Transformation of sentences
Sentence: A sentence is a group of words which expresses a complete thought. Sentences usually contain a subject and verb.
Assertive Interrogative Imperative Optative Exclamatory
(?) Verb, let, please May (wish/pray) (!)
kindly, always, never
|Affirmative+Negative+Interrogative……..Add n’t (if affirmative) or delete not (if negative)|
|Affirmative+Negative ……… opposite word|
|Common changes .…….. Never = always/ever, no = any, often = sometimes|
Rules on Affirmative to Negative and vice versa
|1. Only/Alone||None but (Person/Allah)/Nothing but|
|2. Only (number/age)||Not more than/Not less than|
|3. Must / have to||Cannot but+verb1/cannot help+verb1+ing|
|4. Every(body/one/noun)||There is no (body/one/noun)but|
|5. As……. as||Not less……than|
|6. Both……and/as well as||Not only …….but also|
|7. By+gerund||Without+gerund (negative)|
|8. As soon as||No sooner had……v3……than|
|9. Had to||Could not but+verb1/could not help+verb1+ing|
|10. Too……to+v1||So……that + s+ can/could (not) + v1|
|11. Superlative degree||Positive degree|
|12. Many||Not a few|
|13. A few||Not many|
|14. A little||Not much|
|15. Much||Not a little|
no one, none
|Everybody/everyone||Who doesn’t/ didn’t/haven’t|
|Is there any (body/one) who doesn’t|
|All||Who don’t/ didn’t|
Aff : He is the only boy of fifteen.
Neg : No other boy than/but he is of fifteen.
Aff : The boy reads only English.
Neg : The boy reads no other subject than English.
Ass : It does not matter if you fail in the exam.
Int : What though if you fail in the exam?
Some common opposite words
|Main word||Opposite word||Main word||Opposite word||Main word||Opposite word|
Ways of changing negative from affirmative
|1. To be verb/to have verb/modal auxiliary/to do verb or to do verb (do/does/did)
2. Add n’t(if affirmative) or delete not (if negative)
3. Opposite word
|She was a very hardworking and responsible loanee. Hazi Mohammad Muhsin was a kind man. He is a regular student. They are honest and pious. So the illiteracy rate in Bangladesh is very poor. But mountaineers are courageous people. It is very difficult for a poor country like Bangladesh to bear this high expense. So, we should be honest in our life. He is loved by everybody. He was unmarried. Day to day life in Dhaka is expensive. It lives together. Her parents liked her very much. A healthy man is an asset to his family. A great man like him is very rare. A good student should be conscious of politics. A train journey is very enjoyable. A tea stall is crowded place. A life with an assignment is an actual life. An unhealthy man is only a liability to his family. Androcles was a kind man. But money is essential in our life. But today many of them lead a very miserable life. Cox’s Bazar sea beach is a beautiful place. Cricket is a very exciting game. E-mail is used for important purposes. Diamond is a precious metal. E-mail is a latest messing system. Day to day life in Dhaka is expensive.|
|Turn into affirmative|
|Farmers are not living in the town. Feroza did not come of a rich family. Hazi Muhammad Muhsin was not an unkind man. Frugality is not a bad habit. Hazi Mohammad Mushin was not an unkind man at all. Hamidur has not many bad friends. Fresh air is not unnecessary for existence. He is not a man of low profile. He is not an irregular student of class Ten. He is not insincere to his duties. He is not weak and inactive. He is not dishonest and insincere. He is not inattentive to his studies. He does not keep bad company. He did live a luxurious life and take much food. He did not dislike sea. He did not pass his early life in happiness. He was not a cruel man. He was not truthful. He was not a fool. He was not born in poor family. He was not born in an uneducated family. He was not in a poor dress. He was not cruel. Her parents did not dislike her at all. Her father is not a rich farmer. It is not a comparable creation. It is not a human act. It is not a beautiful bird. It does not live alone. It is not feeble. It is not good for health. It is not behind our kitchen. It doesn’t look beautiful. It is not very hard to operate.|
Exercises on Affirmative to Negative and vice versa
|Only ……………… None but (Person/Allah) or Nothing but
Alone …………… None but (Person/Allah) or Nothing but
|Anger is only a vice. Only those who live the straight road, will fall into my pit. Only poverty is responsible for this. She is the only darling child of nature. But the cook told him that his duck had only one leg. A computer is an only blessing earth. Happiness is only a psychological thing. Life is only the sum total of moment. Only an emotionally balanced person keeps it under control. Only education gives us the light of knowledge. Only the boys who work hard can shine in life. Only Allah can help us. He alone can solve this. Only a patriot can be so noble. He lives alone in the house. Poverty is the only cause. Only the qualified candidates should apply for the post.
None but man is responsible for this pollution. None but he can stay. None but the fool will say so. None but the brave deserve the fair. None but the brave freedom fighters went valiant fighters. None but the meritorious students can get chance to study here. She is none but the darling child of nature. None but Shahajan, the Mughal Emperor built it. He had nothing but an old mansion. Nothing but poverty is responsible for this. Nothing but the soup was tasty. Nothing but the sun is visible.
|Only (number/age) ………… Not more than/Not less than|
|I have only one pen. The duck had only one leg. I will buy only a pair of shoes. You came here only at four. She has only one doll. He has ten marbles. We have only one football. Rana will sell only ten toys. Only one person can use it at a time. You did not break less than two eggs. He does not take more than a meal in a day. He did not bring more than a purse. He is not more than 14 years old. They are not more than ten years old. She has not more than one daughter.|
|Must/have to …… Cannot but+ verb1 Must/have to …… Cannot help + verb1 + ing|
|We must realize the fact and come forward against corruption. He must go from one house to another in fair weather or foul. We must protect them. We must read many books other than text books. We must educate our girls to forward the nation. She must take care of me. We must read many books other than text books. We must realize the fact and come forward against corruption.
We cannot but plant trees. You cannot but look after other people. He cannot but help my brother. You cannot but wear a cap. We cannot but respect an honest man. You cannot but respect your teacher. We cannot but obey our parents. He cannot but perform his duty. You cannot but do the work.
|Had to …… Could not but + verb1 Had to……… Could not help + verb1 + ing|
|I had to love my country. We had to depend on it. We had to leave it undone. Nila had to drop the letter. He had to write music. They had to hate the selfish. Rina had to tell a story. I had to see a bird. He had to like the bird. Ali had to open the window. Sabina had to sing a song. The man had to buy a shirt.
He could not but decide to teach the English a lesson. He could not but struggle against the English. He could but feel pity for the lion. We could not but educate our girls to forward the nation. We cannot but love everyone. We could not but plant trees. We had to protect them. We could not but read books to gain knowledge.
|Everybody ……..There is no body but Everyone ……..There is no one but Every+noun……..There is no noun but|
|Everybody must be conscious of health. Everybody wants friend. Everybody dislikes him. Every building has iron. Every living thing needs pure air. Every nation can prosper giving importance of education. Every patriot works sincerely and honestly in normal course of life. Every student is helped by our teachers. Every student needs computer. Every woman likes it. Everybody admires of him. Everybody attends a Baishakhi Mela. Everybody dislikes him. Everybody in our village loves him. Everybody in our village loves him. Everybody loves him. Everybody should be conscious of his health. Everyone lives in society. Everyone can prosper in life with industry. Everyone will admit this. Everybody hates a liar. Every rose has a thorn. Every cloud has silver lining. Everybody hates a liar. Everybody obeys the will of God. Everyone likes a flower.
There is no one but in the school likes her. There is no one but learns many things by watching television. There is nobody but likes his magic spell. There is nobody but supported the freedom fighters. There is nobody but works hard to gain his object. There is nobody but needs pure air. There is no mother but loves a child. There is nobody but wants to be happy.
|By + gerund ……………… Without + gerund (negative)|
|By giving love to others, you can receive it. By working hard, they can remove their condition. By reading books, we can enrich our minds. By working hard, one can shine. By studying attentively, you can get A+. By writing regularly you can avoid your mistakes. By taking exercises, you will be able to keep fit. By watching TV, We can gather knowledge. By playing well, you can get reward. By working hard, they can remove their condition.
Without studying hard, she will not get A+. Without taking vegetables, you cannot keep your body sound. Without discussing the problem, you cannot solve it. Without doing it, you cannot go to sleep. Without learning English, we cannot hope to get any job.
|Superlative degree ……………… Positive degree|
|He was the fastest runner. He is the best player.It was the happiest animal in the world. My friend Paul is the best boy in the class. Kazi Nazrul is the best writer. Cox Bazar is the longest sea beach on the world. He is the noblest person. Iron is the most useful metal. Swimming is the best exercise. Sundarban is the largest Mangrove forest. Dhaka is the largest city in Bangladesh. Poverty is the greatest problem in our country. Cox’s Bazar is the longest sea beach in the world. Corruption is the most dangerous weapons to destroy a society. At present cricket is the most popular game in our country.
No other poet was as great as Kazi Nazrul Islam. No other city in Bangladesh is so big as Dhaka. No other city in Bangladesh is so large as Dhaka. No other boy in the class is as bad as he. No other man in the village is so wise as he. No other spinner in Bangladesh is as perfect as Rafiq. No other country is as populous as Bangladesh.
|As soon as ………………… No sooner had……v3……than|
|As soon as he saw me, he ran away. As soon as I reached the station, the train left. As soon as he teacher came, there was silence. As soon as she heard the news, she burst into tears. As soon as he saw, it she showed me. As soon as she arrived home, the telephone rang. As soon as we reached the station, the train left. As soon as the students came to college, the bell rang. As soon as we started for college, the rain started. As soon as he saw me, he ran away swiftly. As soon as the police marked the thief, he ran away. As soon as the thief saw the police, he ran away.
No sooner had the rain stopped than they left the shelter. No sooner had we reached the station than the train left. No sooner had the man seen than he ran away. No sooner had the thief seen the police than the thief fled away from the spot. No sooner had we reached the college than the rain started.
|Too……to + v1 …………… So……that + sub + can/could (not) + verb1|
|He is too old to get the job.He is too weak to move. The writer was too poor to maintain his family.The boy was too clever to cope with him. John is too poor to help her. We are too late to reach there in time. The old man was too weak to walk. I am too confused to do it. It is too heavy for her to carry. He is too dull to pass in the exam. He was too short to touch it. He is too young to take the responsibilities.
The old man was so tired that he could not walk. The old man was so thirsty that he could not talk. The box is so heavy that I can’t carry it. The baby was so little that he could not walk. The box is so old that it cannot be used. The problem is so difficult for me that I cannot solve.
|As/so ……. As ……………… Not less……than|
|He was as ferocious as a tiger. Opu is as tall as Nuru. Bela is as intelligent as Abul. Sorrow is as strong as hunger. Oranges are not as cheap as apples. It is as big as the Buriganga. He is as good as his brother. London is as big as Oxford. A mobile phone is more useful than a computer.
The cow is not less useful than a donkey. He was not less short than she. Riches are not less important than honesty. E-mail is not less cheap than telex. The cuckoo is not less clever than crow.
|Both …… and …….. Not only ……. but also
As well as ……… Not only ……. but also
|Both Mary and Peter prefer jazz to classical music. He is both a good student and a singer. Neela was both a singer and a dancer. Both Rubaba and Smrity were obedient. Miraz as well as Ebon are very good cricketer. I as well as Rana went to school. We as well as Dana did this.
He is not only a cheat but also arrogant. I am weak not only at English but also at Mathematics. Shakespeare was not only a dramatist but also an actor.