linkers: Link অর্থ যুক্ত করা। Linker অর্থ যুক্তকারী।যেসব word বা phrase word-এর সঙ্গে word, phrase এর সঙ্গে phrase এবং sentence-এর সঙ্গে sentence-এর সংযোগ ঘটিয়েথাকে, তাকে linkers বলে।
The meaning of some common Linkers/Connectors
|Above (উপরে)||Accordingly/According to (অনুসারে)||At the same time(একই সাথে)|
|Above all (সর্বোপরি)||Actually (আসলে)||Along with (সাথে)|
|After words (পরবর্তী)||After that (এরপর)||Apart from/Besides (এ ছাড়াও)|
|Always (সর্বদা)||Also (এছাড়াও)||As well as/and (এবং)|
|As a result (ফল স্বরূপ)||Among (মধ্যে)||At once /Suddenly (হঠাৎ)|
|As an illustration (বর্ধিত)||Anyway (যেকোন ভাবে)||At the age (বয়স এ)|
|As soon as যেই মাত্র)||As if যেন)||Because/ Because of (কারন)|
|Basically (মূলত)||As/ Since (যেহেতু)||Both (উভয়)|
|But (কিন্তু)||At last/Finally/At the end(অবশেষে)||Due to/ Owing to (কারণে)|
|Either… or (হয় ..নয়)||Consequently (পরিশেষে)||During (সময়)|
|Else (অন্যথায়)||Eventually (পরিশেষে)||Even (এমনকি)|
|Firstly (প্রথমত)||For (জন্য)||Even if (এমনকি যদি)|
|Highly (অত্যন্ত)||For instance/For example(উদাহরন স্বরূপ)||Even though (যদিত্ত)|
|In addition to (আরও)||However/Anyhow (যাই হক না কেন)||For a while ( কিছুক্ষণের জন্য)|
|In spite of/ Despite (সত্ত্বেও)||In order to (উদ্দেশ্যে)||Hence (অত:পর)|
|In the mean time (এই মুহূর্তে)||In the first place (প্রথমত)||If/Whether (যদি)|
|In this regard (এ ক্ষেত্রে)||In this situation (এই পরিস্থিতিতে)||In favor of(পক্ষে)|
|Indeed (প্রকৃতপক্ষে)||Initially (প্রাথমিকভাবে)||In short/in brief (সংক্ষেপে)|
|like/ Such as (যেমন)||Instead of/in lieu of (পরিবর্তে)||Next (পরবর্তী)|
|Neither….nor||Moreover (অধিকন্ত)||Not only (শুধু মাত্র এটাই নয়)|
|Notwithstanding (পরন্তু)||Never the less/none the less (তা সত্ত্বেও)||On the contrary (অপরদিকে)|
|Now (এখন)||Somehow (একরকম)||Once (একবার)|
|Of which (যা)||Sometimes (মাঝে মাঝে)||Only through (শুধু মাধ্যমে)|
|Or (বা)||Somewhat (কিছুটা)||Otherwise (অন্যথায়)|
|Rather (বরং)||Still/Yet (তথাপি)||Particularly (নির্দিষ্টভাবে)|
|Shortly/In short (সংক্ষেপে)||That (যা/ যে)||So (সুতরাং)|
|Similarly (একভাবে)||Therefore/so (সুতরাং)||Specially (বিশেষভাবে)|
|Simultaneously (একইসাথে)||Thus (এরূপে/এইভাবে)||That is why (এই কারণে)|
|So that/In order that (যাতে)||Whatever (যতসামান্য)||Though/Although (যদিও)|
|Specially (প্রধানত)||Till/Until (পর্যন্ত )||To conclude (থেকে সিদ্ধান্তে আসা)|
|That is to say (অর্থাৎ)||To speak frankly (যাও অকপটে কথা বলতে)||Undoubtedly (নিঃসন্দেহে)|
|That’s why (সেজন্য)||To sum up (থেকে সিদ্ধান্তে আসা)||Unfortunately (দুর্ভাগ্যবশত)|
|Then (তারপর)||Very often(কদাচিৎ)||Unless (যদি না)|
|Through (সাহায্যে)||Whatever (যতসামান্য)||Usually (সাধারণত)|
|Under (অধীন)||When (যখন)||What (কি)|
|Whereas (যেখানে)||While/when (যখন)||Where (যেখানে)|
|Who (কে)||Why (কেন)||Which (যা/ যে)|
|Yet (তবুও)||Without (ছাড়া)||With a view to (উদ্দেশ্যে)|
|In fact/Indeed (বস্তুত)||Recently/ Of late (সম্প্রতি)||Secondly (দ্বিতীয়ত)|
|Lest ( নতুবা/ পাছে…সেই ভয়ে)||All the same ( একই )||Whoever ( যে–কেহ )|
Rules on Connectors
|Contrast (দুটি বিপরীতধর্মী Clause-কে যুক্ত করতে)|
|In spite of /despite/although/though/even though /however/nevertheless/still/yet/even so/on the contrary/in contrast to/in contrast/on the one hand/on the other hand/whereas/but/while/otherwise /lest/when|
|Reason and cause (কারণে/যেহেতু)|
|Because/because of/owing to/due to/on account of/os/since/for this reason/for that reason/due to the fact that/owing to the fact that|
|Purpose (উদ্দেশে, উদ্দেশ–প্রকাশকযে)|
|In order to/so as to/in order that/so that|
|Addition /Adding information (তা ছাড়া/ অধিকন্তু/ আবার/আরও)|
|And/moreover/furthermore /in addition/besides/what’s more/as well as/as well/too/also/in addition to/again/besides/apart from/along with/together with|
|Exemplification/ Exemplifying (উদাহরণ)|
|For example/for instance/and so on/such as/like/namely/that is to say যেমন/অর্থা|
|First of all/firstly/to begin with/first/in the first place/initially/primarily/in the beginning
Second/Secondly/In the second place/Then
Third/ Thirdly/The next stage/After that
Finally/In short/to sum up/In conclusion/lastly/last but not least
|Result /Consequence (ফল/কারণে/ ফলে/এভাবে)|
|As a result of/as a result/therefore/consequently/for this reason/so/that’s why/because of/this
means that/that is why/thus/as a consequence/consequently/therefore/so/hence
|Explain (ব্যাখ্যা করা)|
|That is to say/In other words /In short/Above all/Al in all/At least/Basically/Especially/Essentially/ In general/In particular/More or less/On the whole/To a certain extent|
|Conclusion (অবশেষে/ সবশেষে)|
|Finally/in conclusion/lastly/at the end/at last/at length/lastly/at the eleventh hour/eventually/last of all|
|Actually/as a matter of fact/in fact/really (অবশ্যই,/প্রকৃতপক্ষে/বস্তুত)|
|Summarising (সংক্ষেপে/ এককথায় বলতে গেলে)|
|All in all/in brief/in conclusion/in short/on the whole/to sum up/in summary/to summarise/in a nutshell/to conclude/in a few words/in fine/on the whole|
|Not only … but also (শুধু নয় … আরও.), Either … or (হয় … অথবা.), Neither … nor (এটাও নয় … ওটাও নয়.), Both … and (উভয়েই)|
|a. Not only Tanny but also Tania is now going to America this year. b. The boy is not only lazy but also dirty. c. Faruk not only reads novels but also plays tennis. d. Shamim works not only irregularly but also carelessly. e. Minhaj is not only a student but also a business man. f. Either I or my friend will raise the flag. g. Either he or his brothers are guilty. h. You can either study or sleep. i. Either Maliha or Samia will present the meeting. j. He is either mad or foolish. k. Neither Rana nor his sister passed. l. Neither the teachers nor the students were present. m. Neither you nor he is responsible. n. Neither the teachers nor the students missed the programme in the college. o. He neither did the work nor asked others to do this. p. Both my friend and cousin came on the occasion of my birthday. q. I took both accounting and marketing as my major courses. r. He is both honest and kind. s. Both Anik and Jotisko are intelligent. t. Both the teacher and the student were absent.|
|Relative pronouns. : Who, which, that, what, whom, whose|
|a. The man who came here yesterday is my brother. b. This is the book which is now out of print. c. I do not know what they want. d. Mr. Kalam is a businessman who works mainly with the foreigners. e. This is the boy whose pen has been lost.|
|Including, Consisting of, Comprising (অন্তর্ভুক্তকরে/অন্তর্ভুক্ত রয়েছে)|
|a. Both the schools comprising engineers and geologists do not rule out the possibility of a major earthquake. b. He published all his writing including his autobiography. c. The newly formed committee has been declared comprising the experts in archeology. d. The family consisting of five members live in this house. e. The team consisting of 11 members won the game.|
|At present/at the present time/presently/now a days (বর্তমানে/আজকাল)|
|a. At present, the condition of the farmers is not good at all. b. At present, women contribute to the society remarkably. c. Now a days the green house effect has appeared as a great threat to our existence. d. He is waiting for me for a long time. So, I have to meet him presently. e. At the present time I have no cash in hand.|
|always/Usually/generally/as usual/most often/very often/frequently/sometimes/at times (সর্বদা/ সাধারণত/ প্রায়ই/ মাঝেমধ্যে)|
|a. I do not like him. But he comes here frequently. b. Nothing can cure him. He takes drugs frequently. c. They have defeated us this time. They cannot defeat us always. d. He is a very simple and polite man as usual. e. He usually/ always/ generally/ as usual/ most often/ very often/ often/ sometimes/ at times gets up from bed early in the morning.|
|After (পরে)/ Before/ prior to that (পূর্বে)|
|a. The students came to college after the bell had rung. b. The patient died after the doctor had come. c. After he had passed his M.A. he joined a multinational company. d. His father died after he had left the hospital. e. We reached the station after the train had left. f. The patient had died before the doctor came. g. We had reached the station before the train left. h. The sun had set before we reached home. i. Before the doctor came, the patient had died. j. The talked to us. Prior to that, they invited us.|
|If/In case/Had যদি. even ifএমনকি যদি/ Unlessযদি না /Provided/Provided that/Providing that (এই সর্তে যে )|
|a. In case you come, I will go there. b. In case of emergency, you may call me. c. In any case, I will attend the meeting. d. If I had enough money, I would establish a college in my village. e. Unless you work hard you will not shine in life.f. You won’t be paid unless you do your duty well.|
|According to/ in accordance with/ accordingly (অনুসারে / অনুযায়ী), Still (এখনো )/till now/even now (এখন পর্যন্ত), Suddenly/ all on a sudden (হঠাৎ), Above all (সর্বোপরি), Unfortunately/ unluckily (দুর্ভাগ্যজনকভাবে), That (যে/ যা/ যেটা ), As if/ as though/as it were (যেন), Once/ once upon a time/ many days ago/ long long ago/ in ancient time/ in the past (একদা/অনেক দিন আগে/অতীতে), Undoubtedly/no doubt/ surely /of course/certainly (নিঃসন্দেহে/ নিশ্চিতভাবে/ অবশ্যই)|
|a. According to me, Khaled is not only a good student but also a good player. b. I talked to them according to the instruction of my boss. c. In accordance with the UNESCO’S declaration, International Mother Language Day is celebrated all over the world. d. The teacher is discussing the importance of learning English even now. e. He is still sleeping. Till now, he has not finished the work. f. We are discussing the problem even now. g. That day we were reading in our room. Suddenly, we heard them crying. h. We were walking along the street. Suddenly a man came to us running. i. The man jumped into the river and drowned. This happened all on a sudden. j. Above all, he was a very honest man. k. There was a remarkable turn out in the last Parliamentary election. Above all, people enjoyed the election as a celebration. l. We know that he is a freedom fighter. m. That the man is dishonest is known to all. n. We know that he is a godfather. o. It is said that honesty is the best policy.
a. Once upon a time there was a powerful king in Bangladesh. b. Once/ Once upon a time/ Many days ago/ Long long ago/ In ancient time there lived a king who was fond of knowing his future from astrologers. c. In the past we had much but now we have very less. d. He talks as if/ as though he were a great scholar. e. They shouted as if they had seen a ghost. f. The sun is, as it were, the lamp of the universe. g. He talks as if/as though he were a mad. a. Undoubtedly you are wrong. h. Undoubtedly/ no doubt/ surely/ It is needless to say that/ It needs no telling that/ truly speaking, almost all the countries of the world are under a constant threat of terrorism.
|Expressing a personal opinion|
|As far as/ From my point of view/I agree/I disagree/In my opinion/In my view/I think that/It is true
that/Personally/To be honest/To tell the truth
Complete the following sentences with the suitable linking words
- Teaching is such a profession (a)–helps to build a nation. A teacher is (b)–a guide (c)–a pioneer. He has to dedicate to this noble profession in order to guide the nation. (d)–he is called an architect of a new society. (e)–he neglects his duties, social discipline will break down.
|while||so||besides||first of all||such as||last of all||rather|
- English is the most widely used international language. (a)–communicating with the foreigners, we cannot but use this language. There are certain jobs in the country (b)–the jobs of a pilot, a postman, a telephone operator etc. where English is very essential. (c)–a student wishing to go abroad must learn English. (d)–the importance of learning English in our country cannot be ignored. (e)–we should put high importance on learning English.
|at the same time||so||but||besides||for instance||last of all||otherwise|
3.The rapid growth of population must be controlled. (a)–all sorts of attempts to solve food problem will fail. (b)–we have to increase our food production very rapidly. We may mostly solve our food problem by changing our traditional food habit. (c)–we can take potato instead of rice. (d)–it is high time we changed our eating habit. (e) –knowledge of nutritive value of food can help solve our food problem.
|but||in fact||for example||firstly||because||though||namely|
- Population problem is the burning question of Bangladesh. (a)–it can be a termed as number one problem. (b)–the population of a country is an asset, it has become a great problem in our country (c)–the country cannot afford to give people the basic necessaries of life. (d)–food, clothing, education, medicine and shelter are the basic necessaries of life. (e)–our country cannot provide these equally to all.
- There are six seasons in the year. Winter season is a remarkable season. A winter morning is cool (a)–misty. (b)–I get up from bed early in the morning, I have to face some problems. Nature looks pale(c)–the sun rises. (d)–the sun rises, the fog disappears gradually(e)–there are some difficulties, I like it.
- The paragraph and essay are different from each other. (a)–there are some difficulties between them. (b)–the paragraph has a topic sentence to introduce the main idea. Secondly it has a number of sentences in the middle to develop that idea. (c)–there is a concluding sentence in it to bring the main idea to a close, (d)–the eassy also consists of a beginning, middle and an end. It is, (e)–obvious that the paragraph and the essay share some common features in respect of the structures.
- The importance of English can hardly be exaggerated (a)–it is a global language. We need to learn it for higher studies (b)–books of almost all faculties of knowledge are written English. (c)–if we do not know English, we will fail to keep pace with the progressive forces of the world. (d)–learning and teaching English in Bangladesh suffer serious set-backs (e)–most of the learners are not keen to learn it.
|other than||along with||so||as||as well as||Both||that|
- An ideal student should have such qualities (a)–would attract other students to follow him. He should be punctual (b)–well-disciplined. He should not waste his time and energy in anything (c)–his studies. Besides an ideal students should be polite and well-behaved with all (d)–in his institutions and outside. His polite and gentle behaviour (e)–academic excellence makes him dear to teachers and students.
- Trees are very useful to us. They help us in many ways. They give us oxygen, food and shade. (a)–they protect us from air pollution. (b)–many people are not aware of this. They are cutting down trees every moment without consideration. (c)–they continue to do it, one day there will be no trees left on earth. (d)–this really happens, our lives will be at stake. (e)–, we should stop this practice immediately and grow more and more trees for our own survival.
|although||in order to||if||that||as|
10.Most of our students cannot write out their examination paper fairly. (a)–they cannot understand the questions properly, they often beat about the bush and cram their answers with irrelevant and unnecessary details. (b)–teacher suggest (c)–their answer should be brief and precise, they often lengthen these unnecessarily. (d)–get expected marks you all should understand the question well and answer them to the point. Don’t worry (e)–you answers are fairly short.
- As a human being, man has a lot of duties to mankind. To perform his duties, he has to select a profession, a future career. I have also selected my future career (a) — I can reach my goal. There are varieties of careers (b) — can give riches, name and fame. (c) — I have selected a simple one. It is teaching. (d) — teachers are the builders of nations, they can reform the society (e) — lead the nation skillfully.
- Alexander was only twenty years old (a) — he came to the throne. (b) — even as a child he had shown fierce courage, a thirst for knowledge (c) — a desire to conquer. He believed (d) — like Achilles, he too had gods as his ancestors and that he, (e) —, had a divine right to conquer and rule the world.
- A miser got some money (a) — he was not happy with it. He was in constant fear (b) — thieves and
robbers should steal it. (c) — he thought it necessary to devise some steps (d) — no one might get scent of it and steal it. (e) — much thought he bought a lump of gold with all his money and buried it at a secret place.
14. Every citizen has some duties and responsibilities for his country and nation, (a) — most of the people are indifferent to these. We have achieved our freedom and national identity at the cost of a tremendous sacrifice (b) — is still evaluated nationally, (c) — some unpatriotic people seem to be forgetful of our national history. (d) — we all should render selfless service for society. (e) —, we will be hated by our future generations.
|for example||both||or||along with||in order to|
15.The world we live in is full of things (a) — natural and manmade. Both natural and manmade things constitute our environment. Any abnormal change in chemical, physical (b) — biological characteristics of the environment is called pollution. It causes a lot of harm to mankind. (c) —, it creates health hazards to a greater extent. So, some effective and positive measures should be taken (d) — prevent environment pollution. We (e) — the government should take a hand to create a better environment for living on Earth.
16.People usually want to have their own way. They want to think and act (a) — they like. (b) —, one cannot have one’s own way all the time. A person cannot live in an environment without considering the interest of others (c) — his own interest. People in society may take their own decision, (d) — these decisions ought not to be unjust (e) — harmful to others.
17.Teaching is such a profession (a) — helps to build a nation. A teacher is (b) — a guide (c) — a pioneer. He has to dedicate to this noble profession in order to guide the nation. (d) —, he is called an architect of a new society. (e) — he neglects his duties, social discipline will break down.
18.(a) — flood is considered to be a natural calamity, it is no doubt a blessing for the people. It is considered to be a blessing in the sense (b) — it makes the soil alluvial. Flood scatters silt over land (c) — makes the soil fertile. So it can be said (d) — flood has (e) — constructive and destructive sides.
19.(a) — discipline is the secret of success in every sphere of life. A society in which there is no discipline is sure to sink into anarchy. (b) — in the playground the players do not observe the rules of the game and do not obey the captain, they are sure to lose the game. (c) — in our daily life we are to observe certain rules. (d) — we go to a railway station to buy tickets, we have to form a queue to get the ticket. (e) — a student has to maintain discipline strictly.
|if||where||in case of||so||that|
20.Population problem is a burning question of Bangladesh. (a) — it can be termed as number one problem of the country. It is a matter of wonder (b) — totally opposite scenario is seen in the developed countries (c) — each and every citizen is considered to be an asset. (d) — we want to solve this problem, there is no alternative to turning our huge population into manpower. (e) — our failure to do so, we will lag behind.
21.People usually want to have their own way. They want to think and act (a) — they like. (b) —, one cannot have one’s own way all the time. A person cannot live in an environment without considering the interest of others (c) — his own interest. People in society many take their own decision, (d) — these decisions ought not to be unjust (e) — harmful to others.
|indeed||which||because of||as a result||and|
22.Globalization is a term (a) — is commonly used by man. (b) —, it is a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world creating a borderless market. (c) — global development, we have conquered the time (d) — distance. (e) —, we can now learn what is happening in the farthest corner of the world.
|secondly||first of all||as a result||moreover||but|
23.Almost all countries of the world suffer from the curse of unemployment problem. (a) — nowhere in the world thisproblem is so acute as in our country. There are many reasons behind it. (b) —, our country is industrially backward. (c) —, our system of education fails to give a student an independent start of life. It has little provision for vocational training. (d) — our students and youths have a false sense of dignity. (e) — they run after higher level jobs only.
24.Many schools have a uniform. (a) — students sometimes do not like the idea of wearing uniforms. However, there are arguments for and against. One argument for school uniform is that you have to waste time in the morning thinking what to put on. (b) —, if pupils were allowed to wear clothes according to their own choice, they would tend to wear expensive clothes. (c) —, some clothes may not be suitable for schools. (d) —, a persons choice of clothes reflects his/her personality and taste. (e) — wearing a school dress does not allow a person to express his/her individuality in this way.
25.Honesty is a noble virtue. The man (a) — possesses this rare quality is the happiest person in the world. To win people’s trust, a person must be honest. (b) — nobody will believe him. (c) — Allah helps the honest people. (d) — children should be taught honesty from the beginning of life. (e) — children should be brought up among the honest people.
26. There is hardly anybody (a)—does not like flowers. Flowers are symbols of beauty and purity. Flowers are of many kinds.(b)—of them the rose is the best one. People like it most (c)—-it has sweet fragrance and beauty.(d)—flowers bloom, nature wears a charming look. We cannot help gazing at them. Flowers always charm and amuse us with their beauty and sweet scent.(e)—flowers are very necessary for human life.
27. Dengue fever is a serious disease(a)—is caused by a kind of virus called “Dengue Virus”.(b)—-this virus was identified in Africa (c)—now it has spread all over the world.(d)—in most cases dengue fever has its remedy,it is better to prevent it.(e)—we keep our house clean and people are conscious of it,we can easily avoid this disease.
28. (a) ___ the very beginning of their life the girls of our society are thought to believe that the best foods should be perceived for the male member of the family. They are (b) ___ thought that they should eat less. (c) ___ this trend helps the girls grow in a different way. (d) ___ they are victimized by social and familial disparity. (e) ___ we the conscious people, should come forward in bringing back their lost dignity.
|as well as||therefore||by the way||hence||however||Anyway|
29. Wasik is a British national (a)—-a Bangladeshi citizen. He was born in Bangladesh and then his parents immigrated to the UK. He is a minor boy of six. But he is gifted with an extraordinary talent. He was sent to the local primary school. (b)—-, he was above the level of the average students. (c)—, his parents decided that he should be taught at home. He is fond of friends and music. But his main passion is computer. He, (d) —-, claims the recognition as the youngest computer expert of the world. And (e) —, the Guinness authority has asked his family to make a formal claim.