receive recognition for their work. I liked not only the movie but also the play. I both like and recommend the movie. The plot moved both swiftly and artfully throughout the movie.
|14. A. While reading, I was called. While walking, she tripped over a stone. While doing the sum, he faced some problems. While talking, you are feeling nervous. While coming from there, I met with Badhon. While walking in the garden, a snake bit him. While sleeping in his room, he dreamt a nice dream. To stand further away from each other while talking seems unfriendly to them. I fell asleep while watching television. The phone always rings while having a shower. While washing her hair, she looked at me. While standing outside the cinema, someone picked my pocket.
B. While I was reading, I was called. While she was walking, she tripped over a stone. While he was doing the sum, he faced some problems. While you were talking, you were feeling nervous. While it was raining, I was going to college. My uncle arrived while she was cooking the dinner. The phone rang while I was watching TV. I met him while we were studying in the library. I fell asleep while I was watching television. It didn’t rain at all while we were on holiday. It started raining while I was waiting for the bus. My wife walked the dog while I was washing the car.
|15. Health is wealth. Unity is strength. Knowledge is power. Truthfulness may lead the world to peace and happiness. Friendship may brings happiness and peace in the world. It is strong public awareness which is essential for the fight against adulteration.|
|16. Lord knew what they cost. Tell me what the truth is. I know what her name is. I know where he was born. I know that he will be successful.|